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Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
21.9.2022 23:47

Scientists and Doctors Demand Moratorium on 5G


https://www.5gappeal.eu/

Sep 22, 2022
The European Union prioritises economics over health in the rollout of radiofrequency technologies
Nyberg N.R., , McCredden J.E., Weller S.G., Hardell L. The European Union prioritises economics over health in the rollout of radiofrequency technologies. Reviews on Environmental Health, 2022. doi:10.1515/reveh-2022-0106. Published online September 22, 2022.

Abstract

The fifth generation of radiofrequency communication, 5G, is currently being rolled out worldwide. Since September 2017, the EU 5G Appeal has been sent six times to the EU, requesting a moratorium on the rollout of 5G. This article reviews the 5G Appeal and the EU's subsequent replies, including the extensive cover letter sent to the EU in September 2021, requesting stricter guidelines for exposures to radiofrequency radiation (RFR). The Appeal notes the EU's internal conflict between its approach to a wireless technology-led future, and the need to protect the health and safety of its citizens. It critiques the reliance of the EU on the current guidelines given by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), that consider only heating and no other health relevant biological effects from RFR. To counteract the ICNIRP position, the 2021 cover letter briefly presented recent research from the EU's own expert groups, from a large collection of European and other international studies, and from previous reviews of the effects of RFR on humans and the environment. The 5G Appeal asserts that the majority of scientific evidence points to biological effects, many with the potential for harm, occurring below the ICNIRP public limits. Evidence to establish this position is drawn from studies showing changes to neurotransmitters and receptors, damage to cells, proteins, DNA, sperm, the immune system, and human health, including cancer. The 2021 Appeal goes on to warn that 5G signals are likely to additionally alter the behaviour of oxygen and water molecules at the quantum level, unfold proteins, damage skin, and cause harm to insects, birds, frogs, plants and animals. Altogether, this evidence establishes a high priority for the European Union towards (i) replacing the current flawed guidelines with protective thresholds, and (ii) placing a moratorium on 5G deployment so as to (iii) allow industry-independent scientists the time needed to propose new health-protective guidelines. This 2021 Appeal's relevance becomes even more pressing in the context of the EU plans to roll out the sixth generation of wireless technologies, 6G, further adding to the known risks of RFR technology for humans and the environment. This all leads to an important question: Do EU decision makers have the right to ignore EU´s own directives by prioritising economic gain over human and environmental health?
Excerpts
Exposure of captured agencies
The deficits of industry-biased bodies are now beginning to be exposed. In 2021, the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) was deemed by a US Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit ruling as having been negligent for two decades in its role as protector of public health, in that when it decided that its 1996 emission guidelines protected public health, it neglected to consider (a) impacts of long term wireless exposure, (b) unique impacts to children, (c) testimony of people injured by wireless radiation, (d) impacts to wildlife and the environment and (e) impacts to the developing brain and reproduction [96]. The book Captured Agency describes the compromised position of the FCC in its role as public protector [97]. The compromised actions of ICNIRP since their inception, including inviting industry representatives to the table, are described by Maisch [98, Chapter 4]. As noted by the Turin Court of Appeal [43], opinions from such conflicted advisory bodies as ICNIRP are not reliable.
Safety-first

Alternative guidelines to protect citizens have been created by four groups of industry-independent scientists, based on best available scientific evidence; i.e., setting exposure levels lower than where biological effects with health implications have been found. As described in [101] these four groups recommend the following limits for human exposures to RF-EMR:
  1. Building biologists [102] suggest a very low radiation level of no more than 0.1 µW/m2 (in sleeping areas);
  2. EuropaEM-EMF Environmental Medicine researchers [103] suggest 1 µW/m2 during the night and 10 µW/m2 during the day time;
  3. The BioInitiative-group conclusions (2012 update) [20], made by 29 prominent researchers, and based on 2,200+ scientific reports, suggest 3–6 µW/m2 as the upper limit for exposures;
  4. The Council of Europe (CoE) Resolution 1815 [104] Section 8.2.1 says set preventative thresholds for levels of long-term exposure to microwaves in all indoor areas, in accordance with the precautionary principle, not exceeding 0.6 V per metre [1,000 µW/m2], and in the medium term to reduce it to 0.2 V per metre [100 µW/m2].
While there is some variation in the above recommendations, they are all far lower than the ICNIRP 2020 guidelines [14] which, for all frequencies from 2–300 GHz, allow a 30 min average whole body exposure of 10,000,000 µW/m2 (10 W/m2; Table 5, p. 495). For the more recent, higher 5G frequencies of 6–300 GHz, the ICNIRP guidelines allow an average 6 min local exposure over a 4-cm2 region of 200,000,000 µW/m2 (200 W/m2; p. 490). Furthermore, An additional specification of 400 W m −2 has been set for spatial averages of square 1-cm2 regions, for frequencies >30 GHz ([14], p. 490). These ICNIRP specifications mean that future 5G cell phones may send narrow directional beams that impact small regions of body tissue with intensities of 200,000,000–400,000,000 µW/m2. However, the maximum intensity should be no higher than 1–10 μW/m2, according to recommendations 1), 2), 3) above that are aimed at protecting human health.

The above comparisons reveal that ICNIRP and most European states allow incident power densities at least a million times higher than the first three independent advisory bodies mentioned above. This is because the ICNIRP guidelines consider only temperature rises in "tissue simulants" in plastic "heads" but no other risks, like biological effects on living glial cells, blood or DNA, which have been well documented in EU's sponsored research and reviews [1, 3, 4, 6, 7].
Concluding remarks

At the current juncture, millions of EU citizens are relying on the EU to address the issues raised in the EU 5G Appeal. The EU decision makers need to put aside their industry-fuelled fantasies of a digital saviour for mankind and instead, ensure that industry acts according to EU laws, made to prioritise humans and planetary health above industry profit or science fiction futures. Any economic benefits from 5G are likely to be outweighed by the risk of harm to the health of billions of people around the world [33].
If the EU continues to fail to act on these warnings, Europe may end up being faced with a non-reversible burgeoning health impact on humans, especially children and the environment.
To allow the levels and frequencies of exposures to continue unfettered is to put the world population and the environment at great risk, especially young people [28].
Open access paper: https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/reveh-2022-0106/html

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Sep 5, 2019 (updated Sep 9, 2022)

As of today, 424 scientists and doctors from 47 nations have signed The 5G Appeal which calls for a moratorium on the deployment of 5G, the fifth generation of cellular technology.

The Appeal asserts that, "5G will substantially increase exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on top of the 2G, 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, etc. for telecommunications already in place. RF-EMF has been proven to be harmful for humans and the environment."

For a list of signatories see https://www.5gappeal.eu/signatories-to-scientists-5g-appeal/.


Apr 26, 2018

International Society of Doctors for the Environment Support 5G Moratorium

In April, 2018, the International Society of Doctors for the Environment (ISDE) and its member organizations in 27 countries, adopted a declaration calling for a moratorium on the deployment of 5G (fifth generation cellular technology) in the European Union.
The declaration is entitled, "5G networks in European Countries: appeal for a standstill in the respect of the precautionary principle."
"We believe it should be unethical to ignore the available evidence waiting a possible "a posteriori" demonstration of health damages in the presence of a present and potentially manageable risk for public health.
Thus, in the respect of the precautionary principle and of the WHO principle "health in all policies", we believe suitable the request of a standstill for the "5G experimentations" throughout Europe until an adequate and active involvement of public institutions operating in the field of environmental health (health ministry, environmental ministry, national environmental and health agencies) will be effectively planned."
In the United States, the ISDE member organization is Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR).



Apr 16, 2018Official 5G Appeal Website Launched

The official website, www.5gappeal.eu, for the 5G Appeal has been launched. The website contains the text of the Appeal, the current list of signatories, an explanation of 5G, and related news stories.

The Appeal asserts that, "5G will substantially increase exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on top of the 2G, 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, etc. for telecommunications already in place. RF-EMF has been proven to be harmful for humans and the environment."
More than 200 scientists and doctors from 38 nations have signed the declaration calling for a moratorium on the deployment of 5G (fifth generation) cellular technology.


Oct 25, 2017
European Commission Responds with Denial
and Empty Promises to Call for 5G Moratorium

On October 12, the European Commission (EC) issued its response to a September 13 declaration that demands a moratorium on planned 5G expansion, the fifth generation of mobile communication technology. To date, the declaration has been signed by over 180 scientists and doctors from 35 nations.
The Commission's response contradicts the basic assertion of the declaration. The EC claims that current limits on electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) are adequate to protect the population, and that these limits apply to the frequencies to be deployed for 5G.
Signers of the declaration argue that these limits were designed to protect the population from the effects of heating attributable to brief EMF exposures but were not intended to protect people from chronic exposure to low intensity EMF.
The declaration cites language from the 2015 International EMF Scientist Appeal which has now been signed by more than 230 scientists who have published peer-reviewed research on EMF and biology or health. Prior to the current controversy about 5G, these experts reported "serious concerns" regarding the ubiquitous and increasing exposure to EMF. Their appeal refers to numerous scientific publications which have shown that EMF "affects living organisms at levels well below most international and national guidelines." These effects include increased cancer risk, neurological disorders, and reproductive harm. The Appeal calls for the strengthening of EMF guidelines and regulatory standards.
In addition, the September declaration cites the International Agency for Research on Cancer's classification of radio frequency radiation as "possibly carcinogenic" in 2011; recommendations of the 2015 Brussels Congress on multiple chemical sensitivity and electromagnetic hypersensitivity; results from the U.S. National Toxicology Program study in 2016 finding cell phone radiation causes DNA damage and cancer in rats; and the Europa EM-EMF 2016 Guideline that long-term EMF exposure is a risk factor for chronic disease and infertility.
The declaration for a 5G moratorium argues that …
"current ICNIRP 'safety guidelines' are obsolete. All proofs of harm mentioned above arise although the radiation is below the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Therefore new safety standards are necessary. The reason for the misleading guidelines is that conflict of interest of ICNIRP members due to their relationships with telecommunications or electric companies undermine the impartiality that should govern the regulation of Public Exposure Standards for non-ionizing radiation…."
The EC claims that it "is not aware of any conflicts of interests of members of international bodies such as ICNIRP…."
The EC maintains that "Digital technologies and mobile communication technologies, including high speed internet, will be the backbone of Europe's future economy."
The EC letter acknowledges that citizens deserve appropriate protection against EMF from wireless devices, and concludes with the following empty promise,
"Please be assured that the Commission will pursue scrutiny of the independent scientific evidence available to ensure the highest health protection of our citizens."
The EC response letter was sent electronically to the authors of the declaration, Professors Rainer Nyberg and Lennart Hardell. The letter was signed by John F. Ryan, the director of public health, country knowledge, crisis management in the EC Directorate—General Health and Food Safety.

September 13, 2017
Scientists and Doctors Say Increased Radiation

from Cell Towers Poses Potential Risks

(Örebro, Sweden) Over 180 scientists and doctors from 35 countries sent a declaration to officials of the European Commission today demanding a moratorium on the increase of cell antennas for planned 5G expansion. Concerns over health effects from higher radiation exposure include potential neurological impacts, infertility, and cancer.

"The wireless industry is trying to deploy technology that may have some very real unintended harmful consequences," explains one of the organizers of the letter, Lennart Hardell, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden. "Scientific studies from years ago along with many new studies are consistently identifying harmful human health impacts when wireless products are tested properly using conditions that reflect actual exposures. With hazards at those exposures, we are very concerned that the added exposure to 5G radiation could result in tragic, irreversible harm."

5G expansion, which is designed to carry higher loads of data more rapidly through wireless transmission, will require the construction of cell towers every 10-20 houses in urban areas.

In their letter to the European Commission, the scientists write:

"We, the undersigned, more than 180 scientists and doctors from 35 nations, recommend a moratorium on the roll-out of the fifth generation, 5G, for telecommunication until potential hazards for human health and the environment have been fully investigated by scientists independent from industry."
University of California, Berkeley public health researcher Joel Moskowitz, PhD, explains:
"Peer-reviewed research has documented industry influence on studies of the health impacts of wireless radiation. We are insisting on a moratorium on 5G until non-industry research can be conducted to ensure the safety of the public."
Moskowitz is one of the advisors to an earlier effort, the International EMF Scientist Appeal, a petition submitted to the United Nations and World Health Organization in 2015. The Appeal has now been signed by more than 240 scientists from 42 nations—all have published peer-reviewed research on the biologic or health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

Since the Appeal was published, the world's largest $25 million study, conducted by the National Toxicology Program in the US, shows statistically significant increases in the incidence of brain and heart cancer in animals exposed to cellphone radiation at levels below international guidelines. This supports human studies on cellphone radiation and brain tumour risk, as demonstrated in many peer-reviewed scientific studies.

The Appeal and this week's declaration identify health concerns from exposure to radiofrequency radiation including ...
" … increased cancer risk, cellular stress, increase in harmful free radicals, genetic damages, structural and functional changes of the reproductive system, learning and memory deficits, neurological disorders, and negative impacts on general well-being in humans. Damage goes well beyond the human race, as there is growing evidence of harmful effects to both plant and animal life."
Roll-out of 5G in the US
In the US, the wireless industry is promoting legislation in at least 20 states to facilitate the roll-out of 5G in addition to sponsoring legislation at the federal level.

In California, city and county governments are opposing SB 649,an industry-sponsored bill which overrides local control over the wireless industry's access to utility poles and public buildings for 5G deployment. Environmental health advocates fear that exposure to the added radiation from 5G infrastructure will contribute to increased health problems.

"If this bill passes, many people will suffer greatly, and needlessly, as a direct result. This sounds like hyperbole. It is not." according to Beatrice Golomb, MD, PhD, Professor of Medicine in the medical school at the University of California, San Diego. In her open letter which summarizes the research on the effects of radio frequency radiation, she concludes, "Let our focus be on safer, wired and well shielded technology – not more wireless."



The declaration and list of signatories can be found here:
https://bit.ly/5Gappeal170913a

Media Inquiries:
Finland: Rainer Nyberg, EdD
Sweden: Lennart Hardell, MD, PhD
UK: Alasdair Philips, BSc, DAgE, MIEEE
USA: Joel Moskowitz, PhD

USA: Beatrice Golomb, MD, PhD

Related Posts:

International EMF Scientist Appeal - also see https://emfscientist.org/
5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?

5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health EffectsCell Tower Health EffectsElectromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS)
5G Wireless Technology: Major newspaper editorials oppose "small cell" antenna bills

Industry-funded Scientists Undermine Cell Phone Radiation ScienceGovernment Failure to Address Wireless Radiation Risks
FCC Open Letter: Moratorium on New Commercial Applications of RF Radiation
An Exposé of the FCC: An Agency Captured by the Industries it RegulatesWHO Radiofrequency Radiation Policy
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
20.9.2022 21:28

Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity



Source: Microwave News Archive (Louis Slesin)

(See the end of this post for additional resources.)

What is electromagnetic hypersensitivity?

Following is an excerpt from "Electromagnetic hypersensitivity means Peter Lloyd can't leave his house... or enjoy any modern pleasures inside" by Martin Shipton, Wales Online, Oct 16, 2014:

The term "electrical hypersensitivity" was first used in 1989, while "electromagnetic hypersensitivity" - EHS for short - was coined in 1994 to reflect sufferers' sensitivity to magnetic as well as electric fields.

As early as the 1930s, however, EHS symptoms were observed in people working with radio and electricity, and with military radar in the 1940s.

Environmental EHS appeared in the general population from the 1970s with computers.

It increased in the 1980s with mobile and cordless phones, and with wifi from 2000.

Thousands of people are now linked with EHS support groups in 30 countries. The first started in Sweden in 1989; the UK group began in 2003.
Sweden recognised EHS as a functional disability in 2002. The Canadian Human Rights Commission did likewise in 2007. In 2009, the European Parliament voted for persons with EHS to be recognised as disabled.
Despite having official recognition, many doctors still know little or nothing about the condition.

https://bit.ly/211JeT7

Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, microwave syndrome) – Review of mechanisms
Physician's Weekly, Apr 15, 2020

Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), known in the past as "Microwave syndrome", is a clinical syndrome characterized by the presence of a wide spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms, typically including central nervous system symptoms, that occur following the patient's acute or chronic exposure to electromagnetic fields in the environment or in occupational settings. Numerous studies have shown biological effects at the cellular level of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at magnetic (ELF) and radio-frequency (RF) frequencies in extremely low intensities. Many of the mechanisms described for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) apply with modification to EHS. Repeated exposures result in sensitization and consequent enhancement of response. Many hypersensitive patients appear to have impaired detoxification systems that become overloaded by excessive oxidative stress. EMF can induce changes in calcium signaling cascades, significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells as well as altered neurological and cognitive functions and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Magnetite crystals absorbed from combustion air pollution could have an important role in brain effects of EMF. Autonomic nervous system effects of EMF could also be expressed as symptoms in the cardiovascular system. Other common effects of EMF include effects on skin, microvasculature, immune and hematologic systems. It is concluded that the mechanisms underlying the symptoms of EHS are biologically plausible and that many organic physiologic responses occur following EMF exposure. Patients can have neurologic, neuro-hormonal and neuro-psychiatric symptoms following exposure to EMF as a consequence of neural damage and over-sensitized neural responses. More relevant diagnostic tests for EHS should be developed. Exposure limits should be lowered to safeguard against biologic effects of EMF. Spread of local and global wireless networks should be decreased, and safer wired networks should be used instead of wireless, to protect susceptible members of the public. Public places should be made accessible for electrohypersensitive individuals.

https://www.physiciansweekly.com/electromagnetic-hypersensitivity-ehs-microwave-syndrome-review-of-mechanisms/
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ELF-MF Exposure, Actual and Perceived, and Associated Health Symptoms: A Case Study of an Office Building in Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel
Raz-Steinkrycer LS, Dubnov J, Gelberg S, Jia P, Portnov BA. ELF-MF Exposure, Actual and Perceived, and Associated Health Symptoms: A Case Study of an Office Building in Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel. Sustainability. 2022; 14(17):11065. doi: 10.3390/su141711065.
Abstract
Empirical studies link exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) to several health symptoms. However, it is unclear whether these symptoms are associated with actual or perceived exposure. In this study we attempted to answer this question by studying the health complaints of employees working in a multi-story office building located near a major high-voltage power line. ELF-MF measurements were conducted in the building using a triaxial sensor coil device on all 15 floors. In parallel, questionnaires were administered to evaluate the prevalence of various health symptoms among the employees. Multivariate logistic regressions were used next to quantify the associations between actual and perceived ELF-MF exposure and the employees' health complaints. The analysis revealed that feelings of weakness, headache, frustration, and worry were associated with both measured and perceived ELF-MF exposure (p < 0.01), while perceived ELF-MF exposure was also found to be associated with eye pain and irritation (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2–1.6), sleepiness (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1–1.5), dizziness and ear pain (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0–1.4). We conclude that high-voltage power lines produce both physiological and psychological effects in nearby workers, and, hence, proximity to such power lines should become a public health issue.

Conclusions
The main findings of this study can be summarized as follows:
  • The analysis revealed no significant association between instrumentally measured and perceived ELF-MF exposure, which implies that individuals cannot detect actual ELF-MF exposure accurately;
  • The analysis revealed that feelings of weakness, headache, frustration and worries were associated with both measured and perceived ELF-MF exposure, while perceived ELF-MF exposure was also found to be associated with eye pain and irritation, sleepiness, as well as dizziness and ear pain.
  • As we conclude, working near a high voltage power line appears to produce not only psychological but also physiological effects, and should thus become a public health concern.
As several reported symptoms (including headache, frustration/worry, and exhaustion/weakness) were found to be significantly related to measured exposure, not just perceived exposure, the results should lead to revisiting ELF-MF exposure standards. Moreover, follow-up studies should attempt to estimate other effects of ELF-MF exposure, such as its effects on employee productivity, the number of visits to physicians, absenteeism, and medication intake.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/14/17/11065

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Why electrohypersensitivity and related symptoms are caused by non-ionizing man-made electromagnetic fields: An overview and medical assessment

Dominique Belpomme, Philippe Irigaray. Why electrohypersensitivity and related symptoms are caused by non-ionizing man-made electromagnetic fields: An overview and medical assessment. Environmental Research. Available online 7 May 2022, 113374. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.113374.

Highlights
  • Electrohypersensitivity is caused by electromagnetic fields.
  • Electrohypersensitivity is a neurological disorder with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood brain barrier opening and neurotransmitter abnormalities.
  • Electrohypersensitivity must be defined by the decrease of brain electromagnetic fields tolerance threshold.

Abstract

Much of the controversy over the cause of electrohypersensitivity (EHS) lies in the absence of recognized clinical and biological criteria for a widely accepted diagnosis. However, there are presently sufficient data for EHS to be acknowledged as a distinctly well-defined and objectively characterized neurologic pathological disorder. Because we have shown that 1) EHS is frequently associated with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) in EHS patients, and 2) that both individualized disorders share a common pathophysiological mechanism for symptom occurrence; it appears that EHS and MCS can be identified as a unique neurologic syndrome, regardless its causal origin. In this overview we distinguish the etiology of EHS itself from the environmental causes that trigger pathophysiological changes and clinical symptoms after EHS has occurred. Contrary to present scientifically unfounded claims, we indubitably refute the hypothesis of a nocebo effect to explain the genesis of EHS and its presentation. We as well refute the erroneous concept that EHS could be reduced to a vague and unproven "functional impairment". To the contrary, we show here there are objective pathophysiological changes and health effects induced by electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure in EHS patients and most of all in healthy subjects, meaning that excessive non-thermal anthropogenic EMFs are strongly noxious for health. In this overview and medical assessment we focus on the effects of extremely low frequencies, wireless communications radio frequencies and microwaves EMF. We discuss how to better define and characterize EHS. Taken into consideration the WHO proposed causality criteria, we show that EHS is in fact causally associated with increased exposure to man-made EMF, and in some cases to marketed environmental chemicals. We therefore appeal to all governments and international health institutions, particularly the WHO, to urgently consider the growing EHS-associated pandemic plague, and to acknowledge EHS as a new real EMF causally-related pathology.
Excerpts
In Table 6 the prevalence expressed in percentages of EHS people relative to the overall population is estimated to range from 0.7% to 13.3%, mainly affecting on average 3%–5% of the population in many different worldwide area or countries, meaning that millions of people may in fact be affected by man-made EMF intolerance, and often by EHS. Similar worldwide figures may account for MCS (Genuis, 2010)....
Given the seven billion people worldwide – most using cordless phones and/or mobile phones, Wi-Fi, and other wireless devices – and given the present and future development of 5G (Hardell and Nyberg, 2020; Hardell and Carlberg, 2020; Pall, 2021), it is expected that the prevalence of EMF intolerance and EHS will significantly increase worldwide in the next few years. However, because the figures indicated in Table 6 are estimations based on no objective criteria for identifying EHS (Hallberg and Oberfeld, 2006), we believe these data require confirmation by more objective evaluations. Although the reported EHS prevalence figures are only estimations, it is expected that EMF intolerance and EHS prevalence will continue to grow, in as much as the manufacturers of WC technologies and chemical industries will continue developing their products....

Today's level of scientific knowledge engenders a great ethical responsibility of scientists and governments and of national and international health bodies to uncover the adverse health effects of the increasing man-made EMF exposures and warn on the emerging and growing worldwide EHS and MCS global plagues. This means that suitable public health measures must urgently be taken to recognize EHS and MCS as new pathologies and decrease EMF-exposures.

We therefore strongly ask WHO to add EHS and MCS in the future versions of the WHO International Classification of Diseases on the basis on their clinical and pathophysiological identification, just as has already been done for other recognized diseases.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0013935122007010?via%3Dihub

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The Critical Importance of Molecular Biomarkers and Imaging in the Study of Electrohypersensitivity. A Scientific Consensus International Report

Belpomme, Dominique, George L. Carlo, Philippe Irigaray, David O. Carpenter, Lennart Hardell, Michael Kundi, Igor Belyaev, Magda Havas, Franz Adlkofer, Gunnar Heuser, Anthony B. Miller, Daniela Caccamo, Chiara De Luca, Lebrecht von Klitzing, Martin L. Pall, Priyanka Bandara, Yael Stein, Cindy Sage, Morando Soffritti, Devra Davis, Joel M. Moskowitz, S. M.J. Mortazavi, Martha R. Herbert, Hanns Moshammer, Gerard Ledoigt, Robert Turner, Anthony Tweedale, Pilar Muñoz-Calero, Iris Udasin, Tarmo Koppel, Ernesto Burgio, and André Vander Vorst. 2021. "The Critical Importance of Molecular Biomarkers and Imaging in the Study of Electrohypersensitivity. A Scientific Consensus International Report" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 14: 7321. doi: 10.3390/ijms22147321.


Abstract
Clinical research aiming at objectively identifying and characterizing diseases via clinical observations and biological and radiological findings is a critical initial research step when establishing objective diagnostic criteria and treatments. Failure to first define such diagnostic criteria may lead research on pathogenesis and etiology to serious confounding biases and erroneous medical interpretations. This is particularly the case for electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and more particularly for the so-called "provocation tests", which do not investigate the causal origin of EHS but rather the EHS-associated particular environmental intolerance state with hypersensitivity to man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF). However, because those tests depend on multiple EMF-associated physical and biological parameters and have been conducted in patients without having first defined EHS objectively and/or endpoints adequately, they cannot presently be considered to be valid pathogenesis research methodologies. Consequently, the negative results obtained by these tests do not preclude a role of EMF exposure as a symptomatic trigger in EHS patients. Moreover, there is no proof that EHS symptoms or EHS itself are caused by psychosomatic or nocebo effects. This international consensus report pleads for the acknowledgement of EHS as a distinct neuropathological disorder and for its inclusion in the WHO International Classification of Diseases.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/14/7321
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Review of the scientific evidence on the individual sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EHS)

Dariusz Leszczynski. Review of the scientific evidence on the individual sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EHS). Rev Environ Health. 2021 Jul 6. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2021-0038.
Abstract

Part of the population considers themselves as sensitive to the man-made electromagnetic radiation (EMF) emitted by powerlines, electric wiring, electric home appliance and the wireless communication devices and networks. Sensitivity is characterized by a broad variety of non-specific symptoms that the sensitive people claim to experience when exposed to EMF. While the experienced symptoms are currently considered as a real life impairment, the factor causing these symptoms remains unclear. So far, scientists were unable to find causality link between symptoms experienced by sensitive persons and the exposures to EMF. However, as presented in this review, the executed to-date scientific studies, examining sensitivity to EMF, are of poor quality to find the link between EMF exposures and sensitivity symptoms of some people. It is logical to consider that the sensitivity to EMF exists but the scientific methodology used to find it is of insufficient quality. It is time to drop out psychology driven provocation studies that ask about feelings-based non-specific symptoms experienced by volunteers under EMF exposure. Such research approach produces only subjective and therefore highly unreliable data that is insufficient to prove, or to disprove, causality link between EHS and EMF. There is a need for a new direction in studying sensitivity to EMF. The basis for it is the notion of a commonly known phenomenon of individual sensitivity, where individuals' responses to EMF depend on the genetic and epigenetic properties of the individual. It is proposed here that new studies, combining provocation approach, where volunteers are exposed to EMF, and high-throughput technologies of transcriptomics and proteomics are used to generate objective data, detecting molecular level biochemical responses of human body to EMF.
Final conclusions
– Problems and solutions for EHS research are summarized in Figure 2.
– Over the last 30 years, a sizable number of research studies has examined causality link between EMF exposures and EHS symptoms.

– The majority of the studies did not find any link between EMF and EHS.

– The EHS studies have examined acute effects but did not have capability to examine delayed EMF responses.

– The major problem is that scientists do not know whether EHS volunteers have indeed correct self-diagnosis of EHS or whether the diagnosis is incorrect and experimental groups are contaminated, to unknown degree, by non-EHS persons. In extreme situation, the small group of volunteers used in research study might have no EHS persons at all.

– Recently, research on EHS has drifted into direction of nocebo as the cause of EHS, what is incorrect.

– Instead of studying obvious impact of nocebo, or likes of medical students' disease, research should focus on finding suitable biochemical and biophysical markers that could be used, in combination with single individual-focused provocation studies, to determine the sources of the EHS symptoms.

– The opinion that there is no causality link between EHS and EMF is unproven. This opinion, expressed by the World Health Organization EMF Project, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and numerous governmental organizations, should be revised because the scientific research data is of insufficient quality to be used as a proof of the lack of causality.
https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/reveh-2021-0038/html

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Redefining electrosensitivity: A new literature-supported model
Mary Redmayne, Siobhan Reddel. Redefining electrosensitivity: A new literature-supported model. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Jan 2021. DOI: 10.1080/15368378.2021.1874971.

Abstract

In critically examining literature on electrohypersensitivity and the reported somatic responses to anthropogenic modulated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure, it becomes apparent that electrohypersensitivity is one part of a range of consequences. Current evidence on the necessity of considering patients' overall health status leads us to propose a new model in which electrohypersensitivity is but part of the electrosensitive status inherent in being human. We propose the likelihood and type of response to environmental RFR include i) a linear somatic awareness continuum, ii) a non-linear somatic response continuum, and iii) the extent of each individual's capacity to repair damage (linked to homeostatic response). We anticipate this last, dynamic, aspect is inextricably linked to the others through the autonomic nervous system. The whole is dependent upon the status of the interconnected immune and inflammatory systems. This holistic approach leads us to propose various outcomes. For most, their body maintains homeostasis by routine repair. However, some develop electrohypersensitivity either due to RFR exposure or as an ANS-mediated, unconscious response (aka nocebo effect), or both. We suggest RFR exposure may be one factor in the others developing an auto-immune disease or allergy. A few develop delayed catastrophic disease such as glioma. This model gives the blanket term ElectroMagnetic Illness (EMI) to all RFR-related conditions. Thus, EHS appears to be one part of a range of responses to a novel and rapidly changing evolutionary situation.
Conclusion and consequences of the model

Overall, there is compelling evidence in the broader literature indicating that EHS is but one part of a more complex range of responses related to humans being intrinsically electrosensitive.

In fact, "Many of the general malaise symptoms associated with IEI (Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance) 7 are common in the general population" p.42 (World Health Organisation 2004). This is not a sign of a healthy general population even by the WHO's definition of health, 8 and causes must be identified. Life is dependent upon, and arguably defined by the electrical activity, of the brain, the broader nervous system and indeed the body's ongoing efforts to maintain homeostasis. As we said earlier, internal electrical impulses are inherent to life; when they stop, we die. There are also natural, static and low-frequency, non-modulated, electromagnetic fields with which we have evolved and most of which we use and even rely upon. Our bodies and cells have their own resonant frequencies, and research has shown cell sensitivity to RFR exposure at ultra-low intensities (Kositsky, 2001). It is almost to be expected that exposures never encountered during the course of evolution would affect us. Indeed, "Since the low-level environmental exposures associated with IEI are commonly found in everyone's daily living environment, the exposed population is indistinguishable from the general population. Everyone is exposed" p.44 (World Health Organisation 2004).

Our current model of electrosensitivity includes the "general population" and expresses that differing responses are a normal part of being alive. For some of those who do not appear to respond (no symptoms), there will mostly likely be cellular impacts. For most, these will be promptly repaired or otherwise dealt with (e.g., apoptosis); for some, damage will gradually or eventually accumulate and may lead, in time, to a catastrophic response in the form of a disease that began as oxidative stress that the body has fought but finally to which it has catastrophically succumbed. For others, effects will be felt and cause early symptoms. Among these people, some will respond by avoiding the exposure either subconsciously or consciously, while others will ignore them and eventually pay the price. Others will develop EHS. At this stage, it will often go undiagnosed due to lack of training in recognising this possible diagnosis.

Importantly, this model implies that there is a need to acknowledge that EHS (with all its variety) is one part of a range of symptomless pre-cursor and EMI responses to a novel and rapidly changing evolutionary situation. There should be no stigma to EHS, and those affected deserve the same level of concern and extent of assistance as those with allergies or auto-immune diseases, the principal actions being minimisation of the harmful stimulant until personal repair capacity has improved, then slowly re-introducing exposure, to the extent manageable on an individual basis. Assistance with this would be necessary at several stages so the body is not pushed into the hypo-responsive state, but rather assisted to reach the best possible health with the best practicable repair capacity.

We propose that to work towards avoiding, ameliorating, or attempting to overcome EHS it is necessary not only to observe the positive actions recommended, but also to build capacity. And capacity provides the energy necessary to build resilience (Gerritsen and Band 2018).
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15368378.2021.1874971

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Clinical Practice Guidelines for EHS - Proceedings from a Symposium on the Impacts of Wireless Technology on Health
"Clinical Practice Guidelines for EHS - Proceedings from a Symposium on the Impacts of Wireless Technology on Health." Edited by Riina Bray, MD, and David Fancy, PhD. Published by the Environmental Health Clinic, Women's College Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada. 137 pp. https://bit.ly/EHSsymposium.
The document is the published proceedings from a symposium for medical doctors on the subject of wireless technology and EHS held at the Environmental Health Clinic at Women's College Hospital (Toronto) in 2019.
The presenters include Riina Bray, MD; Anthony Miller, PhD; Magda Havas, PhD; Meg Sears, PhD; Jennifer Armstrong, MD; Barbara Payne; David Fancy, PhD; Shelley Wright; Frank Clegg; Robert Steller; and Melissa Chalmers.
The proceedings can be downloaded: https://bit.ly/EHSsymposium.

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Metabolomics and psychological features in fibromyalgia and electromagnetic sensitivity
Cristina Piras, Stella Conte, Monica Pibiri, Giacomo Rao, Sandro Muntoni, Vera Piera Leoni, Gabriele Finco, Luigi Atzori. Metabolomics and psychological features in fibromyalgia and electromagnetic sensitivity. Scientific Reports volume 10, Article number: 20418 (2020).

Abstract

Fibromyalgia (FM) as Fibromyalgia and Electromagnetic Sensitivity (IEI-EMF) are a chronic and systemic syndrome. The main symptom is represented by strong and widespread pain in the musculoskeletal system. The exact causes that lead to the development of FM and IEI-EMF are still unknown. Interestingly, the proximity to electrical and electromagnetic devices seems to trigger and/or amplify the symptoms.

We investigated the blood plasma metabolome in IEI-EMF and healthy subjects using 1H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. All the individuals were subjected to tests for the evaluation of psychological and physical features.
No significant differences between IEI-EMF and controls relative to personality aspects, Locus of Control, and anxiety were found. Multivariate statistical analysis on the metabolites identified by NMR analysis allowed the identification of a distinct metabolic profile between IEI-EMF and healthy subjects. IEI-EMF were characterized by higher levels of glycine and pyroglutamate, and lower levels of 2-hydroxyisocaproate, choline, glutamine, and isoleucine compared to healthy subjects. These metabolites are involved in several metabolic pathways mainly related to oxidative stress defense, pain mechanisms, and muscle metabolism.
The results here obtained highlight possible physiopathological mechanisms in IEI-EMF patients to be better defined.
Open access paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-76876-8

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Heart rate variability in healthy young adults exposed to global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900-MHz radiofrequency signal from mobile phones
Wallace J, Andrianome S, Ghosn R, Blanchard ES, Telliez F, Selmaoui B. Heart rate variability in healthy young adults exposed to global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900-MHz radiofrequency signal from mobile phones. Environ Res. 2020 Aug 23;191:110097.

Abstract

Given the large number of mobile phone users and the increasing exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) worldwide, we aimed to study the effect of RF-EMF related to mobile phones on heart rate variability (HRV).

Twenty-six healthy young adults participated in two experimental sessions with a double-blind, randomized and counter-balanced crossover design. During each session, participants were exposed for 26 min to a sham or real 900 MHz RF-EMF, generated by a commercial dual-band Global System for Mobile technology (GSM) mobile phone. We recorded an electrocardiogram at rest during the exposure. We evaluated HRV by time- and frequency-domain analysis.
Evaluation of time-domain HRV parameters revealed a statistically significant increase of the standard deviation of interbeat intervals (SDNN) during the real exposure. Other time-domain parameters were not affected. Analysis in the frequency-domain demonstrated that total spectral power and low-frequency band (LF) absolute power were significantly increased during exposure (p = .046 and p = .043, respectively). However, other parameters were not affected.
In conclusion, it seems that most HRV parameters were not affected by GSM signal exposure in our study. The weak effect observed on HRV frequency-domain is likely to represent a random occurrence rather than a real effect.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32846174/
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The enigma of headaches associated with electromagnetic hyperfrequencies: Hypotheses supporting non-psychogenic algogenic processes
Toffa DH, Sow AD. The enigma of headaches associated with electromagnetic hyperfrequencies: Hypotheses supporting non-psychogenic algogenic processes. Electromagn Biol Med. 2020 May 13:1-10. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2020.1762638.

Abstract

Although an electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is reported in numerous studies, some authors associate hyperfrequencies (HF)-related pains with a nocebo effect while others suggest a biological effect. Therefore, we aimed to suggest hypotheses about the complex mechanisms of headaches related to HF-exposure. We crossed basic features of headaches with relevant studies (from the year 2000 up to 2018) emphasizing on the HF effects that may lead to pain genesis: neuroglial dysmetabolism, neuroinflammation, changes in cerebral blood perfusion, blood-brain barrier dysfunction and electrophysiological evidences of hyperexcitability. We privileged studies implying a sham exposure (for in vivo studies) and a specific absorption rate lower than 4 W/Kg. HF-induced headaches may involve an indirect inflammatory process (neurogenic, magnetogenic or thermogenic) as well as a direct biophysical effect (thermogenic or magnetogenic). We linked inflammatory processes to meningeal dysperfusion or primary neuroglial dysfunction triggered by non-thermal irradiation or HF-induced heating at thermal powers. In the latter case, HF-induced excitoxicity and oxidative stress probably play a crucial role. Such disorders may lead to vascular-trigeminal activation in predisposed people. Interestingly, an abnormal oxidative stress predisposition had been demonstrated in overall 80% of EHS self-reporting patients. In the case of direct effects, pain pathways' activation may be directly triggered by HF-irradiation (heating and/or transcranial HF-induced ectopic action potentials). Further research on HF-related headaches is needed.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32401641
Excerpts
Electromagnetic HFs are non-ionizing radiations that have complex interactions with intracranial structures. These radiations can significantly impact on neuroglial excitability and induce direct or indirect changes in the permeability of the BBB and meningeal capillaries. All these objective interactions can lead to the induction of headaches either by non-thermal/thermal proinflammatory mechanisms, by thermal stimulation of trigeminal endings, or also by ectopic discharges genesis. However, we believe that unless there occurs a prolonged and high-intensity exposure, a low threshold for vascular trigeminal activation seems crucial to promote headaches in EHS people. Our hypotheses are based on the conclusions of several studies targeting the brain effects of HF. However, further experiments based on the current assumptions should be conducted. In practice, since it is impossible to avoid HF exposure in modern society, it is important to emphasize awareness to reduce this exposure, especially in EHS individuals. Moreover, since some of the mechanisms described above can lead to durable neuroglial processes, chronic exposure in predisposed people can result in brain disorders (headaches or other) that increasingly evolve independently from HF triggering.
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Symptoms Experienced by Persons with Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity: Submissions to FCC Docket #13-84
This report summarizes the responses of 184 persons with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) who submitted comments to the FCC (Docket #13-84) and reported either their symptoms or the sources of their problematic exposure to radio frequency radiation.

https://www.saferemr.com/2020/05/EHSsubmissionstoFCC.html


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Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, microwave syndrome) Review of mechanisms
Stein Y, Udassin IG. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, microwave syndrome) – Review of mechanisms. Environmental Research. Vol 186. Available online 30 March 2020, 109445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109445

Abstract

Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), known in the past as "Microwave syndrome", is a clinical syndrome characterized by the presence of a wide spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms, typically including central nervous system symptoms, that occur following the patient's acute or chronic exposure to electromagnetic fields in the environment or in occupational settings.
Numerous studies have shown biological effects at the cellular level of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at magnetic (ELF) and radio-frequency (RF) frequencies in extremely low intensities. Many of the mechanisms described for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) apply with modification to EHS. Repeated exposures result in sensitization and consequent enhancement of response. Many hypersensitive patients appear to have impaired detoxification systems that become overloaded by excessive oxidative stress. EMF can induce changes in calcium signaling cascades, significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells as well as altered neurological and cognitive functions and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Magnetite crystals absorbed from combustion air pollution could have an important role in brain effects of EMF. Autonomic nervous system effects of EMF could also be expressed as symptoms in the cardiovascular system. Other common effects of EMF include effects on skin, microvasculature, immune and hematologic systems.
It is concluded that the mechanisms underlying the symptoms of EHS are biologically plausible and that many organic physiologic responses occur following EMF exposure. Patients can have neurologic, neuro-hormonal and neuro-psychiatric symptoms following exposure to EMF as a consequence of neural damage and over-sensitized neural responses.
More relevant diagnostic tests for EHS should be developed. Exposure limits should be lowered to safeguard against biologic effects of EMF. Spread of local and global wireless networks should be decreased, and safer wired networks should be used instead of wireless, to protect susceptible members of the public. Public places should be made accessible for electrohypersensitive individuals.
Mechanisms
Many of the mechanisms described for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) apply with modification to EHS. Repeated exposures result in sensitization and consequent enhancement of response (Overstreet, 2001; Latremoliere and Woolf, 2009; Molot, 2013; Sage, 2015). Many hypersensitive patients appear to have impaired detoxification systems that become overloaded by excessive oxidative stress (Korkina, 2009; De Luca et al., 2014). Patients can have neurologic, neuro-hormonal and neuro-psychiatric symptoms following exposure to EMF as a consequence of neural damage and over-sensitized neural responses (Dwyer and Leeper, 1978; Pall, 2016). EMF can induce changes in calcium signaling cascades (Liboff, 1984; Blackman et al., 1985; Smith et al., 1987; Pall, 2013, 2015), significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells (Irmak et al., 2002; Zmyslony et al., 2004; Friedman et al., 2007; Blank and Goodman, 2009; De Iuliis et al., 2009; Georgiou, 2010; Avci et al., 2012; Jing et al., 2012; Bilgici et al., 2013; Burlaka et al., 2013) as well as altered neurological and cognitive functions (Frey, 1961; Thomas et al., 1986; Carrubba et al., 2007; Nittby et al., 2009; Xu et al., 2010; Molot, 2013; Yakymenko et al., 2016; Pall, 2016; Kim et al., 2017) and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (Salford et al., 2008; Nittby et al., 2009). Magnetite crystals absorbed from combustion air pollution could have an important role in brain effects of EMF (Maher et al., 2016).
Conclusions
In the modern world, exposure to electromagnetic radiation has become inescapable. There are many people who develop adverse health effects as a result of exposure to EMF. This review of the literature included numerous self-reported neurologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms which have a temporal relationship to EMF exposures. Further studies suggest that EMF exposure may be associated with changes in cerebral blood flow which correspond to abnormalities on PET scan of the brain. Some of the researchers have even localized the brain abnormalities to the temporal lobe, thought to be the closest site of exposure to cell phones. Because of the widespread use of EMF technology, it is difficult to avoid exposure.

Open access paper: https://ecfsapi.fcc.gov/file/1061559548743/EHS%20Mechanisms%20YS%20IU.pdf

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Electrohypersensitivity as a Newly Identified and Characterized Neurologic Pathological Disorder: How to Diagnose, Treat, and Prevent It
Belpomme D, Irigaray P. Electrohypersensitivity as a Newly Identified and Characterized Neurologic Pathological Disorder: How to Diagnose, Treat, and Prevent It. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Mar 11;21(6). pii: E1915. doi: 10.3390/ijms21061915.


Abstract
Since 2009, we built up a database which presently includes more than 2000 electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and/or multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) self-reported cases. This database shows that EHS is associated in 30% of the cases with MCS, and that MCS precedes the occurrence of EHS in 37% of these EHS/MCS-associated cases. EHS and MCS can be characterized clinically by a similar symptomatic picture, and biologically by low-grade inflammation and an autoimmune response involving autoantibodies against O-myelin. Moreover, 80% of the patients with EHS present with one, two, or three detectable oxidative stress biomarkers in their peripheral blood, meaning that overall these patients present with a true objective somatic disorder. Moreover, by using ultrasonic cerebral tomosphygmography and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, we showed that cases have a defect in the middle cerebral artery hemodynamics, and we localized a tissue pulsometric index deficiency in the capsulo-thalamic area of the temporal lobes, suggesting the involvement of the limbic system and the thalamus. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that EHS is a neurologic pathological disorder which can be diagnosed, treated, and prevented. Because EHS is becoming a new insidious worldwide plague involving millions of people, we ask the World Health Organization (WHO) to include EHS as a neurologic disorder in the international classification of diseases.

Conclusions

In summary, we showed that there are presently sufficient clinical, biological, and radiological data for EHS to be acknowledged as a well-defined, objectively identified, and characterized pathological neurologic disorder. As a result, patients who self-report they suffer from EHS should be diagnosed and treated on the basis of presently available biological tests, including the detection of peripheral blood and urine biomarkers and the use of imaging techniques such as fMRI, TDU, and, when possible, UCTS. Moreover, because we showed for the first time that EHS is frequently associated with MCS and that both clinico-biological entities may be associated with a common physiopathological mechanism for genesis, it clearly appears that they can be identified as a unique neurologic pathological syndrome whatever their causal origin. Moreover; as it was shown that MCS genesis may be attributed to toxic chemical exposure, and EHS genesis to potentially excessive EMF and/or chemical exposure; protective measures against these two environmental stressors should be taken. Whatever its causal origin and mechanism of action, EHS should therefore be from now on recognized as a new identified and characterized neurological pathological disorder. As it is already a real health plague potentially involving millions of people worldwide it should be acknowledged by WHO, and thus be included in the WHO ICD. As stated during the international scientific consensus meeting on EHS and MCS that we have organized in 2015 in Brussels, scientists unanimously asked WHO to urgently assume its responsibilities, by classifying EHS and MCS as separate codes in the ICD; so as to increase scientific awareness of these two pathological entities in the medical community and the general public, and to foster research and train medical practitioners to e ciently diagnose, treat, and prevent EHS and MCS–which in fact constitute a unique, well-defined, and identifiable new neurologic disease.

Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/6/1915

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Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is an Environmentally-Induced Disability that Requires Immediate Attention
Havas M. Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is an Environmentally-Induced Disability that Requires Immediate Attention. Review Article. J Sci Discov. 3(1):jsd18020;DOI:10.24262/jsd.3.1.18020. 2019.
Abstract
A growing number of countries are beginning to acknowledge that electrohypersensitivity (EHS) exists and a few countries have classified it as a disability or a functional impairment attributable to the environment. Epidemiological studies and in vivo experiments show that exposure to non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from extremely low to microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) at exposure intensities far below the maximum limits in international guidelines increases anxiety, depression, and physiological stress and impairs cognitive functions that include concentration, memory and learning. Furthermore, exposure to NIR contributes to neurodegenerative diseases including dementia, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Exposure of the fetus to NIR (mobile phone) affects the neonatal heart and can lead to emotional and behavioral problems in human offspring. Similar exposures in laboratory studies report impaired cognitive performance, neuronal losses and pathological changes in the brain of rat offspring. The scientific and medical communities have repeatedly sent out urgent warnings, in the form of appeals, declarations and testimonies, that exposure to NIR needs to be reduced from a public health perspective. These warnings have been largely ignored. With continued development of wireless technology and the imminent roll out of new and densified technologies (e.g., 5G technology, satellite constellations, repeaters, wearables, Internet of Things), society will pay an enormous price for disregarding these warnings. It is long overdue for those responsible for public health, the health of children and health policy to take these warnings seriously and to provide a refuge for those afflicted by EHS. EHS is real, it is exacerbated by exposure to NIR, it is increasing among the population and when severe it becomes a disability. Action is long overdue to minimize exposure to NIR and to provide a safe environment that all can enjoy.
Conclusion
Environments contaminated by electrosmog can be devastating to those individuals who are already impaired by electromagnetic exposures. Unfortunately, these environments may also induce impairment in previously unimpaired individuals. Fetal exposure is particularly disturbing as it can affect the life of the offspring, as shown in both human and animal studies. The research reported here is regarding undesirable disruption of neurological and hormonal functions such that either cognitive or physical ability becomes impaired.

According to this research, exposure to EMF or EMR at levels far below the maximum limits in federal guidelines can contribute to deficits in memory and learning; increase the stress response and lead to mood disorders, including both anxiety and depression; contribute to symptoms of autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; contribute to neurodegenerative disorders and exacerbate symptoms of multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and various types of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Removal of the EMF/EMR exposure can ameliorate the impairing symptoms for many with EHS and/or reduce requirements for prescriptive medications and care. Mechanisms of action involve neurotransmitter disturbances, oxidative stress, programmed cell death (apoptosis), increase in stress proteins, reduced growth of nerve cells, DNA damage and altered hormonal levels.
With the impending deployment of 5G (5th Generation Wireless technology and the Internet of Things), exposure to mm [millimeter] waves will dramatically increase, further densifying our current electrosmog exposure.
Scientists and physicians familiar with EHS have submitted multiple appeals and declarations to governing agencies in an attempt to reduce exposure to electromagnetic frequencies. They recommend establishing more protective emission and exposure guidelines; designing technologies that emit EMR less often, at lower intensity and with a reduced radiation footprint; educating health care providers; informing the public; and establishing radiation-free environments for persons with EHS.
Agencies responsible for assuring disabled persons are included, and welcomed, in their communities and have equal access to necessities and enjoyment of life have provided little support for those suffering with EHS, presumably due to lack of information and/or unintentional, yet nevertheless in appropriate, attitudinal barriers. It is my hope that this document will encourage federal and state agencies, as well as other jurisdictions and decision-makers, to take EHS seriously and to help individuals affected by this physiological condition and to support their families. According to the World Health Organization (2015) the level of severity of EHS is classified as being severe for approximately 10% of individuals who report EHS symptoms. This percentage is likely to increase as more EMF-emitting technologies, such as 5G, mm waves and Internet of Things, are deployed.
Open access paper: https://www.e-discoverypublication.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/JSD18020-final.pdf
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Shielding methods and products against man-made Electromagnetic Fields: Protection versus risk
Panagopoulos DJ, Chrousos GP. Shielding methods and products against man-made Electromagnetic Fields: Protection versus risk. Sci Total Environ. 2019 Feb 23;667:255-262. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.344.

Highlights
• Human exposure to man-made EMFs has increased with increasing health problems.
• Metal shielding is lately suggested by private companies/individuals as a way to reduce exposure.
• Metal shielding reduces both man-made and natural atmospheric EMFs.
• EHS symptom relapses and internal desynchronization are reported after shielding.
• An avoidance strategy of man-made EMFs should be preferable than metal shielding.

Abstract

Human exposure to man-made Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) has increased to unprecedented levels, accompanied by increase in various health problems. A connection has been indicated by an increasing number of studies. Symptoms characterized as Electro-hyper-sensitivity (EHS) are frequently reported especially in urban environments. Lately, people are advised by private companies and individuals to protect themselves from man-made EMFs by metal shielding through various products, for which there are reasonable concerns about their protective efficacy and safety. Indeed, any metal shielding practice, even when correctly applied, attenuates not only man-made totally polarized EMFs accused for the health problems, but also the natural non-polarized EMFs responsible for the biological rhythmicity and well-being of all animals. Strong evidence on this was provided by pioneering experiments in the 1960's and 1970's, with volunteers staying in a shielded underground apartment. We analyze the physical principles of EMF-shielding, the importance of natural atmospheric EMFs, and examine available shielding methods and suggested products, relying on science-based evidence. We suggest that an avoidance strategy is safer than shielding, and provide specific protection tips. We do not reject shielding in general, but describe ways to keep it at a minimum by intermittent use, as this is theoretically safer than extensive permanent shielding. We explain why metallic patches or "chips" or minerals claimed by sellers to be protective, do not seem to make sense and might even be risky. We finally suggest urgent research on the safety and efficacy of shielding methods combined with use of generators emitting weak pulses of similar frequency, intensity, and waveform with the natural atmospheric resonances.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30831365

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Individual variation in temporal relationships between RF exposure & physical symptoms: A new approach in studying 'electrosensitivity'
Bogers RP, van Gils A, Clahsen SCS, Vercruijsse W, van Kamp I, Baliatsas C, Rosmalen JGM, Bolte JFB. Individual variation in temporal relationships between exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and non-specific physical symptoms: A new approach in studying 'electrosensitivity'. Environ Int. 2018 Sep 15;121(Pt 1):297-307. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.064.


Abstract

BACKGROUND: Everyday exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted from wireless devices such as mobile phones and base stations, radio and television transmitters is ubiquitous. Some people attribute non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) such as headache and fatigue to exposure to RF-EMF. Most previous laboratory studies or studies that analyzed populations at a group level did not find evidence of an association between RF-EMF exposure and NSPS.

OBJECTIVES: We explored the association between exposure to RF-EMF in daily life and the occurrence of NSPS in individual self-declared electrohypersensitive persons using body worn exposimeters and electronic diaries.

METHODS: We selected seven individuals who attributed their NSPS to RF-EMF exposure. The level of and variability in personal RF-EMF exposure and NSPS were determined during a three-week period. Data were analyzed using time series analysis in which exposure as measured and recorded in the diary was correlated with NSPS.

RESULTS: We found statistically significant correlations between perceived and actual exposure to wireless internet (WiFi - rate of change and number of peaks above threshold) and base stations for mobile telecommunications (GSM + UMTS downlink, rate of change) and NSPS scores in four of the seven participants. In two persons a higher EMF exposure was associated with higher symptom scores, and in two other persons it was associated with lower scores. Remarkably, we found no significant correlations between NSPS and time-weighted average power density, the most commonly used exposure metric.

CONCLUSIONS: RF-EMF exposure was associated either positively or negatively with NSPS in some but not all of the selected self-declared electrohypersensitive persons.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30227317
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Characteristics of perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the general population
Gruber MJ, Palmquist E, Nordin S. Characteristics of perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the general population. Scand J Psychol. 2018 May 9. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12449.

Abstract

Health problems evoked in the presence of electrical equipment is a concern, calling for better understanding for characteristics of electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in the general population. The present study investigated demographics, lifestyle factors, frequency and duration, coping strategies, proportion meeting clinical criteria for intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated persons with self-reported (n = 91) EHS in comparison to referents (n = 3,250). Middle age, female sex and poor perceived health was found to be associated with EHS. More than 50% in the EHS group reported having EMF-related symptoms more often than once a week, and the mean number of years experiencing EHS was 10.5. More than half of the EHS group reported that their symptoms started after a high-dose or long-term EMF exposure, that they actively tried to avoid EMF sources and that they mostly could affect the EMF environment. A minority of the EHS group had sought medical attention, been diagnosed by a physician or received treatment. Exhaustion syndrome, anxiety disorder, back/joint/muscle disorder, depression, functional somatic syndrome and migraine were comorbid with EHS. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of EHS and or consequences of EHS.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29741795


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Hypersensitivity to electromagnetic waves: research efforts should be scaled up and suitable care provided for the people concerned
French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES), March 27, 2018

Today the Agency is publishing the results of its expert appraisal on hypersensitivity to electromagnetic waves. This work drew on all the available scientific literature, as well as on numerous hearings with hospital and general practitioners, researchers, associations, and the people concerned. The expert appraisal revealed the great complexity of the issue of electrohypersensitivity (EHS), while concluding that according to the current state of knowledge, there is no solid experimental evidence establishing a causal link between exposure to electromagnetic fields and the symptoms described by the people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive. The Agency also emphasised that the suffering and pain expressed by the people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive is a reality of life, requiring them to adapt their daily lives to cope with it. In this context, the Agency recommends providing suitable care for the people concerned and pursuing research work, in particular by setting up studies whose experimental conditions take into account the circumstances of people declaring themselves as EHS.

Radiofrequency electromagnetic waves have been a major health, environmental and societal concern for several years now, in France and abroad. Despite the measures taken to regulate and monitor the levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields, for several decades the scientific literature has regularly reported cases of people suffering from various disorders attributed to exposure to fields emitted by household appliances, electrical facilities and communicating devices.

In this context, the Agency has published several opinions and collective expert appraisal reports, particularly in 2003, 2005, 2009, 2013 and, most recently, in 2016, on the potential health risks of exposure to radiofrequency waves. It also wished to pay due attention to the issue of electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), by devoting a specific in-depth expert appraisal to this subject.

This expert appraisal, whose results are published today, was based on an analysis of the scientific literature and on numerous hearings (with hospital and general practitioners, researchers, associations and the people concerned). It was also supplemented with data based on more than 500 additional comments from scientists and stakeholders, in the framework of the open public consultation that ran from 27 July to 15 October 2016, and which was based on a preliminary expert appraisal report.
Agency conclusions and recommendationsThe Agency's expert appraisal showed the great complexity of the issue of electro-hypersensitivity. First of all, there are currently no validated diagnostic criteria for EHS, and the expert appraisal found that it is only possible to define EHS on the basis of self-reporting by individuals.

The Agency also concluded that the pain and suffering (headaches, sleep, attention and memory disorders, social isolation, etc.) expressed by the people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive is a reality of life, requiring them to adapt their daily lives to cope with it.

The 40 experts, who worked on this expert appraisal for almost four years, investigated many hypotheses in an attempt to understand these symptoms. However, current scientific knowledge shows no cause and effect relationship between the symptoms of people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive and their exposure to electromagnetic waves. Nevertheless, these symptoms, which can have a significant impact on the quality of life of these people, require and warrant suitable care by health and social service players.

To this end, the Agency recommends asking the French National Authority for Health to consider the relevance of formulating recommendations for health professionals to ensure suitable care for people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive. The Agency also recommends developing training for health professionals on the issue of electrohypersensitivity and training for social service professionals in supporting and counselling people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive, as well as taking their questions and expectations into account in their practices and fostering greater coordination between the players involved in their care.

The Agency also recommends continuing research:
  • by strengthening the interactions between scientists and associations of people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive;
  • by supporting the establishment of research infrastructure suitable for investigating EHS, mainly in order to conduct long-term follow-up studies, while ensuring that the experimental conditions are controlled and take into account the circumstances of people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive;
  • by securing long-term funding for research work on the health effects of radiofrequencies.
https://www.anses.fr/en/content/hypersensitivity-electromagnetic-waves-research-efforts-should-be-scaled-and-suitable-care
Report (in French):
https://www.anses.fr/en/system/files/AP2011SA0150Ra.pdf
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Vital Signs with Dr. Sanjay Gupta

Dr. Sanjay Gupta, CNN's Chief Medical Correspondent, has produced a program on Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity which was aired on CNN International and on CNN in the U.S. in October and November, 2017.

You can watch the program online now by viewing the following three videos on the CNN website:

Part 1 (9-minute video): Welcome to the National Quiet Zone - with Diane Schou and Dr. David Carpenter. In a small West Virginia town, a restriction on wireless internet and phone signals provides a refuge to disconnect.
https://cnn.it/2floP7A

Part 2 (7-minute video): Reducing Wireless Exposure - with Dr. Joel Moskowitz, Melissa Chalmers, Kevin Mottus, and Dafna Tachover. As the world becomes more connected, how can you reduce your exposure to electromagnetic fields?
https://cnn.it/2yBjBgB


Part 3 (5-minute video): Living in the National Quiet Zone - with Leo Halepli. What life is like for a young man from Turkey now living in the small town of Green Bank, West Virginia.https://cnn.it/2wgekcD
Note: Dr. Gupta's statement that non-ionizing radiation cannot cause DNA damage is false. The National Toxicology Program found that mice and rats exposed to non-ionizing, cell phone radiation developed DNA damage. Numerous studies have found evidence of DNA damage from exposure to low-intensity radiofrequency radiation (RFR). At least seven published studies have found evidence of DNA damage in humans. The DNA damage may be an indirect effect of the oxidative stress caused by exposure to RFR.
Discussion Questions:
Why doesn't our federal government conduct or fund research on electromagnetic hypersensitivity and other health effects (e.g., cancer, reproductive and neurological damage) associated with exposure to radio frequency radiation? The only major study the government has conducted in the past two decades, the National Toxicology Program study on second-generation (2G) cell phone radiation, was requested by the FDA in 1999 and still has not been finalized.
Why doesn't the Federal Communications Commission update its decades-old guidelines for radio frequency radiation exposure based upon the latest international research that finds biologic and health effects from current levels of exposure to radio frequency radiation?
Related Post:
How does wireless radiation produce harmful health effects?

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Mobile Phone Use and The Risk of Headache: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cross-sectional Studies
Wang J, Su H1, Xie W, Yu S. Mobile Phone Use and The Risk of Headache: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cross-sectional Studies. Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 3;7(1):12595. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-12802-9.

Abstract

Headache is increasingly being reported as a detrimental effect of mobile phone (MP) use. However, studies aimed to investigate the association between MP use and headache yielded conflicting results. To assess the consistency of the data on the topic, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available cross-sectional studies. Published literature from PubMed and other databases were retrieved and screened, and 7 cross-sectional studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. We found that the risk of headache was increased by 38% in MP user compared with non-MP user (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18-1.61, p < 0.001). Among MP users, the risk of headache was also increased in those who had longer daily call duration (2-15 min vs. <2 min: OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.34-1.98, p < 0.001; >15 min vs. <2 min: OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.76-3.54, p < 0.001) and higher daily call frequency (2-4 calls vs. <2 calls: OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-1.76, p < 0.001; >4 calls vs. <2 calls: OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.78-3.58, p < 0.001). Our data indicate that MP use is significantly associated with headache, further epidemiologic and experimental studies are required to affirm and understand this association.


Excerpts
The underlying mechanism of the association between MP use and headache remains unclear but some suggest that breakdown of the blood-brain barrier due to exposure to low intensity MP frequency microwave energy may be involved 33,34,35,36. Also, the dopamine-opiate system may be involved in headaches and low intensity electromagnetic energy exposure affects those systems 37,38,39. However, since Frey's group first reported headaches occurring after microwave energy exposure at approximately the same frequencies and incident energies that present day MP emit40, the exact mechanism under this association is still not fully understood now.

The results of our meta-analysis and lots of previous studies herein supported current clinical opinion that MP use may cause increased risk for headache. Therefore, it is advisable to admit that the use of MP is a risk factor for headache. In Stalin's study 18 and Chiu's study 19, the prevalence of MP usage among adult and children was 69.8% and 63.2% respectively in their study population, and that was only the data from two years ago. We could foresee the prevalence of MP usage will be higher in the future. So it is also advisable to suggest that excessive use of MP should be avoided by increasing social awareness through health promotion activities. It is imperative that health care professionals, clinicians and common people are educated about the deleterious influence of MP on headache. And it is reasonable to instruct children and adolescent about a prudent use of MPs. In addition, we encourage screening of headache patients during routine clinical visits to identify those patients to explore excessive MP use as a potential cause. Intervention and policies must be developed, evaluated and carry out at the population level to raise the awareness of the potential adverse health effect to decrease the headache caused by MP using.

Open Access Paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-12802-9

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Special Issue on Ecopsychology and Environmental Sensitivities: Chemical, Electrical, and Beyond
Ecopsychology, Vol. 9, Issue 2

https://online.liebertpub.com/toc/eco/9/2

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EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment
of EMF-related health problems and illnesses

Belyaev I, Dean A, Eger H, Hubmann G, Jandrisovits R, Kern M, Kundi M, Moshammer H, Lercher P, Müller K, Oberfeld G, Ohnsorge P, Pelzmann P, Scheingraber C, Thill R. EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses.Rev Environ Health. Publ online 2016 Jul 25. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2016-0011.

Abstract


Chronic diseases and illnesses associated with unspecific symptoms are on the rise. In addition to chronic stress in social and work environments, physical and chemical exposures at home, at work, and during leisure activities are causal or contributing environmental stressors that deserve attention by the general practitioner as well as by all other members of the health care community. It seems certainly necessary now to take "new exposures" like electromagnetic field (EMF) into account. Physicians are increasingly confronted with health problems from unidentified causes.

Studies, empirical observations, and patient reports clearly indicate interactions between EMF exposure and health problems. Individual susceptibility and environmental factors are frequently neglected. New wireless technologies and applications have been introduced without any certainty about their health effects, raising new challenges for medicine and society. For instance, the issue of so-called non-thermal effects and potential long-term effects of low-dose exposure were scarcely investigated prior to the introduction of these technologies. Common EMF sources include Wi-Fi access points, routers and clients, cordless and mobile phones including their base stations, Bluetooth devices, ELF magnetic fields from net currents, ELF electric fields from electric lamps and wiring close to the bed and office desk. On the one hand, there is strong evidence that long-term-exposure to certain EMF exposures is a risk factor for diseases such as certain cancers, Alzheimer's disease and male infertility. On the other hand, the emerging electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is more and more recognized by health authorities, disability administrators and case workers, politicians, as well as courts of law.

We recommend treating EHS clinically as part of the group of chronic multisystem illnesses (CMI) leading to a functional impairment (EHS), but still recognizing that the underlying cause remains the environment. In the beginning, EHS symptoms often occur only occasionally, but over time they may increase in frequency and severity. Common EHS symptoms include headaches, concentration difficulties, sleeping problems, depression, lack of energy, fatigue and flu-like symptoms.

A comprehensive medical history, which should include all symptoms and their occurrences in spatial and temporal terms and in the context of EMF exposures, is the key to the diagnosis. The EMF exposure can be assessed by asking for typical sources like Wi-Fi access points, routers and clients, cordless and mobile phones and measurements at home and at work. It is very important to take the individual susceptibility into account.

The primary method of treatment should mainly focus on the prevention or reduction of EMF exposure, that is, reducing or eliminating all sources of EMF at home and in the workplace. The reduction of EMF exposure should also be extended to public spaces such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and libraries to enable persons with EHS an unhindered use (accessibility measure). If a detrimental EMF exposure is reduced sufficiently, the body has a chance to recover and EHS symptoms will be reduced or even disappear. Many examples have shown that such measures can prove effective. Also the survival rate of children with leukemia depends on ELF magnetic field exposure at home.

To increase the effectiveness of the treatment, the broad range of other environmental factors that contribute to the total body burden should also be addressed. Anything that supports a balanced homeostasis will increase a person's resilience against disease and thus against the adverse effects of EMF exposure. There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a major impact on the oxidative and nitrosative regulation capacity in affected individuals. This concept also may explain why the level of susceptibility to EMF can change and why the number of symptoms reported in the context of EMF exposures is so large. Based on our current understanding, a treatment approach that minimizes the adverse effects of peroxynitrite - as has been increasingly used in the treatment of multisystem disorders - works best.

This EMF Guideline gives an overview of the current knowledge regarding EMF-related health risks and provides concepts for the diagnosis and treatment and accessibility measures of EHS to improve and restore individual health outcomes as well as for the development of strategies for prevention.

https://bit.ly/2asNTuj

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Electrohypersensitivity: a functional impairment due to an inaccessible environment
Johansson O. Electrohypersensitivity: a functional impairment due to an inaccessible environment. Rev Environ Health. 2015 Dec 1;30(4):311-21. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0018.

Abstract

In Sweden, electrohypersensitivity is recognized as a functional impairment which implies only the environment as the culprit. The Swedish view provides persons with this impairment a maximal legal protection, it gives them the right to get accessibility measures for free, as well as governmental subsidies and municipality economic support, and to provide them with special Ombudsmen (at the municipality, the EU, and the UN level, respectively), the right and economic means to form disability organizations and allow these to be part of national and international counterparts, all with the simple and single aim to allow persons with the functional impairment electrohypersensitivity to live an equal life in a society based on equality. They are not seen as patients, they do not have an overriding medical diagnosis, but the 'patient' is only the inferior and potentially toxic environment. This does not mean that a subjective symptom of a functionally impaired can not be treated by a physician, as well as get sick-leave from their workplace as well as economic compensation, and already in the year 2000 such symptoms were identified in the Internal Code of Diagnoses, version 10 (ICD-10; R68.8/now W90), and have been since. But the underlying cause still remains only the environment.


https://1.usa.gov/1YFwzkd

Excerpts
The very first case may have been Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856–7 January 1943) a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist, best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. Descriptions of his health status closely resembles what we today would have named electro-hypersensitivity. A surge of similar case reports were also seen during the amateur radio (DX) years.

In more recent times, as early as in the 1970s, a report from the former Soviet Union described a "microwave syndrome". The Soviet military recognized early on the possible side-effects from radar and radio radiation. This microwave syndrome was seen in up to a quarter of the military personnel working with radio and radar equipment. They showed symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, headaches, problems with concentration and memory, sleep disturbances, and being hot tempered. The treatment suggested was a change of assignments and to keep away from exposure. Rest, physical exercise, and nutritious food were also offered (8).

Also in the 1970s the newspaper industry was one of the first to supply it's employees with personal computers using visual display terminals. Complaints of headaches and visual problems, as well as clusters of miscarriages and birth defects in children born to female editors and other newspaper employees, generated some publicity. In addition, many people who worked in the electronics industry in Sweden, including an estimated 12% of the electrical engineers in that industry, became electrically sensitive, and helped form the current Swedish disability organization ...

In the United States, then-Representative Al Gore held Congressional hearings in 1981 on the health effects of computer screens ....

Today the most famous electrohypersensitive person is Gro Harlem Brundtland (20 April 1939), the former Prime Minister of Norway and the former Director General of the UN World Health Organization (WHO).

I and my collaborator, Dr. Shabnam Gangi, in two papers of theoretical nature (27, 28), have put forward a model for how mast cells and substances secreted from them (e.g. histamine, heparin, and serotonin) could explain sensitivity to electromagnetic fields...

When it comes to functional impairments, it is always only action that speaks, nothing else. To ensure that everyone acts within the UN Human Rights Convention is of paramount importance, and that persons with EHS is promptly given complete accessibility is the only acceptable goal, as is proper symptom identification and treatment when possible, but only when asked for by the disabled person Himself/Herself. However, the latter should never be used instead of the first.
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Biomarkers for diagnosing electrohypersensitivity & multiple chemical sensitivity:Two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder
Belpomme D, Campagnac C, Irigaray P. Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder. Rev Environ Health. 2015 Dec 1;30(4):251-71. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0027.
Abstract

Much of the controversy over the causes of electro-hypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) lies in the absence of both recognized clinical criteria and objective biomarkers for widely accepted diagnosis.

Since 2009, we have prospectively investigated, clinically and biologically, 1216 consecutive EHS and/or MCS-self reporting cases, in an attempt to answer both questions. We report here our preliminary data, based on 727 evaluable of 839 enrolled cases: 521 (71.6%) were diagnosed with EHS, 52 (7.2%) with MCS, and 154 (21.2%) with both EHS and MCS. Two out of three patients with EHS and/or MCS were female; mean age (years) was 47. As inflammation appears to be a key process resulting from electromagnetic field (EMF) and/or chemical effects on tissues, and histamine release is potentially a major mediator of inflammation, we systematically measured histamine in the blood of patients. Near 40% had a increase in histaminemia (especially when both conditions were present), indicating a chronic inflammatory response can be detected in these patients. Oxidative stress is part of inflammation and is a key contributor to damage and response. Nitrotyrosin, a marker of both peroxynitrite (ONOO°-) production and opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was increased in 28% the cases. Protein S100B, another marker of BBB opening was increased in 15%. Circulating autoantibodies against O-myelin were detected in 23%, indicating EHS and MCS may be associated with autoimmune response. Confirming animal experiments showing the increase of Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 chaperone proteins under the influence of EMF, we found increased Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 in 33% of the patients. As most patients reported chronic insomnia and fatigue, we determined the 24 h urine 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS)/creatinin ratio and found it was decreased (<0.8) in all investigated cases. Finally, considering the self-reported symptoms of EHS and MCS, we serially measured the brain blood flow (BBF) in the temporal lobes of each case with pulsed cerebral ultrasound computed tomosphygmography. Both disorders were associated with hypoperfusion in the capsulothalamic area, suggesting that the inflammatory process involve the limbic system and the thalamus.

Our data strongly suggest that EHS and MCS can be objectively characterized and routinely diagnosed by commercially available simple tests. Both disorders appear to involve inflammation-related hyper-histaminemia, oxidative stress, autoimmune response, capsulothalamic hypoperfusion and BBB opening, and a deficit in melatonin metabolic availability; suggesting a risk of chronic neurodegenerative disease. Finally the common co-occurrence of EHS and MCS strongly suggests a common pathological mechanism.

https://1.usa.gov/1NEtsXW

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The microwave syndrome or electro-hypersensitivity:
historical background
Carpenter DO. The microwave syndrome or electro-hypersensitivity: historical background. Rev Environ Health. 2015 Nov 10. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0016. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract


Microwave generating equipment first became common during World War 2 with the development of radar. Soviet bloc countries reported that individuals exposed to microwaves frequently developed headaches, fatigue, loss of appetite, sleepiness, difficulty in concentration, poor memory, emotional instability, and labile cardiovascular function, and established stringent exposure standards. For a variety of reasons these reports were discounted in Western countries, where the prevailing belief was that there could be no adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that were not mediated by tissue heating. The reported Soviet effects were at lower intensities than those that cause heating. However, there were several accidental exposures of radar operators in Western countries that resulted in persistent symptoms similar to those described above. The Soviets irradiated the US Embassy in Moscow with microwaves during the period 1953-1975, and while no convincing evidence of elevated cancer rates was reported, there were reports of "microwave illness." Officials passed these complaints off as being due to anxiety, not effects of the microwave exposure. There is increasing evidence that the "microwave syndrome" or "electro-hypersensitivity" (EHS) is a real disease that is caused by exposure to EMFs, especially those in the microwave range. The reported incidence of the syndrome is increasing along with increasing exposure to EMFs from electricity, WiFi, mobile phones and towers, smart meters and many other wireless devices. Why some individuals are more sensitive is unclear. While most individuals who report having EHS do not have a specific history of an acute exposure, excessive exposure to EMFs, even for a brief period of time, can induce the syndrome.

https://1.usa.gov/1HDPOWI

Excerpts

Electro-hypersensitivity (EHS) is a syndrome that may include some or all of the following: excessive fatigue, headache, tinnitus, insomnia, photophobia, a feeling of cognitive dysfunction and impaired memory, irritability, pain at various sites and often cardiovascular abnormalities (1). However, these are all relatively common complaints. All of us have on occasion suffered from headaches and insomnia. Because the symptoms are relatively non-specific, and because the adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is a contentious issue, and also because primary care physicians have no objective diagnostic algorithms by which to diagnose EHS, patients suffering from EHS are often referred to a psychiatrist. There is, however, a body of evidence, both old and more recent, that indicates that these symptoms are triggered by exposure to EMFs in sensitive individuals. This is the case for exposure to both the extra low electromagnetic fields (ELF) coming from electricity and the radiofrequency (RF) EMFs coming from radar, communication devices, WiFi, smart meters and many other forms of wireless devices.
There are conflicting estimates on what percent of the population suffers from EHS, with some suggesting that between 5 and 10% of people have the syndrome, and that the incidence is increasing with time (2). However, there are several reports of tests of individuals taken into a laboratory and their responses recorded when they were unaware of whether or not an EMF field was being applied. Some of these studies have not shown that individuals who report that they are electro-sensitive are in fact able to discern if the EMFs are present or not (3–6). However, these reports are balanced by others that show that at least some individuals do respond with adverse symptoms when exposed to EMFs in a blinded fashion (7, 8). Thus not everyone who believes they are electrosensitive really is, but it is also likely that some have the symptoms of EHS but have not identified the cause. Thus the true incidence of EHS is currently not known.
... the Soviet countries' standard for maximal permissible [EMF] exposure during the workday is 1,000 times lower than that in the US. [0.01 mW/cm2 over an entire workday]

Some of the strongest evidence that EHS is a real syndrome comes from cases of acute high intensity exposure to microwaves of healthy people, which resulted in prolonged illness ....

Recent years have seen a marked increase in overall exposure to EMFs ....There has always been uncertainty over which characteristics of EMFs are most important with regard to human health effects. Because the mechanisms whereby these various adverse health outcomes arise are still not well understood, it is important to ask the question of which components pose the greatest risk, whether or not we are confident of the answer. Frey (36, 37) first suggested that peak power density was more important than average power density. Litovitz et al. (38) concluded that 60 Hz EMFs and RF EMFs do very much the same things, and later studies suggested that the low frequency, modulatory component of RF was particularly important (39). Others have implicated on-off transients, "dirty electricity" and other characteristics of the fields than the steady 50 or 60 Hz fields.

... smart meter RF radiation is significantly different from many other forms of RF, in that it consists of brief but very high intensity pulses. Thus, whereas the average exposure over time is not excessive it appears possible that the high intensity pulses are responsible for the development of EHS. Brief intense pulses have been described as "dirty electricity" by Milham and Morgan (33), who suggest that many of the reported adverse effects of EMFs are due to these brief events, rather than the sine wave forms ...

Conclusion
The weight of evidence indicates that EHS is a real syndrome induced by exposure to either ELF or RF EMF. In some cases it results from a brief, high intensity exposure, whereas in others it appears to reflect ambient exposures, especially those of increasing intensity and perhaps of certain waveforms. Whether from acute high intensity exposure or ambient background exposure from cell towers, mobile phones, smart meters and other devices, it is clear that not everyone develops EHS, for reasons not well understood. Certainly more research is needed to understand exactly which of the components of EMF exposures pose the greatest danger to human health, and what biological mechanisms are responsible. But the important conclusion is that there is something about EMFs of various forms that do pose direct hazards to human health.
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Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS): Fad Allergy, Debilitating Disease, or What?
The National Law Review, Oct 15, 2015
"... electromagnetic hypersensitivity (or "EHS" – sensitivity to radio waves from Wi-Fi routers, cell phones and similar products) is an "allergy" that has recently gotten more mainstream media attention and is also "characterized by a range of non-specific symptoms." The Access Board, which is the federal agency responsible for promulgating accessibility guidelines under the Americans with Disabilities Act, has recognized that "electromagnetic sensitivities may be considered disabilities under the ADA ...."

"The upshot of court rulings to date is that while some courts will overlook the lack of scientific evidence that EHS is caused by exposure to EMF in the context of government benefits, they have not been so accommodating where another individual's (or company's) rights would be adversely affected by a ruling in favor of an EHS plaintiff."
"If EHS becomes as prevalent as "gluten sensitivity," we can expect more EHS sufferers to ask courts to fashion them a remedy. Unlike bread and pasta for the gluten-obsessed, EMF is not something a person can easily avoid. Americans are exposed to EMF on a daily basis, from the likes of garage door openers, cell phones, cordless phones, laptops, tablets, to Wi-Fi routers in their homes, supermarkets, malls and places of work. Radio frequency energy is literally everywhere. While there is no science to support the causation hypothesis, people who believe they have EHS really believe they have a legitimate sensitivity, and many have demonstrable symptoms that are not frivolous. That makes for motivated litigants, which means the courts will probably see more of these cases in the future. But for courts to decide that EHS is something more than a fad allergy, or a psychological manifestation arising from the nocebo effect, they will need controlled scientific studies supporting the case—studies that at the moment do not exist."
Complete article: https://bit.ly/1VUUvg8
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2015 International Scientific Declaration on Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
ARTAC / ECERI Press Release, Sep 4, 2015

Following the fifth Paris Appeal Congress, which took place on the 18th of May, 2015 and focused on environmental hypersensitivities, the attending European, American and Canadian scientists unanimously decided to create a working group and to write a Common International Declaration to request an official recognition of these new diseases and of their sanitary consequences worldwide.

The declaration calls upon national and international bodies and institutions and particularly the World Health Organization, for taking urgently their responsibility for recognizing electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as real diseases, including them in the International Classification of Diseases.

This International Declaration also asks national and international institutions to adopt simple precautionary measures of prevention, to inform populations and requires the appointment of real independent expert groups to evaluate these sanitary risks in total scientific objectivity, which is not the case today.
For the Scientific Committee of the Paris Appeal Fifth Congress:
Pr. David Carpenter, MD (USA)Pr. Lennart Hardell, MD, PhD (Sweden)Pr. Dominique Belpomme, MD, MS (France
Brussels International Scientific Declaration : www.appel-de-paris.com

To download the Declaration: https://bit.ly/ehsDeclarationTo download the Program of the Congress: https://bit.ly/ParisEHSappeal2
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Ex-WHO General-Director Warns: "Wireless Technology has Health Effects There is no Doubt "
YouTube, Aug 20, 2015 (3:20)
On August 14, 2015, retired General-Director of the World Health Organization and former Prime Minister of Norway, Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, was interviewed by the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten.
One issue discussed in the interview was her current thoughts about wireless radiation. Her statement was crystal clear. Watch the relevant clip from the interview here, subtitled in English by Citizens´ Radiation Protection, Norway.

https://bit.ly/1hykTzF
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What does the World Health Organization say about EHS?
The EHS overview on the World Health Organization's web site is nine years old. When will the WHO inform the public about the world-wide program of EMF studies on EHS it is co-ordinating?
Electromagnetic fields and public health: Electromagnetic hypersensitivity

Backgrounder, World Health Organization, December 2005

What WHO is doing
WHO, through its International EMF Project, is identifying research needs and co-ordinating a world-wide program of EMF studies to allow a better understanding of any health risk associated with EMF exposure. Particular emphasis is placed on possible health consequences of low-level EMF. Information about the EMF Project and EMF effects is provided in a series of fact sheets in several languages www.who.int/emf/.
https://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/facts/fs296/en/

Resources
Hypersensitivity to WiFi ... Could it be a disability?
Alexis Kramer. Hypersensitivity to WiFi ... Could it be a disability? Bloomberg BNA. Sep 10, 2015. https://www.bna.com/hypersensitivity-wifi-disability-b17179935773/
On Sept. 1, a federal district court in Florida refused to dismiss an ADA claim based on allegations that an individual experienced insomnia, loud and violent ear ringing and difficulty concentrating as a result of the attachment of a digital meter to his home.
The court said that because these symptoms substantially limited major life activities and derived from "some sort of physical or mental impairment," it could reasonably infer that the plaintiff has a disability.
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Electromagnetic hypersensitivity -- an increasing challenge to the medical profession Hedendahl L, Carlberg M, Hardell L. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity - an increasing challenge to the medical profession. Rev Environ Health. 2015;30(4):209-15.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: In 1970, a report from the former Soviet Union described the "microwave syndrome" among military personnel, working with radio and radar equipment, who showed symptoms that included fatigue, dizziness, headaches, problems with concentration and memory, and sleep disturbances. Similar symptoms were found in the 1980s among Swedes working in front of cathode ray tube monitors, with symptoms such as flushing, burning, and tingling of the skin, especially on the face, but also headaches, dizziness, tiredness, and photosensitivity. The same symptoms are reported in Finns, with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) being attributed to exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Of special concern is involuntary exposure to radiofrequency (RF)-EMF from different sources. Most people are unaware of this type of exposure, which has no smell, color, or visibility. There is an increasing concern that wireless use of laptops and iPads in Swedish schools, where some have even abandoned textbooks, will exacerbate the exposure to EMF.
METHODS: We have surveyed the literature on different aspects of EHS and potential adverse health effects of RF-EMF. This is exemplified by case reports from two students and one teacher who developed symptoms of EHS in schools using Wi-Fi.
RESULTS: In population-based surveys, the prevalence of EHS has ranged from 1.5% in Sweden to 13.3% in Taiwan. Provocation studies on EMF have yielded different results, ranging from where people with EHS cannot discriminate between an active RF signal and placebo, to objectively observed changes following exposure in reactions of the pupil, changes in heart rhythm, damage to erythrocytes, and disturbed glucose metabolism in the brain. The two students and the teacher from the case reports showed similar symptoms, while in school environments, as those mentioned above.
DISCUSSION: Austria is the only country with a written suggestion to guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems. Apart from this, EHS is not recognized as a specific diagnosis in the rest of the world, and no established treatment exists.
CONCLUSION: It seems necessary to give an International Classification of Diseases to EHS to get it accepted as EMF-related health problems. The increasing exposure to RF-EMF in schools is of great concern and needs better attention. Longer-term health effects are unknown. Parents, teachers, and school boards have the responsibility to protect children from unnecessary exposure.
From: The Fifth Congress of the Paris Appeal: Environmental idiopathic intolerance: what role for EMFs and multiple chemicals? 18 May 2015, Brussels, Belgium.

Conclusions
The prevalence of EHS seems to be increasing today, and many people get symptoms when exposed to ELF- and/or RF-EMF. With the ever more extensive use of wireless technologies, nobody can avoid being exposed. It is important to work toward getting objective diagnostic criteria for EHS, and have it recognized and officially accepted as hypersensitivity, an illness caused by exposure to EMF. Thus, it is necessary to give an International Classification of Diseases to EHS. If and when EHS is accepted as a diagnosis by society and the medical profession, measures can be taken especially in consideration for this group of people with EHS regarding healthcare, accommodation, school, and work.
Measurements of exposure to EMF should be performed in classrooms and in school yards during a typical school week. The results must be evaluated in relation to current knowledge of biological effects from EMF exposure. This should lead to a precautionary approach using wired solution of the internet connection, but also reduction of other sources of EMF exposure. This approach should be similar as for control of exposure to other toxic agents such as asbestos and radon emissions. It is time to consider ELF-EMF and RF-EMF as environmental pollutants that need to be controlled.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26372109
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Implications of non-linear biological oscillations on human electrophysiology for EHS and MCS
Sage C. The implications of non-linear biological oscillations on human electrophysiology for electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). Rev Environ Health. 2015 Sep 12.
Abstract
The 'informational content' of Earth's electromagnetic signaling is like a set of operating instructions for human life. These environmental cues are dynamic and involve exquisitely low inputs (intensities) of critical frequencies with which all life on Earth evolved. Circadian and other temporal biological rhythms depend on these fluctuating electromagnetic inputs to direct gene expression, cell communication and metabolism, neural development, brainwave activity, neural synchrony, a diversity of immune functions, sleep and wake cycles, behavior and cognition. Oscillation is also a universal phenomenon, and biological systems of the heart, brain and gut are dependent on the cooperative actions of cells that function according to principles of non-linear, coupled biological oscillations for their synchrony. They are dependent on exquisitely timed cues from the environment at vanishingly small levels. Altered 'informational content' of environmental cues can swamp natural electromagnetic cues and result in dysregulation of normal biological rhythms that direct growth, development, metabolism and repair mechanisms. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR) can have the devastating biological effects of disrupting homeostasis and desynchronizing normal biological rhythms that maintain health. Non-linear, weak field biological oscillations govern body electrophysiology, organize cell and tissue functions and maintain organ systems. Artificial bioelectrical interference can give false information (disruptive signaling) sufficient to affect critical pacemaker cells (of the heart, gut and brain) and desynchronize functions of these important cells that orchestrate function and maintain health. Chronic physiological stress undermines homeostasis whether it is chemically induced or electromagnetically induced (or both exposures are simultaneous contributors). This can eventually break down adaptive biological responses critical to health maintenance; and resilience can be compromised. Electrohypersensitivity can be caused by successive assaults on human bioelectrochemical dynamics from exogenous electromagnetic fields (EMF) and RFR or a single acute exposure. Once sensitized, further exposures are widely reported to cause reactivity to lower and lower intensities of EMF/RFR, at which point thousand-fold lower levels can cause adverse health impacts to the electrosensitive person. Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) can be a precursor to, or linked with, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) based on reports of individuals who first develop one condition, then rapidly develop the other. Similarity of chemical biomarkers is seen in both conditions [histamines, markers of oxidative stress, auto-antibodies, heat shock protein (HSP), melatonin markers and leakage of the blood-brain barrier]. Low intensity pulsed microwave activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) is postulated as a mechanism of action for non-thermal health effects.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26368042
--

Does electromagnetic hypersensitivity originate from nocebo responses? Indications from a qualitative study
Dieudonné M. Does electromagnetic hypersensitivity originate from nocebo responses? Indications from a qualitative study. Bioelectromagnetics. 2015 Sep 15. doi: 10.1002/bem.21937. [Epub ahead of print]
Abstract

Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to Electromagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF) is a condition in which symptoms are attributed to electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. As electro-hypersensitive (EHS) people have repeatedly been observed, during provocation trials, to report symptoms following perceived rather than actual exposure, the hypothesis has been put forward that IEI-EMF originates from psychological mechanisms, especially nocebo responses. This paper examines this hypothesis, using data from a qualitative study aimed at understanding how EHS people come to regard themselves as such.
Forty self-diagnosed EHS people were interviewed.
A typified model of their attribution process was then elaborated, inductively, from their narratives. This model is linear and composed of seven stages: (1) onset of symptoms; (2) failure to find a solution; (3) discovery of EHS; (4) gathering of information about EHS; (5) implicit appearance of conviction; (6) experimentation; (7) conscious acceptance of conviction.
Overall, symptoms appear before subjects start questioning effects of EMF on their health, which is not consistent with the hypothesis that IEI-EMF originates from nocebo responses to perceived EMF exposure. However, such responses might occur at the sixth stage of the process, potentially reinforcing the attribution. It remains possible that some cases of IEI-EMF originate from other psychological mechanisms.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26369906

--Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention
De Luca et al 2014. Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention. Mediators of Inflammation. Volume 2014, Article ID 924184. Open Access https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4000647/pdf/MI2014-924184.pdf
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This West Virginia Town Has Gone Radio Silent: Greetings from the Quiet Zone
Steve Featherstone, Popular Science, Apr 13, 2015.
Excerpts
"According to the World Health Organization (WHO), EHS is not a medical diagnosis, but rather a vague set of symptoms with no apparent physiological basis. Even so, the condition--whatever its cause--appears to be widespread. Olle Johansson, an associate professor of neuroscience at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, says the number of people who claim to have EHS varies by country, from 8 percent of the population in Germany to 3.5 percent, or about 11 million people, in the U.S."
"There are few epidemic diseases this large," Johansson says. "Nowadays, wherever you live, whatever you do, you're whole-body exposed, 24/7.""
"As palpable as Jane's symptoms are to her--and as certain as she is that they're caused by EMR--scientific consensus disagrees. Almost universally, scientists hold that most EMR has no adverse health effects at the levels people typically encounter. And no study has ever definitively linked EHS symptoms to RF radiation, a type of electromagnetic radiation that originates from wireless devices, such as Wi-Fi routers, cellphones, base stations, or Bluetooth antennas. "Health agencies have repeatedly waded through the scientific literature," says Kenneth Foster, professor of bioengineering at the University of Pennsylvania, "and they don't see any clear evidence that there's a problem other than if you put a rat in a microwave oven, it's bad for the rat."
"The only recognized health risk from RF radiation is the heating of tissue (as in the rat in the microwave). In 1996, the Federal Communications Commission adopted a safety standard for RF-emitting devices based on thermal heating. That's why even though the standard is set far below levels recognized to cause harm, wireless companies still recommend not carrying your phone around in your pocket or sleeping with one too close to your head."
"According to Joel Moskowitz, the director of the Center for Family and Community Health at the University of California at Berkeley, the test for the thermal standard is outdated if not irrelevant. "It's not at all reflective of what the average user looks like today and not really of any user anywhere," he says. "It's not even the right measurement." Moskowitz believes that science hasn't caught up with the rapid proliferation of RF-emitting devices--from smartphones to smart meters--that have been spilling radiation into our homes, schools, and workplaces over the past two decades. Electrosensitives may be the proverbial canaries in the coal mine, he says. He cites a growing body of research that suggests RF exposure has many nonthermal biological effects, including damage to sperm cells and changes in brain chemistry.
"There are a lot of unanswered questions, obviously, but we clearly have evidence for precautionary health warnings," Moskowitz says."
"Without an official medical diagnosis, it's difficult for EHS sufferers to claim benefits from insurance companies and government health agencies. Only Sweden recognizes EHS as a functional impairment, equivalent to a disability. But activists are beginning to have an impact on attitudes toward EHS and EMR-related issues, such as the use of wireless networks in public schools. Some day they hope that the medical establishment will treat EHS like other mysterious syndromes, such as fibromyalgia. They won a moral victory in 2011, when the WHO classified RF radiation as "possibly carcinogenic" in response to its Interphone study, which found a 40 percent greater risk for certain brain tumors at the highest exposure levels. (Scientists, however, did not find an increased incidence in cellphone users overall.) Then, in February of this year, France restricted the use of RF devices in daycare centers, citing a precautionary approach to exposure. Those gains aside, few if any studies are taking seriously the issue of EHS, and the inexorable expansion of wireless technologies does not appear to be slowing. Barring a breakdown in relations between electrosensitives and townsfolk or defunding of the GBT, Green Bank will continue to attract technological refugees searching for a safe haven from the electrosmog they feel is smothering the rest of the world." "That's why I call [EHS] technological leprosy," Diane {Schou } said. "We can't be with other people in society. We have to live like lepers. Technology is wonderful stuff--if we aren't harmed by it."
This article was originally published in the April 2015 issue of Popular Science, under the title "Greetings From The Quiet Zone."
To read the entire article: https://bit.ly/1LjN9ml
--
Is a toxicology model appropriate as a guide for biological research with electromagnetic fields?
My comments
The American neuroscientist, Allan H. Frey, published the first scientific paper that documented the microwave hearing effect in 1962. He published the first paper that documented leakage in the blood-brain barrier from exposure to microwave radiation in 1975. In the following letter from 1990, he discussed why the toxicology model is inappropriate for biologic research on electromagnetic fields.
Twenty-five years later, we have yet to fully comprehend this important message.
International guidelines and national regulatory standards assume a dose-response relationship exists between the power of an EMF exposure and the likelihood of a harmful health effect. However, biologic studies are finding harmful effects from sub-thermal exposures to microwave radiation at power levels that are a fraction of the regulatory limits.
Allan H. Frey. Letter to Editor: Is a toxicology model appropriate as a guide for biological research with electromagnetic fields? Journal of Bioelectricity. 9(2):233-234. 1990.
"... most people use a toxicology model as their frame of reference in the selection, funding, design and analysis of experiments. Data and theory show, however, that this is the wrong model (2-4). Thus much of the research has been inappropriate or irrelevant. This is one reason why hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent on EMF biological research with so little return for investment."
" ... living beings are electrochemical systems that use very low frequency EMFs in everything from protein folding through cellular communication to nervous system function."
" ... if we impose a very weak EMF signal on a living being, it has the possibility of interfering with normal function if it is properly tuned. This is the model that much biological data and theory tell us to use, not a toxicology model."
The letter can be viewed at: https://bit.ly/AFrey1990
--
Is There a Connection Between Electrosensitivity and Electrosensibility? A Replication Study
My comments
The electromagnetically sensitive (ES) participants selected for the following study were based upon individuals' responses to a self-reported measure. Most ES participants did not experience severe symptoms so it may be inappropriate to consider them to have electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS).
Like other sham provocation studies, this study assumed that someone with ES knows when they are exposed to an electromagnetic field (EMF) and when they are not. The study protocol assumed that there is no lag between the exposure and the ability to detect the exposure (or the non-exposure).
The study also assumed that all ES participants would be affected by exposure to a 50 Hz magnetic field. However, it is likely that some people who experience ES may be sensitive to certain radio frequency fields, but not ELF magnetic fields.
Despite the questionable assumptions upon which this study was based, the ES participants were significantly (p = .038) more likely to detect an MF exposure than chance would dictate. This result replicated the finding of an earlier study.
--
Is There a Connection Between Electrosensitivity and Electrosensibility? A Replication Study
Szemerszky R, Gubányi M, Árvai D, Dömötör Z, Köteles F. Is There a Connection Between Electrosensitivity and Electrosensibility? A Replication Study. Int J Behav Med. 2015 Mar 17. [Epub ahead of print]
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Among people with idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF), a better than random detection ability for a 50-Hz 0.5-mT magnetic field (MF) and a propensity to experience more symptoms than controls was reported in a previous study.
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to replicate and clarify these results using a modified experimental design.
METHOD: Participants of the provocation experiment were 49 individuals with self-reported IEI-EMF and 57 controls. They completed the questionnaires (symptom expectations, Somatosensory Amplification Scale-SSAS, radiation subscale of the Modern Health Worries Scale-MHWS Radiation) and attempted to detect the presence of the MF directed to their right arm in 20 subsequent 1-min sessions. Symptom reports were registered after each session.
RESULTS: Individuals with IEI-EMF as opposed to the control group showed a higher than random detection performance (d' index of signal detection theory), while no difference in their bias (β index) toward the presence of the MF was found. Predictors of reported symptoms were self-reported IEI-EMF and believed as opposed to actual presence of the MF. People with IEI-EMF reported significantly more symptoms particularly in the believed presence of the MF. IEI-EMF was closely related to MHWS Radiation and SSAS scores.
CONCLUSION: People with IEI-EMF might be able to detect the presence of the MF to a small extent; however, their symptom reports are connected to perceived exposure.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25778471
--
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: EESC urges continuance of the precautionary principle through regulation and advisory work (Ref: 06/2015)
Press Release, European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), Jan 23, 2015
At its January plenary session, the EESC adopted an opinion on electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome (EHS) which recognises the distress being suffered by people in Europe who believe they are affected. The opinion, which was adopted by 136 votes to 110 with 19 abstentions, calls for sympathetic and appropriate treatment and support for this condition.

Although the EESC opinion says that radiofrequency exposure is not causally linked to EHS symptoms, it urges continuance of the precautionary principle through regulation and advisory work, particularly as further research is still needed to accumulate evidence concerning any potential health impact from long-term exposure.
The EESC opinion on electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome points out that further substantial research is ongoing to understand the problem and its causes. It also notes that the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) has performed an extensive analysis of this issue and will shortly be completing its latest opinion which draws on a broad public consultation. The opinion will soon be adopted and will be published on the SCENIHR website (https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/emerging/index_en.htm).
https://bit.ly/1BAvqz9
--
Public Hearing on Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity
Between 3 and 5 per cent of the population are electrosensitive according to the European Economic and Social Committee.
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is causing distress and loss of quality of life to a growing number of Europeans and according to new estimates, between 3 % and 5% of the population are electro-sensitive. The most common sources of Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) pollution are mobile phone masts, cordless phones and Wi-Fi routers installed in the homes. All these emit microwaves permanently (24/7) in the places where they are installed.
The European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) study group on electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) will hold a public Hearing on EHS on Tuesday, November 4, 2014 in Brussels, Belgium.

This event will gather all relevant stakeholders from a broad range of European civil society for a debate on how to deal with this issues at EU level and to give input for the future EESC's opinion that is scheduled for adoption in January 2015.
The EESC is a consultative body of the European Union that gives representatives of Europe's socio-occupational interest groups and others, a formal platform to express their points of views on EU issues.
https://bit.ly/1tFQcLd
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EESC opinion: Exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields)European Economic and Social Committee, Dec 7, 2011
Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields)
Key points
  • The EESC recommends that this directive be adopted and implemented in the legislation of Member States as soon as possible.
  • However, the Committee is in favour of a precautionary approach being adopted without delay, given the risks of the non-thermal biological effects of emissions from electromagnetic fields. The long-term health of workers must be completely guaranteed at a high level through the introduction of the best available technologies at economically acceptable costs. The Committee expects a relevant provision to be incorporated into the directive.
  • The EESC supports the Commission's initiative to fix thresholds so as to make this precautionary approach effective and credible; however, to ensure that this is absolutely effective it advocates fixed thresholds based on the thresholds applied when Directive 2004/40/EC was transposed (by Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Italy).
  • The Committee stresses the need to strengthen the independence of scientific bodies involved in determining thresholds for workers' exposure to electromagnetic radiation, its effects and its consequences for public health, and in establishing measures to protect the health of workers exposed to this radiation. It is essential to put a stop to conflicts of interest among members of these bodies, linked to the financing of their research and their appointment (procedures and calls for tender, use of independent public research institutes).
  • The Committee concedes the need for a derogation for professions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for medical purposes, which should however be subject to a time limit and accompanied by additional resources for research into new technologies to protect workers from the effects of electromagnetic fields and alternative techniques. Workers subject to the derogation should be covered by enhanced measures to protect them, special medical supervision and civil liability insurance to cover errors in the execution of their work arising from strong exposure to electromagnetic fields. The Committee also feels that the above-mentioned principles should be applied not only to medical workers, but also to all other workers who may be excluded from the general principles of the directive on the basis of the derogation included in Article 3 of the proposal.
--
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: EESC urges continuance of the precautionary principle through regulation and advisory work (Ref: 06/2015)
Press Release, European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), Jan 23, 2015
At its January plenary session, the EESC adopted an opinion on electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome (EHS) which recognises the distress being suffered by people in Europe who believe they are affected. The opinion, which was adopted by 136 votes to 110 with 19 abstentions, calls for sympathetic and appropriate treatment and support for this condition.

Although the EESC opinion says that radiofrequency exposure is not causally linked to EHS symptoms, it urges continuance of the precautionary principle through regulation and advisory work, particularly as further research is still needed to accumulate evidence concerning any potential health impact from long-term exposure.
The EESC opinion on electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome points out that further substantial research is ongoing to understand the problem and its causes. It also notes that the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) has performed an extensive analysis of this issue and will shortly be completing its latest opinion which draws on a broad public consultation. The opinion will soon be adopted and will be published on the SCENIHR website (https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/emerging/index_en.htm).
https://bit.ly/1BAvqz9
--
Public Hearing on Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity
Between 3 and 5 per cent of the population are electrosensitive according to the European Economic and Social Committee.
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is causing distress and loss of quality of life to a growing number of Europeans and according to new estimates, between 3 % and 5% of the population are electro-sensitive. The most common sources of Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) pollution are mobile phone masts, cordless phones and Wi-Fi routers installed in the homes. All these emit microwaves permanently (24/7) in the places where they are installed.
The European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) study group on electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) will hold a public Hearing on EHS on Tuesday, November 4, 2014 in Brussels, Belgium.

This event will gather all relevant stakeholders from a broad range of European civil society for a debate on how to deal with this issues at EU level and to give input for the future EESC's opinion that is scheduled for adoption in January 2015.
The EESC is a consultative body of the European Union that gives representatives of Europe's socio-occupational interest groups and others, a formal platform to express their points of views on EU issues.
https://bit.ly/1tFQcLd

--
EESC opinion: Exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields)
European Economic and Social Committee, Dec 7, 2011
Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields)
Key points
  • The EESC recommends that this directive be adopted and implemented in the legislation of Member States as soon as possible.
  • However, the Committee is in favour of a precautionary approach being adopted without delay, given the risks of the non-thermal biological effects of emissions from electromagnetic fields. The long-term health of workers must be completely guaranteed at a high level through the introduction of the best available technologies at economically acceptable costs. The Committee expects a relevant provision to be incorporated into the directive.
  • The EESC supports the Commission's initiative to fix thresholds so as to make this precautionary approach effective and credible; however, to ensure that this is absolutely effective it advocates fixed thresholds based on the thresholds applied when Directive 2004/40/EC was transposed (by Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Italy).
  • The Committee stresses the need to strengthen the independence of scientific bodies involved in determining thresholds for workers' exposure to electromagnetic radiation, its effects and its consequences for public health, and in establishing measures to protect the health of workers exposed to this radiation. It is essential to put a stop to conflicts of interest among members of these bodies, linked to the financing of their research and their appointment (procedures and calls for tender, use of independent public research institutes).
  • The Committee concedes the need for a derogation for professions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for medical purposes, which should however be subject to a time limit and accompanied by additional resources for research into new technologies to protect workers from the effects of electromagnetic fields and alternative techniques. Workers subject to the derogation should be covered by enhanced measures to protect them, special medical supervision and civil liability insurance to cover errors in the execution of their work arising from strong exposure to electromagnetic fields. The Committee also feels that the above-mentioned principles should be applied not only to medical workers, but also to all other workers who may be excluded from the general principles of the directive on the basis of the derogation included in Article 3 of the proposal.
--
Study of self-reported hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields in California
Levallois P, Neutra R, Lee G, Hristova L. Study of self-reported hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields in California. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Aug;110 Suppl 4:619-23.
Abstract
Cases of alleged hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been reported for more than 20 years, and some authors have suggested some connection with the "multiple chemical sensitivity" illness. We report the results of a telephone survey among a sample of 2,072 Californians. Being "allergic or very sensitive" to being near electrical devices was reported by 68 subjects, resulting in an adjusted prevalence of 3.2% (95% confidence interval = 2.8, 3.7). Twenty-seven subjects (1.3%) reported sensitivity to electrical devices but no sensitivity to chemicals. Characteristics of the people reporting hypersensitivity to EMFs were generally different from those of people reporting being allergic to everyday chemicals. Alleging environmental illness or multiple chemical sensitivity diagnosed by a doctor was the strongest predictor of reporting being hypersensitive to EMFs in this population. Other predictive factors apart from self-reporting chemical sensitivity were race/ethnicity other than White, Black, or Hispanic; having low income; and being unable to work. The perception of risk of exposure to EMFs through the use of hair dryers (vs. exposure to power and distribution lines) was the factor the most associated with self-reporting about hypersensitivity to EMFs. However, risk perception was not sufficient to explain the characteristics of people reporting this disorder.
Open Access Paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241215/
Additional Resources
Updated: March 2022Andrianome et al. Increasing levels of saliva alpha amylase in electrohypersensitive (EHS) patients.Int J Radiat Biol. 2017 Aug;93(8):841-848. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28466664
Anonymous. Testimony from an internist about her two electrosensitive children to the Joint Committee on Education, Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Sep 4, 2017. https://bit.ly/MDtestifyMass
Belpomme, D. "Diagnosing, treating and preventing the electromagnetic fields impact on adults and children." 2nd international forum on protection from electromagnetic environmental pollution. Protection of children. Krakow, Poland. Nov 27, 2017. (46 minute video). https://bit.ly/EHSBelpomme2017
Bevington, M. The Prevalence of People with Restricted Access to Work in Manmade Electromagnetic Environments. Journal of Environment and Health Science. 2019. doi: org/10.15436/2378-6841.19.2402. https://bit.ly/3EuDJ60
Bray, R. Trials and trends in caring for patients with electromagnetic hypersensitivity at Ontario's Environmental Health Clinic. WSF Montreal. Aug 13 2016. https://maisonsaine.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/ehs-bray-13-08-2016.pdf
De Luca et al 2014. Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention. Mediators of Inflammation. Volume 2014, Article ID 924184. Open Access: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4000647/pdf/MI2014-924184.pdf
Ekici B, Tanındı A, Ekici G, Diker E. The effects of the duration of mobile phone use on heart rate variability parameters in healthy subjects. Anatol J Cardiol. 2016 Apr 7. https://bit.ly/1Wo9na9.
Environmental Health Trust. Electromagnetic Sensitivity. https://bit.ly/EHTehs
Genuis SJ, Lipp CT. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction. Sci Tot Environ. 2012 Jan 1;414:103-12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22153604
Hardell L, Koppel T. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity close to mobile phone base stations – a case study in Stockholm, Sweden. Rev Environ Health. 2022 Mar 2. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2021-0169. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/reveh-2021-0169/html
Heuser G, Heuser SA. Functional brain MRI in patients complaining of electrohypersensitivity after long term exposure to electromagnetic fields. Rev Environ Health. 2017 Jul 5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28678737
Hojo S, Tokiya M, Mizuki M et al. Development and evaluation of an electromagnetic hypersensitivity questionnaire for Japanese people. Bioelectromagnetics. Jun 21, 2016. https://bit.ly/28KvYuF
Hojo S, Mizukoshi A, Azuma K, Okumura J, Ishikawa S et al. Survey on changes in subjective symptoms, onset/trigger factors, allergic diseases, and chemical exposures in the past decade of Japanese patients with multiple chemical sensitivity. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Aug 13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30115513
Johansson O, Redmayne M. Exacerbation of demyelinating syndrome after exposure to wireless modem with public hotspot. Case report. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Jun 29, 2016. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378.2015.1107839
Lai, H. Electrohypersensitivity Abstracts. Dec 14, 2017. (Over 100 abstracts of scientific studies on EHS published between 1995 and 2017). https://bit.ly/LaiEHSabstracts
Leszczynski D. Brief report on EHS provocation studies. Feb 11, 2018. https://bit.ly/2o22pMy
Maisch D. Commentary: The sad state of affairs with EHS research in Australia. Between a Rock and a Hard Place. Nov 5, 2017. https://bit.ly/2AroQjF
Marshall TG, Heil TJR. Electrosmog and Autoimmune Disease. Immunol Res. Jul 13, 2016. Open Access: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12026-016-8825-7
Medeiros LN, Sanchez TG. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation.Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology. 82(1):97-104. 2016. Open Access: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26602000
Milner C. Tuning in to Microwave Sickness: How wireless technology can trigger a devastating illness. Epoch Times, May 23, 2019. https://www.theepochtimes.com/tuning-in-to-microwave-sickness_2925499.html
Palmquist E, Claeson AS, Neely G, Stenberg B, Nordin S. Overlap in prevalence between various types of environmental intolerance. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014; 217(4-5):427-34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24029726
Raefsky et al. Delayed-Onset multiphasic demyelinating lesions after high dose radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure: A multiple sclerosis (MS) micmic. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Jun 20;45:102318. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32622299/
Rea WJ. Wireless pollution: The epidemic of the 21st century. video: 24 mins. https://manhattanneighbors.org/rea/
Rea WJ, Pan Y, Fenyves EJ, Sujisawa, Suyama H, Samadi N, Ross GH. Electromagnetic field sensitivity. J Bioelectricity 1991; 10 (1-2): 241-256. Open Access: https://www.aehf.com/articles/em_sensitive.html
Slottje P, van Moorselaar I, van Strien R, Vermeulen R, Kromhout H, Huss A. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in occupational and primary health care: A nation-wide survey among general practitioners, occupational physicians and hygienists in the Netherlands. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2016 Dec 2. pii: S1438-4639(16)30385-6. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1438463916303856
Tatoń G, Kacprzyk A, Rok T, Pytlarz M, Pawlak R, Rokita E. A survey on electromagnetic hypersensitivity: the example from Poland. Electromagn Biol Med. 2021 Oct 22;1-8. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2021.1995873. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34686066/

Terzi, M, Ozberk, B, Deniz, OG, Kaplan, S. The role of electromagnetic fields in neurological disorders. J Chem Neuroanat. 2016 Sep;75(Pt B):77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2016.04.003. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27083321
Yakymenko I. Nikola Tesla, you and electro-sensitivity. June 30, 2017. https://bit.ly/2vCW8Kx
EHS Support Groups and ResourcesCanadians for Safe Technology. Electromagnetic Sensitivity. https://c4st.org/electrosensitivity/
D'Agnolo L. Are "Wi-Fi Allergies" an Impairment Covered by the ADA? National Law Review. June 21, 2017. https://bit.ly/2rEx0AD
The Electrosensitive Society. https://www.electrosensitivesociety.com/
Harkinson J. This Former Techie Owes His Fortune to Electronic Devices. Now He Thinks They're Dangerous. Mother Jones. 2017 Jan 28. https://bit.ly/2k3O5kt

Jolie Talks. https://www.jolietalks.com/
Physicians for Safe Technology. https://mdsafetech.org/problems/electro-sensitivity/
Wireless Technology Injury Advocacy Group. https://wearetheevidence.org/
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
20.9.2022 21:05

Recent Research on WiFi Effects


Recent Research on the Effects of Exposure to Wi-Fi Radiation(Updated Aug 1, 2021)

For a list of more than 60 research studies that found adverse biologic or health effects from Wi-Fi or microwave radiation using similar frequencies as Wi-Fi, see a website maintained by scientists in the United Kingdom. Also see my WiFi Resource List.
Recent Review Papers
Adverse effects of Wi-Fi radiation on male reproductive system: A systematic review
Jaffar FHF, Osman K, Ismail NH, Chin KY, Ibrahim SF. Adverse Effects of Wi-Fi Radiation on Male Reproductive System: A Systematic Review. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2019;248(3): 169-179. doi: 10.1620/tjem.248.169.

Abstract

Extensive use of Wi-Fi has contributed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) pollution in environment. Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter on male reproduction health. However, there are conflicting findings between studies. Thus, this review aims to elucidate the possible effects of 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi exposure on both animal and human male reproductive system. A computerized database search performed through MEDLINE via Ovid and PUBMED with the following set of keywords: 'Wi-Fi or WiFi or wireless fidelity or Wi-Fi router or WiFi router or electromagnetic or radiofrequency radiation' AND 'sperm or spermatozoa or spermatogenesis or semen or seminal plasma or testes or testis or testosterone or male reproduction' had returned 526 articles. Only 17 studies conformed to pre-set inclusion criterion. Additional records identified through Google Scholar and reviewed article further revealed six eligible articles. A total of 23 articles were used for data extraction, including 15 studies on rats, three studies on mice, and five studies on human health. Sperm count, motility and DNA integrity were the most affected parameters when exposed to RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter. Unfortunately, sperm viability and morphology were inconclusive. Structural and/or physiological analyses of the testes showed degenerative changes, reduced testosterone level, increased apoptotic cells, and DNA damage. These effects were mainly due to the elevation of testicular temperature and oxidative stress activity. In conclusion, exposure towards 2.45 GHz RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter is hazardous on the male reproductive system.

Open access paper: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/248/3/248_169/_article


Review: Biological and pathological effects of 2.45 GHz radiation
on cells, fertility, brain, and behavior
Wilke I. Review: Biological and pathological effects of 2.45 GHz radiation on cells, fertility, brain, and behavior. umwelt • medizin • gesellschaft. 2018; 31 (1) Suppl: 1-32. 2018. (English translation)
Abstract
Purpose: This article is a systematic review of studies on the effects of non-ionizing radiation at the microwave (MW) frequency of 2.45 GHz (2450 MHz), which is predominantly used in WLAN/Wi-Fi applications (wireless local area network) and microwave ovens. Newer WLAN standards also use the frequency ranges of 5 GHz, 6 GHz, and 60 GHz. WLAN, referred to generically in this review also as Wi-Fi, has become the technology of choice for many wireless applications because providers do not require a license, making the service free to users. To meet users' desire to be online all the time, more and more WLAN antennas (access points, femtocells, routers) emitting pulsed 2.45 GHz radiation are being installed at libraries, hospitals, hotels, airports, railway stations, shopping malls, public places, and in buses, subways, and passenger trains. Wi-Fi consoles are used to play games. Office and household appliances are also fitted with Wi-Fi antennas. Residential routers often contain two Wi-Fi transmitters. As part of its digital learning initiative, the German Conference of Ministers of Education has decided to provide all schools with Wi-Fi networks. The extensive body of research on the health risks of Wi-Fi radiation is generally not considered by policy-makers or in the public debate.
Method: For this review, primarily the databases LIVIVO (ZBMED) and PubMed were searched for studies, without limiting the publication date range. The selected studies have all been published in peer-reviewed journals.
Result: More than 100 studies on 2.45 GHz radiation were analyzed, most of which found changes compared to the control groups at levels below the safety guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) (issued as exposure limits of the 26th Federal Pollution Control Ordinance (BImSchV) in Germany). The available studies document damage to the reproductive system, impacts on the EEG and brain functions, as well as effects on the heart, liver, thyroid, gene expression, cell cycle, cell membranes, bacteria, and plants. As a mechanism of action, many studies identify oxidative stress. Adverse effects on learning, memory, attention, and behavior are the result of cytotoxic effects.
Conclusions: Based on the extensive body of research and the adverse health effects demonstrated in the majority of the studies, it is recommended that steps should be taken to minimize RF radiation exposure in accordance with official recommendations. Wired solutions should be given preference. Current exposure limits and SAR values do not protect from health risks associated with Wi-Fi radiation. The adverse effects on learning, attention, and behavior serve as a basis for educational institutions of all age groups to forgo the use of Wi-Fi applications. Due to cytotoxic effects, Wi-Fi technologies are not suitable for hospitals and telemedicine. Wi-Fi technologies should not be used in bedrooms, work spaces, common lounges, hospital rooms, lecture halls, classrooms, and public transport. The possible risks associated with Wi-Fi radiation could be avoided by testing alternative technologies at other frequency bands like optical VLC/Li-Fi technologies (visible light communication). When Wi-Fi cannot be avoided as a transition solution, the ALARA principle must be applied: no continuous transmission, instead Wi-Fi networks that can be turned off and feature dynamic power management.
Discussion and conclusions
This overview shows that effects of 2.45 GHz radiation have been found by different research teams, repeatedly, in different study objects, and at different exposure levels. A broad spectrum of issues has been investigated such as the effects of 2.45 GHz radiation emitted by a Wi-Fi router on the release of mercury from amalgam fillings. The mercury levels were significantly increased (Paknahad et al. 2016).
To date, there are a few long-term studies, very few in humans and even fewer epidemiological studies, apart from the studies on laptops with small numbers of study subjects. It is also far too early to generate reliable figures at this time. However, there are indications that especially newborns, children, or adolescents are particularly vulnerable as has been presented in detail by the research teams of Nazıroglu, Atasoy, Margaritis/ Panagopoulos, Orendacova, Othmann, Ozorak, Sangun, Shahin and Yuksel. The experiments were carried out with rats or mice, in some cases as long-term studies (up to 1 year). In this context, it is important to note that rats and mice used in laboratories have a life expectancy of perhaps two years. This at least allows us to infer that human children and adolescents have to be protected from possible increased risks. In the study of Margaritis et al. (2014), the authors point out that the exposure levels from Bluetooth (0.3 V/m) and Wi-Fi routers (here 2.1 V/m) showed greater effects than cell phone radiation sources with much higher field strengths. This may coincide with the findings of the papers by von Klitzing, which stated that the power-dependent pulse of 10 Hz (1 ms) from Wi-Fi routers triggered reactions. Kumari et al. observed in a study from 2012 that higher levels of ROS in the liver suppress antioxidant enzymes and that lower levels cause an increase. This could be a key to further mechanisms as to how or whether tissue damage occurs or perhaps not. Likewise, the polarization of RF radiation (Meena et al. 2014, Panagopoulos et al. 2015) should also receive additional attention.
This review presents the findings of more than 100 studies that were published in reputable scientific journals. Most of these studies confirm potential health impacts as were summarized in the joint "Nicosia Declaration on Electromagnetic and Radiofrequency Radiation" by the Cyprus and Austrian medical associations in 2017: "Potential health impacts of non-ionizing radiation from EMF/RF (electromagnetic fields/radiofrequencies) of 30 KHz – 300 GHz include carcinogenicity (Class B, IARC 2011), developmental neurotoxicity, effects on DNA, fertility, hypersensitivity and other serious effects are well documented in peer reviewed studies. RFR can increase oxidative stress in cells and lead to increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines and lower capacity to repair DNA single- and double-strand breaks. Cognitive impairments in learning and memory have also been shown. These effects can occur at levels well below existing limits of ICNIRP. ... Exposure to EMF/RF at an early developmental stage is of particular concern due, amongst other, to greater absorption and potential effects on the developing developing brain, nervous system as well as their reproductive system, may induce cancer, cognitive effects, etc." (www.diagnose-funk.org/publikationen/artikel/detail&newsid=1242and www.cyprus-child-environment.org/easyconsole.cfm/id/428).
The potential health impact of Wi-Fi, even at low exposure levels, can no longer be called into question or relativized away, not even by those studies that found no effects. The decision-makers in government, school boards, and health agencies have a responsibility to deal with the available body of research and not to be deceived by the arguments of the industry lobby or boilerplates of government institutions. Health risks are a reality. It would be particularly important to carry out further research regarding the effects on the brain and young people. The application of the precautionary principle, which is recognized in all European countries, only allows for one conclusion: Wi-Fi must not be used continuously and close to the human body. I is no coincidence that the user guide of the Telekom Wi-Fi router states: "The integrated antennas of your Speedport transmit and receive wireless signals, for example, to provide Wi-Fi connectivity. Avoid placing your Speedport in close proximity to bedrooms, children's rooms, as well as common rooms and lounges to keep the exposure to electromagnetic field as low as possible." In their joint appeal with regard to Wi-Fi, the Cyprus and Austrian medical associations call on decision-makers to "promote age-related rational application of digital technology and not allow at schools, particular at preschool, kindergarten and elementary schools wireless networks and opt for wired connections" (ibid). Lawmakers are called upon to adjust protective legislation to the current state of research and to support research into alternatives to Wi-Fi such as VLC technologies (visible light communication, Li-Fi).
https://www.diagnose-funk.org/publikationen/artikel/detail&newsid=1256
The scientific journal umwelt · medizin · gesellschaft addresses environmental medicine topics on a scientific basis--and their interdependence with today's society. The specialist journal reports on the latest medical findings and examines ecologically explosive, socially relevant topics. The UMG magazine is the official association organ of the environmental and medical associations dbu, DEGUZ, DGUHT, EUROPAEM, IGUMED, KMT and ÖÄB.

Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health


Pall ML. Wi-Fi is an important threat to human health. Environ Res. 164:405-416. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.035
Abstract

Repeated Wi-Fi studies show that Wi-Fi causes oxidative stress, sperm/testicular damage, neuropsychiatric effects including EEG changes, apoptosis, cellular DNA damage, endocrine changes, and calcium overload. Each of these effects are also caused by exposures to other microwave frequency EMFs, with each such effect being documented in from 10 to 16 reviews. Therefore, each of these seven EMF effects are established effects of Wi-Fi and of other microwave frequency EMFs. Each of these seven is also produced by downstream effects of the main action of such EMFs, voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. While VGCC activation via EMF interaction with the VGCC voltage sensor seems to be the predominant mechanism of action of EMFs, other mechanisms appear to have minor roles. Minor roles include activation of other voltage-gated ion channels, calcium cyclotron resonance and the geomagnetic magnetoreception mechanism.

Five properties of non-thermal EMF effects are discussed. These are that pulsed EMFs are, in most cases, more active than are non-pulsed EMFs; artificial EMFs are polarized and such polarized EMFs are much more active than non-polarized EMFs; dose-response curves are non-linear and non-monotone; EMF effects are often cumulative; and EMFs may impact young people more than adults.

These general findings and data presented earlier on Wi-Fi effects were used to assess the Foster and Moulder (F&M) review of Wi-Fi. The F&M study claimed that there were seven important studies of Wi-Fi that each showed no effect. However, none of these were Wi-Fi studies, with each differing from genuine Wi-Fi in three distinct ways. F&M could, at most conclude that there was no statistically significant evidence of an effect. The tiny numbers studied in each of these seven F&M-linked studies show that each of them lack power to make any substantive conclusions.

In conclusion, there are seven repeatedly found Wi-Fi effects which have also been shown to be caused by other similar EMF exposures. Each of the seven should be considered, therefore, as established effects of Wi-Fi.

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935118300355?via%3Dihub



Recent Studies

2.45 GHz microwave radiation induced oxidative stress: Role of inflammatory cytokines in regulating male fertility through estrogen receptor alpha in Gallus gallus domesticus
Gupta V, Srivastava R. 2.45 GHz microwave radiation induced oxidative stress: Role of inflammatory cytokines in regulating male fertility through estrogen receptor alpha in Gallus gallus domesticus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Sep 8;629:61-70. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2022.09.009.

Abstract
Due to the growing number of gadgets emitting electromagnetic radiation (EMR), particularly microwave (MW) radiation, in our daily lives, it is believed that EMR have both long-term and short-term biological impacts that are quite concerning for avian as well as human health. Due to the negative impact of MW emitting equipment on the biological system this study looks into the mechanistic approach by which low-level of 2.45 GHz MW radiation causes an oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the testes micro-environment which further gets regulated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) expression in immature Gallus gallus domesticus leading to male infertility. Two weeks old immature male chickens were exposed to non-thermal low-level 2.45-GHz MW radiation for 2 h/day for 30 days (power density = 0.1264 mw/cm2 and SAR = 0.9978 W/kg). In the exposed group, morphometric examination of the testes revealed decreased testicular weight, volume and gonado-somatic index. Further, histological staining demonstrated a substantial reduction in the diameter of seminiferous tubules in the exposed group as compared to the control. The degree of oxidative stress was also determined showing an increase in oxidative stress parameters after exposure. The radiation exposed testes showed a significant increase in IL-1β immunoreactivity and decline in IL-10 immunoreactivity, indicating a sense of MW radiation-induced oxidative stress-regulated inflammatory response. A substantial reduction in ERα expression was also observed in exposed testes by Western blotting. Our investigations conclude that testes being vulnerable to free radical damage become an easy target organ for MW exposure induced oxidative and inflammatory stress. Therefore it becomes evident that it may cause male infertility in chicks via downregulation of ER-α in testis.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36113179/
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Hepatic injury induced by radio frequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices in Wistar rats

H M Fahmy, F F Mohammed. Hepatic injury induced by radio frequency waves emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices in Wistar rats. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2020 Aug 7;960327120946470. doi: 10.1177/0960327120946470.

Abstract

In this study, the impact of standard 2.45 GHz radio frequency source (averaged whole-body specific absorption rate 0.01 W kg-1 24 h-1 daily for 40 consecutive days) on the liver of Wistar female rats was investigated. The rats were randomly divided into control and Wi-Fi-exposed groups. At the end of the exposure, liver samples were dissected from rats. Rats' livers were inspected through the evaluation of some oxidative stress parameters and the evaluation of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase levels as well as through the molecular investigation using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Histopathological examination in addition to ultrastructure examination was also performed. The present data revealed that Wi-Fi exposure leads to severe oxidative stress in the rat liver. Furthermore, Wi-Fi exposure resulted in deleterious effects in the liver function and alters its molecular structure. Moreover, severe histological and ultrastructural alterations are reported in the hepatic tissues points to hepatotoxic effects induced by Wi-Fi exposure. In conclusion, care must be taken when using Wi-Fi emitting devices due to their severe impact on the liver. Public awareness of the need to decrease exposure time and increase the distance from Wi-Fi exposure sources must be raised wherever possible.


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32762465/
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Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz) affects anti-oxidant capacity, DNA repair genes expression and, apoptosis in pregnant mouse placenta

Homeira Vafaei, Ghazal Kavari, Hamid Reza Izadi, Zahra Zare Dorahi, Mehdi Dianatpour, Afrooz Daneshparvar, Iman Jamhiri. Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz) affects anti-oxidant capacity, DNA repair genes expression and, apoptosis in pregnant mouse placenta. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2020 Jun;23(6):833-840. doi: 10.22038/ijbms.2020.40184.9512.

Abstract

Objectives: The placenta provides nutrients and oxygen to embryo and removes waste products from embryo's blood. As far as we know, the effects of exposure to Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz) signals on placenta have not been evaluated. Hence, we examined the effect of prenatal exposure to Wi-Fi signals on anti-oxidant capacity, expressions of CDKNA1, and GADD45a as well as apoptosis in placenta and pregnancy outcome.

Materials and methods: Pregnant mice were exposed to Wi-Fi signal (2.4 GHz) for 2 and 4 hr. Placenta tissues were examined to measure the MDA and SOD levels. To measure SOD, CDKNA1, GADD45a, Bax, and Bcl-2 expressions were compared by real-time PCR analysis. TUNEL assay was used to assess apoptosis in placenta tissues. The results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Prism version 6.0 software.

Results: MDA and SOD levels had significantly increased in exposed Wi-Fi signal groups (P-value< 0.05). Also, quantitative PCR experiment showed that SOD mRNA expression significantly increased in Wi-Fi signal groups. The data showed that CDKN1A and GADD45a genes were increased in Wi-Fi groups (P-value<0.05). The quantitative PCR and the TUNEL assay showed that apoptosis increased in Wi-Fi groups (P-value<0.05).

Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that Wi-Fi signals increase lipid peroxidation, SOD activity (oxidative stres), apoptosis and CDKN1A and GADD45a overexpression in mice placenta tissue. However, further experimental studies are warranted to investigate other genes and aspects of pregnancy to determine the role of Wi-Fi radiation on fertility and pregnancy.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7351435/
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Evaluation of Wi-Fi Radiation Effects on Antibiotic Susceptibility, Metabolic Activity and Biofilm Formation by Escherichia Coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermis

Said-Salman IH, Jebali FA, Yusef HH, Mustafa ME. Evaluation of Wi-Fi Radiation Effects on Antibiotic Susceptibility, Metabolic Activity and Biofilm Formation by Escherichia Coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus Aureus and Staphylococcus Epidermis. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2019 Oct 1;9(5):579-586. doi: 10.31661/jbpe.v0i0.1106.
Abstract
Background: The radiation emitted from electromagnetic fields (EMF) can cause biological effects on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including non-thermal effects.Objective: The present study evaluated the non-thermal effects of wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) operating at 2.4 GHz part of non-ionizing EMF on different pathogenic bacterial strains (Escherichia coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermis). Antibiotic resistance, motility, metabolic activity and biofilm formation were examined.
Material and Methods: In this case-control, a Wi-Fi router was used as a source of microwaves and also bacterial cells were exposed to Wi-Fi radiation continuously for 24 and 48 hours. The antibiotic susceptibility was carried out using a disc diffusion method on Müller Hinton agar plates. Motility of Escherichia coli 0157H7 was conducted on motility agar plates. Cell metabolic activity and biofilm formation were performed using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and crystal violet quantification, respectively.
Results: The exposure to Wi-Fi radiation altered motility and antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli 0157H7. However, there was no effect Wi-Fi radiation on antibiotic susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis. On the other hand, the exposed cells, as compared to the unexposed control, showed an increased metabolic activity and biofilm formation ability in Escherichia coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis.
Conclusion: These results proposed that Wi-Fi exposure acted on bacteria in stressful manner by increasing antibiotic resistance and motility of Escherichia coli 0157H7, as well as enhancing biofilm formation by Escherichia coli 0157H7, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermis. The findings may have implications for the management of serious diseases caused by these infectious bacteria.
Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6820025/
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The effect of Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves on neuronal response properties in rat barrel cortex

Sistani S, Fatemi I, Shafeie SA, Kaeidi A, Azin M, Shamsizadeh A. The effect of Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves on neuronal response properties in rat barrel cortex. Somatosens Mot Res. 2019 Nov 13:1-6. doi: 10.1080/08990220.2019.1689116.

Abstract

There is a growing number of studies on the possible biological effects of Wi-Fi radiations on nervous system. In this study we investigated the effect of Wi-Fi exposure on single neuron responses to natural stimuli by using whisker to barrel pathway. This study was done on 29 male Wistar rats. Neuronal spontaneous activity and ON and OFF responses to displacement of principal whisker (PW), adjacent whisker (AW) and combination of PW-AW stimulation (as natural stimuli) were recorded in barrel cortex of anaesthetised rats. A D-link Wi-Fi device was used for 1 h exposure to 2.4 GHz microwaves in data mode (18.2 dBm and 44% for power and duty cycle). A condition test ratio (CTR) was calculated for assessing neuronal integrative properties. Wi-Fi radiations decreased CTR for ON responses. However, neuronal spontaneous activity and ON and OFF responses were not significantly changed following exposure to Wi-Fi signals. The results of this study demonstrated that exposure to Wi-Fi radiation could modulate integrative responses to natural stimuli in barrel cortex.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31718372
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Kamali K, Taravati A, Sayyadi S, Gharib FZ, Maftoon H. Evidence of oxidative stress after continuous exposure to Wi-Fi radiation in rat model. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Oct 21. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-3482-0.

Abstract

Exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is rapidly increasing in everyday environment, consequently conferring potential health effects. Oxidative stress is emerging as a mechanism implicated in pathophysiology and progression of various diseases. To our knowledge, no report has been made on the status of antioxidant redox systems after continuous exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted from a Wi-Fi access point in animal model so far. Therefore, we aimed to continuously subject rats in the experimental group to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from a commercially available Wi-Fi device. Male Wister rats were exposed to 2.45 GHz RF radiation emitted from a Wi-Fi for 24 h/day for 10 consecutive weeks. In order to assess the change in antioxidant redox system of plasma after continuous exposure to a Wi-Fi device, the total antioxidant capacity of plasma, level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), and activity of different enzymatic antioxidants, e.g., superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px], and glutathione S-transferase [GST], were measured. In the Wi-Fi exposed group, a significant decrease was detected in total antioxidant capacity of plasma and the activities of several antioxidant enzymes, including CAT, GSH-Px, and SOD (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the GST activity was significantly increased in this group (P < 0.05). However, no significant changes were found in GSH and TBARS levels following exposure to RF radiation. According to the results, oxidative defense system in rats exposed to Wi-Fi signal was significantly affected compared to the control group. Further studies are needed to better understand the possible biological mechanisms of EMR emitted from Wi-Fi device and relevant outcomes.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30343375
Conclusion
According to the results of the current research, long-term exposure to EMR emitted from wireless devices had adverse effects on the antioxidant potential of blood. Therefore, to protect individuals from harmful effects of Wi-Fi signals, it is advised to limit the use of such devices for household and occupational activities, if possible. This study may stimulate future helpful research in the development of new protective or therapeutic approaches. In addition, it is recommended that the target tissues of EMR emitted from wireless devices and the level of other mediators be investigated to understand the exact molecular mechanism and site of action upon continuous exposure to such radiations.
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Masoumi A, Karbalaei N, Mortazavi SMJ, Shabani M. Radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi (2.4 GHz) causes impaired insulin secretion and increased oxidative stress in rat pancreatic islets.Int J Radiat Biol. 2018 Jun 18:1-20. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2018.1490039.


Abstract

PURPOSE: There is a great concern regarding the possible adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). This study investigated the effects of EMR induced by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) on insulin secretion and antioxidant redox systems in the rat pancreas.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in the weight range of 230 to 260 g were divided into control, sham, Wi-Fi exposed groups. After long term exposure (4 h/day for 45 days) to Wi-Fi electromagnetic radiation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were measured. Islet insulin secretion and content, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in pancreas of rats were determined.

RESULTS: Our data showed that the weight gain in the WI-FI exposed group was significantly lower than the control group (p<0.05). Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) exposed group showed hyperglycemia. Plasma insulin level and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islet were significantly reduced in the Wi-Fi exposed group. EMR emitted from Wi-Fi caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a significant decrease in GSH level, SOD and GPx activities of the pancreas.

CONCLUSION: these data showed that EMR of Wi-Fi leads to hyperglycemia, increased oxidative stress and impaired insulin secretion in the rat pancreatic islets.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29913098
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Varghese R, Majumdar A, Kumar G, Shukla A. Rats exposed to 2.45GHz of non-ionizing radiation exhibit behavioral changes with increased brain expression of apoptotic caspase 3. Pathophysiology. 2017 Nov 14. pii: S0928-4680(17)30052-4.

Highlights
• The exposure to non-ionizing radiation of 2.45 GHz caused detrimental changes in rat brain leading to learning and memory decline and expression of anxiety behavior.• The exposure to radiation induced oxidative stress and fall in brain antioxidants.• The exposure triggered the gene expression of caspase 3.

Abstract

In recent years there has been a tremendous increase in use of Wi-Fi devices along with mobile phones, globally. Wi-Fi devices make use of 2.4 GHz frequency. The present study evaluated the impact of 2.45 GHz radiation exposure for 4h/day for 45 days on behavioral and oxidative stress parameters in female Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests of anxiety, learning and memory were started from day 38. Oxidative stress parameters were estimated in brain homogenates after sacrificing the rats on day 45. In morris water maze, elevated plus maze and light dark box test, the 2.45 GHz radiation exposed rats elicited memory decline and anxiety behavior. Exposure decreased activities of super oxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione levels whereas increased levels of brain lipid peroxidation was encountered in the radiation exposed rats, showing compromised anti-oxidant defense. Expression of caspase 3 gene in brain samples were quantified which unraveled notable increase in the apoptotic marker caspase 3 in 2.45 GHz radiation exposed group as compared to sham exposed group. No significant changes were observed in histopathological examinations and brain levels of TNF-α. Analysis of dendritic arborization of neurons showcased reduction in number of dendritic branching and intersections which corresponds to alteration in dendritic structure of neurons, affecting neuronal signaling. The study clearly indicates that exposure of rats to microwave radiation of 2.45GHz leads to detrimental changes in brain leading to lowering of learning and memory and expression of anxiety behavior in rats along with fall in brain antioxidant enzyme systems.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29153770

Note: Although this study used a WiFi frequency, the signal was not modulated like Wi-Fi. The animals in the experimental group were exposed to 2.45 GHz radiation for 4 hours per for 45 days between 10 am to 6 pm, at a power density of 7.88 W/m2.

Conclusion


The study was an attempt to draw attention towards the adverse effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiations (NI-EMR) in the frequency that is used widely in the field of telecommunication. Many studies have captured the impact of the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz frequencies, however the frequency of radiation in Wi-Fi range has not been much explored. Along with the use of cell phones there is a growing concern with the use of Wi-Fi devices which continuously emit radiations in the frequency of 2.4 GHz. Hence we thought it prudent to investigate the impact of radiation of the frequency of 2.45 GHz. It can be concluded that the exposure to non-ionizing radiation of 2.45 GHz caused detrimental changes in rat brain leading to learning and memory decline and expression of anxiety behavior along with fall in brain antioxidants. The exposure triggered the gene expression of caspase 3 which plays a major role in the apoptotic pathway. The chronic impact of non-ionizing radiation needs to be thoroughly evaluated in humans so that combative steps can be taken.


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Safari M, Mosleminiya N, Abdolali A. Thermal mapping on male genital and skin tissues of laptop thermal sources and electromagnetic interaction. Bioelectromagnetics. 2017 Aug 11. doi: 10.1002/bem.22068.

Abstract


Since the development of communication devices and expansion of their applications, there have been concerns about their harmful health effects. The main aim of this study was to investigate laptop thermal effects caused by exposure to electromagnetic fields and thermal sources simultaneously; propose a nondestructive, replicable process that is less expensive than clinical measurements; and to study the effects of positioning any new device near the human body in steady state conditions to ensure safety by U.S. and European standard thresholds. A computer simulation was designed to obtain laptop heat flux from SolidWorks flow simulation. Increase in body temperature due to heat flux was calculated, and antenna radiation was calculated using Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio software. Steady state temperature and specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution in user's body, and heat flux beneath the laptop, were obtained from simulations. The laptop in its high performance mode caused 420 (W/m2 ) peak two-dimensional heat flux beneath it. The cumulative effect of laptop in high performance mode and 1 W antenna radiation resulted in temperatures of 42.9, 38.1, and 37.2 °C in lap skin, scrotum, and testis, that is, 5.6, 2.1, and 1.4 °C increase in temperature, respectively. Also, 1 W antenna radiation caused 0.37 × 10-3 and 0.13 × 10-1.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28799651
Excerpts

Findlay and Dimbylow [2010] carried out one such study on SAR in the body of a sitting 10-year-old at 2.4 and 5 GHz. They found maximum peak localized three-dimensional (3D) SAR of 3.99 × 10−3 (W/kg) in the torso area.

It should be specified that this study only considered thermal effects on men; however, laptop antenna could have non-thermal effects on the user's body or pregnant women, including DNA fraction [Nagaoka et al., 2007; Zoppetti et al., 2011; Avendano et al., 2012], but such non-thermal effects are not considered in the present paper.
Since maximum allowed power consumption for an array of antennas designed for this purpose is 1 W and there were two antennas, each one consumed up to 0.5 W of power. However, in normal conditions, Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) antennas can radiate using only 10 mW [Guterman et al., 2009].
It should be noted that the given values of SAR were normalized to 1 W peak antenna power output, while typically a WLAN antenna radiates about 10 mW; therefore, for a real world operating system, maximum SAR of 0.37 × 10−3 and 0.18 × 10−3 (W/kg) is expected for 2 and 1 active antennas, respectively, which are 104 times lower than the European safety limit (2 W/kg) [IEEE Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Humans, 2005].
Also, maximum SAR of 0.13 × 10−3 (W/kg) is expected for a WLAN antenna radiation power of about 10 mW operating at 5 GHz, which is still lower than safety limits.
... maximum temperature on surface of scrotum skin of the laptop user in the studied position was 38.1 °C, which was 2.1 °C higher than normal temperature in absence of the laptop in the simulation.
It can be inferred from the aforementioned works that increase in scrotal temperature can result in reduction of sperm motility, which consequently enhances the probability of infertility, lessens sperm production, decreases sperm concentration by 56% [Hjollund et al., 2002], increases ROS, and negatively affects sperm morphology, increasing the number of sperm with physical dimensions different from those of normal sperm.
A method of simulating thermal mapping of positioning laptop on laps of an adult man was developed. To tackle this problem, we exploited computer simulation and, to make the simulation close to the actual problem, we created 3D models of an actual laptop (Sony FW 590 Gab), antennas, and human phantom with inhomogeneous body, large number of tissues, and dispersion properties. We employed a commercial laptop Wi-Fi antenna at 2.4 GHz and a dipole antenna at 5 GHz, thermal sources with radiation powers, and human body voxel consisting of 97 tissues which were described previously. In the simulation, maximum SAR in human body was calculated 0.37 × 10−3 and 0.13 × 10−1 (W/kg) at 2.4 and 5 GHz, respectively, which was negligible according to IEEE standards; thus, the major calculated temperature elevation was due to laptop thermal sources. The temperature in glans penis, lap skin, lap muscles, and testes increased up to 37.8, 42.9, 38.8, and 37.2 °C, respectively, which was in line with clinical studies of thermal effect. Hence, the proposed method can be replicated for other scenarios. It is worth noting that the presented result cannot be easily generalized to other devices or human models. However, the whole method is replicable for similar phenomena. The recommended subject for future works can be used with the presented method for determining the effect of laptop and other devices on adult pregnant women and similar cases.

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Ibitayo AO, Afolabi OB, Akinyemi AJ, Ojiezeh TI, Adekoya KO, Ojewunmi OO. RAPD Profiling, DNA Fragmentation, and Histomorphometric Examination in Brains of Wistar Rats Exposed to Indoor 2.5 Ghz Wi-Fi Devices Radiation. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:8653286. doi: 10.1155/2017/8653286.

Abstract
The advent of Wi-Fi connected high technology devices in executing day-to-day activities is fast evolving especially in developing countries of the world and hence the need to assess its safety among others. The present study was conducted to investigate the injurious effect of radiofrequency emissions from installed Wi-Fi devices in brains of young male rats. Animals were divided into four equal groups; group 1 served as control while groups 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to 2.5 Ghz at intervals of 30, 45, and 60 consecutive days with free access to food and water ad libitum. Alterations in harvested brain tissues were confirmed by histopathological analyses which showed vascular congestion and DNA damage in the brain was assayed using agarose gel electrophoresis. Histomorphometry analyses of their brain tissues showed perivascular congestion and tissue damage as well.
Conclusion
In this study, the effect of Wi-Fi radiation exposure as a threat to brain health was studied using genomic analysis and histopathological study which showed the high risk of its genotoxicity especially in prolonged exposure spectrum through the findings from this study. The genomic analysis confirmed DNA damage due to Wi-Fi radiation toxicity and DNA damage effect which was seen through the RAPD profiles of animals from the exposed groups. The histopathological analyses also confirmed significant deleterious alterations in the brain tissues of Wi-Fi-exposed animals. Hence, the need to exhibit caution in handling smart devices that are used from day to day is fast becoming a threat to human health and wellness.
Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5585657/

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Yorgancilar E, Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Akkus Z, Akdag M, Topku I. Does all-day and long-term exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi affect hearing? Biotechnology and Biotechnological Equipment. 31(6):1204-1209, DOI: 10.1080/13102818.2017.1373033

Abstract
We investigated the long-term effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted from Wi-Fi systems on hearing. Sixteen Wistar albino rats were divided equally into two groups: sham control and exposure groups. The rats in the experimental group were exposed to 2.4 GHz RFR emitted from a Wi-Fi generator for 24 h/day for one year. The same procedure was applied to the rats in the sham group, except that the Wi-Fi generator was turned off. All groups were kept in Faraday cages during the 12 months to eliminate external electromagnetic fields. The distance between the Wi-Fi generator antenna and the exposure cages was 50 cm. Pre-exposure distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) of all rats were measured at the beginning, 6th and 12th months of the study. The DPOAE values of the sham, baseline and exposure groups were compared statistically. For the 6000 Hz hearing frequency, the DPOAE values in the exposure group were lower than those in the sham group (p < 0.05). Similarly, the 6000 Hz hearing frequency values obtained at the end of the 12th month were also lower than the baseline and 6-month values in the exposure group (p < 0.05). In contrast, the DPOAE values at the 6th and 12th months of exposure for the 2000 Hz hearing frequency were higher than the baseline value (p < 0.05). These results indicated that 12 months of RFR (24 h/day) at 50 cm from a 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi source can affect hearing. However, further studies are necessary.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13102818.2017.1373033

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Topsakal S, Ozmen O, Cicek E, Comlekc Si. The ameliorative effect of gallic acid on pancreas lesions induced by 2.45 GHz electromagnetic radiation (Wi-Fi) in young rats. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, Available online 4 May 2017.

Highlights
• Effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on pancreata examined by immunohistochemical level.• EMR exposure caused both endocrine and endocrine pancreas problems.• Our results indicate possible relation with EMR and pancreatic lesions in developmental ages.
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on the pancreas tissue of young rats and the ameliorative effect of Gallic acid (GA). Six-week-old, 48 male rats were equally divided into four groups: Sham group, EMR group (2.45 GHz), EMR (2.45 GHz)+GA group (30 mg/kg/daily) orally and GA group (30 mg/kg/daily). After 30 days, serum and pancreatic tissue samples were harvested for biochemical, histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Serum amylase, lipase, glucose, and tissue malondialdehyde, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index were increased, whereas total antioxidant status decreased in the EMR group. The histopathological examination of the pancreases indicated slight degenerative changes in some pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells and slight inflammatory cell infiltrations in the EMR group. At the immunohistochemical examination, marked increase was observed in calcitonin gene related protein and Prostaglandin E2 expressions in pancreatic cells in this group. There were no changes in interleukin-6 expirations. GA ameliorated biochemical and pathological findings in the EMR+GA group. These findings clearly demonstrate that EMR can cause degenerative changes in both endocrine and exocrine pancreas cells in rats during the developmental period and GA has an ameliorative effect.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1687850717300468

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Othman H, Ammari M, Rtibi K, Bensaid N, Sakly M, Abdelmelek H. Postnatal development and behavior effects of in-utero exposure of rats to radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional WiFi devices. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017 Apr 22;52:239-247. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2017.04.016.

Abstract

The present work investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to radiofrequency waves of conventional WiFi devices on postnatal development and behavior of rat offspring. Ten Wistar albino pregnant rats were randomly assigned to two groups (n=5). The experimental group was exposed to a 2.45GHz WiFi signal for 2h a day throughout gestation period. Control females were subjected to the same conditions as treated group without applying WiFi radiations. After delivery, the offspring was tested for physical and neurodevelopment during its 17 postnatal days (PND), then for anxiety (PND 28) and motricity (PND 40-43), as well as for cerebral oxidative stress response and cholinesterase activity in brain and serum (PND 28 and 43). Our main results showed that the in-utero WiFi exposure impaired offspring neurodevelopment during the first seventeen postnatal days without altering emotional and motor behavior at adult age. Besides, prenatal WiFi exposure induced cerebral oxidative stress imbalance (increase in malondialdehyde level (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels and decrease in catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities) at 28 but not 43days old, also the exposure affected acethylcolinesterase activity at both cerebral and seric levels. Thus, the current study revealed that maternal exposure to WiFi radiofrequencies led to various adverse neurological effects in the offspring by affecting neurodevelopment, cerebral stress equilibrium and cholinesterase activity.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28458069


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Othman H, Ammari M, Sakly M, Abdelmelek H. Effects of prenatal exposure to WIFI signal (2.45 GHz) on postnatal development and behavior in rat: Influence of maternal restraint. Behavioural Brain Research. 36:291-302. May 30, 2017.

Highlights


• Effects of gestational exposure to WiFi signal and restraint along gestation period on the offspring were studied.

• The pups were evaluated for physical development and neuromotor maturation.
• Gestational WiFi exposure and restraint, adversely affected offspring neurodevelopment and behavior at adulthood.
• Progeny brain oxidative balance and serum biochemistry were disrupted.

Abstract


The present study was carried out to investigate the potential combined influence of maternal restraint stress and 2.45 GHz WiFi signal exposure on postnatal development and behavior in the offspring of exposed rats. 24 pregnant albino Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: Control, WiFi-exposed, restrained and both WiFi-exposed and restrained groups. Each of WiFi exposure and restraint occurred 2 h/day along gestation till parturition. The pups were evaluated for physical development and neuromotor maturation. Moreover, elevated plus maze test, open field activity and stationary beam test were also determined on postnatal days 28, 30 and 31, respectively. After behavioral tests, the rats were anesthetized and their brains were removed for biochemical analysis. Our main findings showed no detrimental effects on gestation progress and outcomes at delivery in all groups. Subsequently, WiFi and restraint, per se and mainly in concert altered physical development of pups with slight differences between genders. Behaviorally, the gestational WiFi irradiation, restraint and especially the associated treatment affected the neuromotor maturation mainly in male progeny. At adult age, we noticed anxiety, motor deficit and exploratory behavior impairment in male offspring co-exposed to WiFi radiation and restraint, and in female progeny subjected to three treatments. The biochemical investigation showed that, all three treatments produced global oxidative stress in brain of both sexes. As for serum biochemistry, phosphorus, magnesium, glucose, triglycerides and calcium levels were disrupted. Taken together, prenatal WiFi radiation and restraint, alone and combined, provoked several behavioral and biochemical impairments at both juvenile and adult age of the offspring.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28288806

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Hassanshahi A, Shafeie SA, Fatemi I, Hassanshahi E, Allahtavakoli M, Shabani M, Roohbakhsh A, Shamsizadeh A. The effect of Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves in unimodal and multimodal object recognition tasks in male rats. Neurol Sci. 2017 Mar 22.

Abstract


Wireless internet (Wi-Fi) electromagnetic waves (2.45 GHz) have widespread usage almost everywhere, especially in our homes. Considering the recent reports about some hazardous effects of Wi-Fi signals on the nervous system, this study aimed to investigate the effect of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation on multisensory integration in rats. This experimental study was done on 80 male Wistar rats that were allocated into exposure and sham groups. Wi-Fi exposure to 2.4 GHz microwaves [in Service Set Identifier mode (23.6 dBm and 3% for power and duty cycle, respectively)] was done for 30 days (12 h/day). Cross-modal visual-tactile object recognition (CMOR) task was performed by four variations of spontaneous object recognition (SOR) test including standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests. A discrimination ratio was calculated to assess the preference of animal to the novel object. The expression levels of M1 and GAT1 mRNA in the hippocampus were assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results demonstrated that rats in Wi-Fi exposure groups could not discriminate significantly between the novel and familiar objects in any of the standard SOR, tactile SOR, visual SOR, and CMOR tests. The expression of M1 receptors increased following Wi-Fi exposure. In conclusion, results of this study showed that chronic exposure to Wi-Fi electromagnetic waves might impair both unimodal and cross-modal encoding of information.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28332042

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M. Taheri, S. M. J. Mortazavi, M. Moradi, S. Mansouri, G. R. Hatam, F. Nouri. Evaluation of the Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted From Wi-Fi Router and Mobile Phone Simulator on the Antibacterial Susceptibility of Pathogenic Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli.
2017 Jan-Mar; 15(1): 1559325816688527.
Abstract
Mobile phones and Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation are among the main sources of the exposure of the general population to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Previous studies have shown that exposure of microorganisms to RF-EMFs can be associated with a wide spectrum of changes ranged from the modified bacterial growth to the alterations of the pattern of antibiotic resistance. Our laboratory at the nonionizing department of the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center has performed experiments on the health effects of exposure to animal models and humans to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons, magnetic resonance imaging, and Helmholtz coils. On the other hand, we have previously studied different aspects of the challenging issue of the ionizing or nonionizing radiation-induced alterations in the susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics. In this study, we assessed if the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation and 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from common Wi-Fi routers alters the susceptibility of microorganisms to different antibiotics. The pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were exposed to RF-EMFs generated either by a GSM 900 MHz mobile phone simulator and a common 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi router. It is also shown that exposure to RF-EMFs within a narrow level of irradiation (an exposure window) makes microorganisms resistant to antibiotics. This adaptive phenomenon and its potential threats to human health should be further investigated in future experiments. Altogether, the findings of this study showed that exposure to Wi-Fi and RF simulator radiation can significantly alter the inhibition zone diameters and growth rate for L monocytogenes and E coli. These findings may have implications for the management of serious infectious diseases.
Excerpts

Bacteria are becoming resistant to almost all commonly available antibiotics and this is a worldwide problem.


Listeria monocytogenes ... was recognized as the main cause of neonatal infection, meningitis, and sepsis. Listeria infection in adult patients is related to immunocompromised systems like HIV infection, organ transplants, individuals who have received corticosteroids, and immunosuppressant drugs for their malignancies. Escherichia coli known as E coli is a common cause of life-threatening infections such as bloodstream and urinary tract infections, otitis media, and other complications.

A D-Link Wi-Fi router (D-Link, D-Link Corporation, Taiwan) was used in this study as the exposure source. During the exposure period, data were exchanged between the modem and a laptop computer that was placed in another room (5 m away from the Wi-Fi router).

The Wi-Fi router operated with a power level of 1 W and the specific absorption rate at the distance 14 cm between the bacterial suspension (broth medium) and Wi-Fi router was 0.13 W/kg. During the exposure, bacterial samples were collected in different times 3, 6, 9, and 12 hours after being exposed using sterile swabs.


In this study, all exposures were performed using a GSM 900 MHz mobile simulator operating in the "Talk mode."


All experiments were replicated 3 times for exposed and nonexposed groups.


Listeria monocytogenes response to each antibiotic was different, for DOX (doxycycline), and the window response occurred after 6 hours of exposure to Wi-Fi and RF simulator radiation. However, for other antibiotics, these changes were only observed at the ninth hour of exposure to Wi-Fi while this response could not be observed for RF simulator radiation. After 9 hours of exposure to Wi-Fi for CIPR and SXT antibiotics, bacteria had a tendency to become more resistant. This was in contrast to the pattern observed for LEVO, CTX, and CTR antibiotics, which an increased sensitivity was observed.


In the current study, the pattern of the response of E coli to Wi-Fi and RF simulator radiation was identical. The maximum differences in the diameters of inhibition zones were observed between 6 and 9 hours of the bacterial exposure to radiation (Figures 1 and 2). After 12 hours of exposure, the bacterial responses to radiation as a stressor led to returning to the preexposure status.


... our data confirm previous studies that showed that radiofrequency radiation could induce changes in cell growth and antibiotic sensitivity in E coli.


Based on our results, it can be concluded that the bacterial strains used in this study respond differently to EMFs. These bacteria were capable of responding to environmental stresses that act by activating some specific systems such as ion channels, change via the membrane, DNA repair system, and probably ion efflux pumps in the membrane as well as interactions of molecules and antibacterial agents. There are some ambiguities that need further investigations regarding answering questions such as which cellular mechanism is responsible for adaptation? Which factors are involved in alterations of antibacterial sensitivity? And subsequently, what are the differences in the response to radiation in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria? Moreover, experiments on different bacterial strains with various electromagnetic fields should be performed in the future to better clarify these uncertainties.


https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1559325816688527

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Qureshi ST, Memon SA, Abassi AR, Sial MA, Bughio FA. Radiofrequency radiations induced genotoxic and carcinogenic effects on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) root tip cells. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. Published online Feb 11, 2017.

Abstract


Present study was under taken to predict the possible DNA damages (genotoxicity) and carcinogenicity caused by radiofrequency radiations (RF) to living tissue. Dry seeds of chickpea were treated with GSM cell phone (900 MHz) and laptop (3.31 GHz) as RF source for 24 and 48 h. Untreated seeds were used as (0 h) negative control and Gamma rays (250 Gray) as positive control. Plant chromosomal aberration assay was used as genotoxicity marker. All the treatment of RF inhibits seed germination percentage. 48 h laptop treatment has the most negative effect as compared to untreated control. A decrease was observed in mitotic index (M.I) and increase in abnormality index (A.I) with the increase in exposure duration and frequency in (Hz). Cell membrane damages were also observed only in 48 h exposure of cell phone and laptop (RF). Maximum nuclear membrane damages and ghost cells were again recorded in 48 h exposure of cell phone and laptop. The radiofrequency radiations (900 MHz and 3.31 GHz) are only genotoxic as they induce micronuclei, bi-nuclei, multi-nuclei and scattered nuclei but could be carcinogenic as 48 h incubation of RF induced fragmentation and ghost cells. Therefore cell phones and laptop should not be used unnecessarily to avoid possible genotoxic and carcinogenic effects.


Conclusion


It is concluded that radiofrequency radiations are genotoxic as they induced chromosomal aberrations in chickpea mitotic cells and the presence of ghost cells is clear indication of their carcinogenic potential. To avoid reported DNA damages in this work cell phones should always be used either for short duration or with hands-free for long duration and they should not be kept in pockets or near body. Laptops should not be used unnecessarily for enjoyment purpose. It must be placed on desk top rather lap to minimize their exposure to human body. Further assay of carcinogenity are recommended on mouse and human cell lines.


https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1319562X16000589

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Karipidis K, Henderson S, Wijayasinghe D, Tjong L, Tinker R. Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields From Wi-Fi in Australian Schools.Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2017 Jan 10.


Abstract

The increasing use of Wi-Fi in schools and other places has given rise to public concern that the radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields from Wi-Fi have the potential to adversely affect children. The current study measured typical and peak RF levels from Wi-Fi and other sources in 23 schools in Australia. All of the RF measurements were much lower than the reference levels recommended by international guidelines for protection against established health effects. The typical and peak RF levels from Wi-Fi in locations occupied by children in the classroom were of the order of 10-4 and 10-2% of the exposure guidelines, respectively. Typical RF levels in the classroom were similar between Wi-Fi and radio but higher than other sources. In the schoolyard typical RF levels were higher for radio, TV and mobile phone base stations compared to Wi-Fi. The results of this study showed that the typical RF exposure of children from Wi-Fi at school is very low and comparable or lower to other sources in the environment.


Excerpts


Wi-Fi transmissions consist of sequences of RF burst signals or pulses ranging in duration depending on the amount of data being carried by a pulse(15). The proportion of time that Wi-Fi transmits RF signals is called the duty cycle. Joseph et al.(14) in measuring Wi-Fi in 176 different urban locations (outdoors, homes, offices) found a median duty cycle of 1.4% over all the measurements. Particularly in schools, Khalid et al.(10) in measuring Wi-Fi in six schools found a mean duty cycle from the access points of 4.8%. In our study duty cycle was measured separately for the 2.45 and 5 GHz transmissions when performing the stationary Wi-Fi measurements in the centre of the classroom. The median duty cycle for 23 schools that were measured in the current study was 6.3 and 2.4% for 2.45 and 5 GHz transmissions, respectively.


Members of the public often ask about the cumulative exposure that a child receives when using a Wi-Fi device in a classroom in which a number of children are simultaneously using Wi-Fi. When downloading files, most of the transmissions will be from the access point, not the students' device. When downloading and uploading only a portion of the maximum capacity of a network would be used even in a classroom filled with children using Wi-Fi. The Wi-Fi network divides RF transmissions among the access points and client devices therefore the individual RF exposure to a child in a classroom that is using a device consists of sequential exposures from all active devices, the majority of which are located at some distance away(15). For the majority of schools (20) the measurements in the current study were conducted in an empty classroom (to avoid lesson disruption) with an access point and one laptop. In three schools, measurements were conducted with students or teachers present and using Wi-Fi devices. A comparison between measurements conducted in empty classrooms and classrooms with multiple students/teachers using Wi-Fi showed no significant difference in the RF levels (p > 0.1 for all); although this may have been due to low numbers (only three schools measured with multiple users in the classroom).


Open access paper: https://rpd.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2017/01/10/rpd.ncw370.long
Note: Typical and peak RF levels were found to be lower than ICNIRP guidelines. However, many researchers believe that the guidelines are inadequate to ensure safety. Furthermore, peak RF levels were averaged over 1 minute which is too long as short-term intense pulses may have biologic effects.

For a critique of this study, see: Bandara P, Johansson O. Letter to the editor. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. Aug 10, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1093/rpd/ncx108.

Excerpt
"In conclusion, contrary to the assurances implied by Karipidis et al., existing scientific evidence clearly indicates that there are potential health risks for students and staff from microwave RF-EMR exposure levels found at schools from internal and external wireless infrastructure. ARPANSA should immediately recommend that schools use wired Internet instead of WiFi as several responsible government agencies in other parts of the world have already done to reduce exposure of children, a sensitive population that need particular protection."
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Shekoohi-Shooli F, Mortazavi SM, Shojaei-Fard MB, Nematollahi S, Tayebi M. Evaluation of the Protective Role of Vitamin C on the Metabolic and Enzymatic Activities of the Liver in the Male Rats After Exposure to 2.45 GHz Of Wi-Fi Routers. J Biomed Phys Eng. 2016 Sep 1;6(3):157-164.

Abstract


BACKGROUND: The use of devices emitted microwave radiation such as mobile phones, wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) routers, etc. is increased rapidly. It has caused a great concern; the researchers should identify its effects on people's health. We evaluated the protective role of Vitamin C on the metabolic and enzymatic activities of the liver after exposure to Wi-Fi routers.


MATERIAL AND METHODS: 70 male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g were randomly divided into 7 groups (10 rats in each group).The first stage one-day test: Group A (received vitamin C 250 mg/kg/day orally together with 8- hour/day Wi-Fi exposure). Group B (exposed to Wi-Fi radiation). Group C (received vitamin C). Group D or Control (was neither exposed to radiation of Wi-Fi modem nor did receive vitamin C). The second phase of experiment had done for five consecutive days. It involved Group E (received vitamin C), Group F (exposed to Wi-Fi radiation), Group G (received vitamin C together with Wi-Fi radiation). The distance between animals' restrainers was 20 cm away from the router antenna. Finally, blood samples were collected and assayed the level of hepatic enzymes including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT) aspartate amino transferase (ASL), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and the concentration of Blood Glucose, Cholesterol, Triglyceride (TG), High density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL).


RESULTS: Data obtained from the One day test showed an increase in concentration of blood glucose, decrease in Triglyceride level and GGT factor (P<0.05), however no observed significant difference on the Cholesterol, HDL, LDL level and hepatic enzymes activities in compare to control group. Groups of the five-day test showed reduction in the amount of blood glucose, elevation of cholesterol level and LDL relative to control group (P<0.05).


CONCLUSION: WiFi exposure may exert alternations on the metabolic parameters and hepatic enzymes activities through stress oxidative and increasing of free radicals, but the use of vitamin C protects them from changing induced. Also taking optimum dose of vitamin C is essential for radioprotective effect and maintaining optimum health.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27853723

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Halgamuge MN. Review: Weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phone radiation on plants.Electromagn Biol Med. 2016 Sep 20:1-23.

Abstract


AIM: The aim of this article was to explore the hypothesis that non-thermal, weak, radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have an effect on living plants.


SUBJECT AND METHODS: In this study, we performed an analysis of the data extracted from the 45 peer-reviewed scientific publications (1996-2016) describing 169 experimental observations to detect the physiological and morphological changes in plants due to the non-thermal RF-EMF effects from mobile phone radiation. Twenty-nine different species of plants were considered in this work.


RESULTS: Our analysis demonstrates that the data from a substantial amount of the studies on RF-EMFs from mobile phones show physiological and/or morphological effects (89.9%, p < 0.001). Additionally, our analysis of the results from these reported studies demonstrates that the maize, roselle, pea, fenugreek, duckweeds, tomato, onions and mungbean plants seem to be very sensitive to RF-EMFs. Our findings also suggest that plants seem to be more responsive to certain frequencies, especially the frequencies between (i) 800 and 1500 MHz (p < 0.0001), (ii) 1500 and 2400 MHz (p < 0.0001) and (iii) 3500 and 8000 MHz (p = 0.0161).


CONCLUSION: The available literature on the effect of RF-EMFs on plants to date observed the significant trend of radiofrequency radiation influence on plants. Hence, this study provides new evidence supporting our hypothesis. Nonetheless, this endorses the need for more experiments to observe the effects of RF-EMFs, especially for the longer exposure durations, using the whole organisms. The above observation agrees with our earlier study, in that it supported that it is not a well-grounded method to characterize biological effects without considering the exposure duration. Nevertheless, none of these findings can be directly associated with human; however, on the other hand, this cannot be excluded, as it can impact the human welfare and health, either directly or indirectly, due to their complexity and varied effects (calcium metabolism, stress proteins, etc.). This study should be useful as a reference for researchers conducting epidemiological studies and the long-term experiments, using whole organisms, to observe the effects of RF-EMFs.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27650031?dopt=Abstract

Excerpt


... our review shows that there is a substantial amount of studies which indicate that plants have experienced physiological or morphological changes due to radiofrequency radiation and show statistically significant changes for the short-term exposure duration (up to 13 weeks). In contrast, the results obtained from the long-term exposure studies (two publications using nine different exposures with exposure duration between 3 months to 6 years) support no physiological effects on plants when exposed to radiofrequency radiation from mobile phone radiation. This would bring a remarkable point to the discussion about the apparent absence of response to the long-term exposure that may be interpreted as adaptations. On the other hand, phenotypic plasticity of plants will permit them to change their structure and function; hence, plants to adapt to environmental change (Nicotra et al., 2010). Plants are naturally affected by environmental stresses due to their immobility. Plants could respond to the environmental factors of wind, rain, electric field and ultraviolet radiation and adjust its physiological condition to adapt to the change of environment (Braam and Davis, 1990; Braam et al., 1996; Mary and Braam, 1997) .... our previous findings (Halgamuge et al., 2015) indicate that the biological effects considerably relied on field strength and amplitude modulation of the applied field.

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Paknahad M, Mortazavi SM, Shahidi S, Mortazavi G, Haghani M. Effect of radiofrequency radiation from Wi-Fi devices on mercury release from amalgam restorations. . J Environ Health Sci Eng. 2016 Jul 13;14:12.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Dental amalgam is composed of approximately 50% elemental mercury. Despite concerns over the toxicity of mercury, amalgam is still the most widely used restorative material. Wi-Fi is a rapidly using local area wireless computer networking technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the effect of exposure to Wi-Fi signals on mercury release from amalgam restorations.
METHODS: Standard class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 20 non-carious extracted human premolars. The teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 10). The control group was stored in non-environment. The specimens in the experimental groups were exposed to a radiofrequency radiation emitted from standard Wi Fi devices at 2.4 GHz for 20 min. The distance between the Wi-Fi router and samples was 30 cm and the router was exchanging data with a laptop computer that was placed 20 m away from the router. The concentration of mercury in the artificial saliva in the groups was evaluated by using a cold-vapor atomic absorption Mercury Analyzer System. The independent t test was used to evaluate any significant differences in mercury release between the two groups.
RESULTS: The mean (±SD) concentration of mercury in the artificial saliva of the Wi-Fi exposed teeth samples was 0.056 ± .025 mg/L, while it was only 0.026 ± .008 mg/L in the non-exposed control samples. This difference was statistically significant (P =0.009).
CONCLUSION: Exposure of patients with amalgam restorations to radiofrequency radiation emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices can increase mercury release from amalgam restorations.
Open access paper: https://bit.ly/2abAgzp
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Kuybulu AE, Öktem F, Çiriş İM, Sutcu R, Örmeci AR, Çömlekçi S, Uz E. Effects of long-term pre- and post-natal exposure to 2.45 GHz wireless devices on developing male rat kidney. Ren Fail. 2016 Feb 24:1-10.


Abstract


Purpose The aim of the present study was to investigate oxidative stress and apoptosis in kidney tissues of male Wistar rats that pre- and postnatally exposed to wireless electromagnetic field (EMF) with an internet frequency of 2.45 GHz for a long time.


Methods The study was conducted in three groups of rats which were pre-natal, post-natal. and sham exposed groups. Oxidative stress markers and histological evaluation of kidney tissues were studied.


Results Renal tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and total oxidant (TOS) levels of pre-natal group were high and total antioxidant (TAS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were low. Spot urine NAG/creatinine ratio was significantly higher in pre- and post-natal groups (p < 0.001). Tubular injury was detected in most of the specimens in post-natal groups. Immunohistochemical analysis showed low-intensity staining with Bax in cortex, high-intensity staining with Bcl-2 in cortical and medullar areas of pre-natal group (p values, 0.000, 0.002, 0.000, respectively) when compared with sham group. Bcl2/Bax staining intensity ratios of medullar and cortical area was higher in pre-natal group than sham group (p = 0.018, p = 0.011).


Conclusion Based on this study, it is thought that chronic pre- and post-natal period exposure to wireless internet frequency of EMF may cause chronic kidney damages; staying away from EMF source in especially pregnancy and early childhood period may reduce negative effects of exposure on kidney.


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26905323/

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Akdag MZ, Dasdag S, Canturk F, Karabulut D, Caner Y, Adalier N. Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats? J Chem Neuroanat. 2016 Jan 8. pii: S0891-0618(16)00005-3.

Abstract


Wireless internet (Wi-Fi) providers have become essential in our daily lives, as wireless technology is evolving at a dizzying pace. Although there are different frequency generators, one of the most commonly used Wi-Fi devices are 2.4GHz frequency generators. These devices are heavily used in all areas of life but the effect of radiofrequency (RF) radiation emission on users is generally ignored. Yet, an increasing share of the public expresses concern on this issue. Therefore, this study intends to respond to the growing public concern. The purpose of this study is to reveal whether long term exposure of 2.4GHz frequency RF radiation will cause DNA damage of different tissues such as brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissue and testicular tissues of rats.


The study was conducted on 16 adult male Wistar-Albino rats. The rats in the experimental group (n=8) were exposed to 2.4GHz frequency radiation for over a year. The rats in the sham control group (n=8) were subjected to the same experimental conditions except the Wi-Fi generator was turned off. After the exposure period was complete the possible DNA damage on the rat's brain, liver, kidney, skin, and testicular tissues was detected through the single cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet) method. The amount of DNA damage was measured as percentage tail DNA value.


Based on the DNA damage results determined by the single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) method, it was found that the% tail DNA values of the brain, kidney, liver, and skin tissues of the rats in the experimental group increased more than those in the control group. The increase of the DNA damage in all tissues was not significant (p>0.05). However the increase of the DNA damage in rat testes tissue was significant (p<0.01).


In conclusion, long-term exposure to 2.4GHz RF radiation (Wi-Fi) does not cause DNA damage of the organs investigated in this study except testes. The results of this study indicated that testes are more sensitive organ to RF radiation.


https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26775760/

Excerpts

Rats in the exposure group were subject to 2.4 GHz RF radiation 24 h/d for 12 months. Rats in both groups were kept 50 cm far away from the antenna of the generator (Fig. 1). The same experimental conditions were applied to the rats in the sham group, except the generator was turned off.


Wireless local area networks (WLAN) signal generator with 100 mW peak (50 mW rms) power was connected to a tuned half wavelength dipole antenna and the dipole antenna was positioned the form of plane waves which represent the situation in most applications of Wi-Fi or WLAN equipment.


Whole body average (rms) and maximum SAR values were respectively determined as 141.4 microwatts/kg and 7127 microwatts/kg.


The present study shows that as prolonged exposure to RF radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices causes DNA damage, a low intensity RF radiation could affect male fertility. Further longitudinal studies with oxidative stress parameters and DNA damage markers are needed to determine whether DNA damage in reproduction cells that indicates infertility is formed due to oxidative stress caused by prolonged exposure to Wi-Fi usage.


Conclusion


As a result, it is observed that the long-term exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency radiation caused an increase in the DNA damage of the brain, liver, kidney, and skin tissue of rats, but this increase was not significant. Therefore it is determined that the long-term exposure to Wi-Fi 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency radiation does not cause the DNA damage of the brain, liver, kidney, and skin tissue of the rats. However it is concluded that the long-term usage of 2.4 GHz Radiofrequency wireless internet providers could cause a potential risk of DNA damage in the testes.


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Yüksel M, Nazıroğlu M, Özkaya MO. Long-term exposure to electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices decreases plasma prolactin, progesterone, and estrogen levels but increases uterine oxidative stress in pregnant rats and their offspring. Endocrine.
2016 May;52(2):352-62. doi: 10.1007/s12020-015-0795-3.

Abstract


We investigated the effects of mobile phone (900 and 1800 MHz)- and Wi-Fi (2450 MHz)-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure on uterine oxidative stress and plasma hormone levels in pregnant rats and their offspring.

Thirty-two rats and their forty newborn offspring were divided into the following four groups according to the type of EMR exposure they were subjected to: the control, 900, 1800, and 2450 MHz groups. Each experimental group was exposed to EMR for 60 min/day during the pregnancy and growth periods. The pregnant rats were allowed to stand for four generations (total 52 weeks) before, plasma and uterine samples were obtained. During the 4th, 5th, and 6th weeks of the experiment, plasma and uterine samples were also obtained from the developing rats. [The electric field density was set at 20 dB and 11 V/m in order to obtain 0.1 W/kg whole-body average specific absorption rate (SAR).]

Although uterine lipid peroxidation increased in the EMR groups, uterine glutathione peroxidase activity (4th and 5th weeks) and plasma prolactin levels (6th week) in developing rats decreased in these groups. In the maternal rats, the plasma prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels decreased in the EMR groups, while the plasma total oxidant status, and body temperatures increased. There were no changes in the levels of reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, or vitamins A, C, and E in the uterine and plasma samples of maternal rats.

In conclusion, although EMR exposure decreased the prolactin, estrogen, and progesterone levels in the plasma of maternal rats and their offspring, EMR-induced oxidative stress in the uteri of maternal rats increased during the development of offspring. Mobile phone- and Wi-Fi-induced EMR may be one cause of increased oxidative uterine injury in growing rats and decreased hormone levels in maternal rats. TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices. It is likely that TRPV1-mediated Ca2+ entry in the uterus of pregnant rats involves accumulation of oxidative stress and opening of mitochondrial membrane pores that consequently leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, substantial swelling of the mitochondria with rupture of the outer membrane and release of oxidants such as superoxide (O2 -) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The superoxide radical is converted to H2O2 by superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) is an important antioxidant enzyme for removing lipid hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide and it catalyzes the reduction of H2O2 to water.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26578367/



TRPV1 cation channels are the possible molecular pathways responsible for changes in the hormone, oxidative stress, and body temperature levels in the uterus of maternal rats following a year-long exposure to electromagnetic radiation exposure from mobile phones and Wi-Fi devices. It is likely that TRPV1-mediated Ca2+ entry in the uterus of pregnant rats involves accumulation of oxidative stress and opening of mitochondrial membrane pores that consequently leads to mitochondrial dysfunction, substantial swelling of the mitochondria with rupture of the outer membrane and release of oxidants such as superoxide (O2 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The superoxide radical is converted to H2O2 by superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme. Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) is an important antioxidant enzyme for removing lipid hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxide and it catalyzes the reduction of H2O2 to water.
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Çelik Ö, Kahya MC, Nazıroğlu M. Oxidative stress of brain and liver is increased by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) exposure of rats during pregnancy and the development of newborns. J Chem Neuroanat. 2015 Oct 28. pii: S0891-0618(15)00074-5.
Highlights
  • Oxidative stress plays important role in biology of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz)
  • 2.45 GHz increased oxidative stress in brain and liver pregnant rats and their newborns.
  • Brain seems sensitive to oxidative injury in the development of newborns.
Abstract

An excessive production of reactive oxygen substances (ROS) and reduced antioxidant defence systems resulting from electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure may lead to oxidative brain and liver damage and degradation of membranes during pregnancy and development of rat pups.

We aimed to investigate the effects of Wi-Fi-induced EMR on the brain and liver antioxidant redox systems in the rat during pregnancy and development. Sixteen pregnant rats and their 48 newborns were equally divided into control and EMR groups. The EMR groups were exposed to 2.45GHz EMR (1hour/day for 5 days/week) from pregnancy to 3 weeks of age. Brain cortex and liver samples were taken from the newborns between the first and third weeks.

In the EMR groups, lipid peroxidation levels in the brain and liver were increased following EMR exposure; however, the glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity, and vitamin A, vitamin E and -carotene concentrations were decreased in the brain and liver. Glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C concentrations in the brain were also lower in the EMR groups than in the controls; however, their concentrations did not change in the liver.

In conclusion, Wi-Fi-induced oxidative stress in the brain and liver of developing rats was the result of reduced GSH-Px, GSH and antioxidant vitamin concentrations. Moreover, the brain seemed to be more sensitive to oxidative injury compared to the liver in the development of newborns.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26520617/

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Saili, Hanini, Smirani, et al. Effects of acute exposure to WIFI signals (2.45 GHz) on heart variability and blood pressure in Albinos rabbit. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 40(2):600-605. September 2015.
Highlights
• ECG and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI.• Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency and arterial blood pressure.• WIFI affect catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) efficacy on cardiovascular system.• Radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system.
Abstract
Electrocardiogram and arterial pressure measurements were studied under acute exposures to WIFI (2.45 GHz) during one hour in adult male rabbits. Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25 cm at the right side near the heart.
Acute exposure of rabbits to WIFI increased heart frequency (+22%) and arterial blood pressure (+14%). Moreover, analysis of ECG revealed that WIFI induced a combined increase of PR and QT intervals. By contrast, the same exposure failed to alter maximum amplitude and P waves. After intravenously injection of dopamine (0.50 ml/kg) and epinephrine (0.50 ml/kg) under acute exposure to RF we found that, WIFI alter catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine) action on heart variability and blood pressure compared to control.


These results suggest for the first time, as far as we know, that exposure to WIFI affect heart rhythm, blood pressure, and catecholamines efficacy on cardiovascular system; indicating that radiofrequency can act directly and/or indirectly on cardiovascular system.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26356390/
Excerpts
The animals were exposed to an access point (AP) from WIFI device (D-Link DWL-3200 AP with 802.11 g mode and WPA2 network protection) as previously described in Salah et al. (2013). WIFI integrated two omnidirectional antennas that were setup for internet broadcast via wireless at 2.45 GHz. The sham control rabbits were placed under the same condition without applying RF (0 Hz). Antennas of WIFI were placed at 25 cm at the right side near the heart (animal in dorsal decubitus).

Experimental design: The rabbits were divided into six groups and for each group six rabbits and treated by intravenous injection as follows:

Group 1. Normal healthy control.
Group 2. Normal healthy: rabbits were exposed to WIFI one hour (between 9 h and 13 h).Group 3. Rabbits were intravenously injected once with epinephrine (0.50 ml/kg).Group 4. Rabbits were exposed to WIFI one hour (between 9 h and 13 h) following once intravenous injection of epinephrine (0.50 ml/kg).Group 5. Rabbits were intravenously injected once with dopamine (0.50 ml/kg).Group 6. Rabbits were exposed to WIFI one hour (between 9 h and 13 h) following once intravenous injection (iv) of dopamine (0.50 ml/kg).
Our results show clearly that WIFI increased heart rate and arterial blood pressure probably via direct and/or indirect pathways. The direct effects of RF could be related to their action on Ca++ and Zn++ homeostasis especially on divalent mineral flux modulated by EMF as shown previously by Amara et al. (2007).
Our studies point that WIFI is not completely safe at home near the animal or human body because it employ harmful radio waves. But it is safer compared to cellphone that it is close to our brain during communications. WIFI signals are everywhere. If you switched off your WiFi at night, you are still exposed to the WIFI signals coming in from neighbors but we have a significant reduction of the bioeffects of WIFI with distance from the router. Future investigations will focus on the long term bioeffects of WIFI placed at an important distance from the animal or the human.
Conclusion: These results suggested that exposure to WIFI (2.45 GHz) affect HR variability leading to tachycardia and hypertension. The WIFI alter the physiological action of catecholamines on cardiovascular system perhaps via the disruption of the interaction between ligand-receptors in rabbit.
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Yildirim et al. What is harmful for male fertility; cell phone or the wireless internet? Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences. 2015 Sep;31(9):480-4. doi: 10.1016/j.kjms.2015.06.006.
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to assess the potential harmful effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation on sperm parameters.

We requested semen for analyses from the male patients coming to our infertility division and also asked them to fill out an anonymous questionnaire. We queried their mobile phone and wireless internet usage frequencies in order to determine their radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation exposure. A total of 1082 patients filled the questionnaire but 51 of them were excluded from the study because of azoospermia.

There was no significant difference between sperm counts and sperm morphology excluding sperm motility, due to mobile phone usage period, (p = 0.074, p = 0.909, and p = 0.05, respectively). The total motile sperm count and the progressive motile sperm count decreased due to the increase of internet usage (p = 0.032 and p = 0.033, respectively). In line with the total motile sperm count, progressive motile sperm count also decreased with wireless internet usage compared with the wired internet connection usage (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018, respectively). There was a negative correlation between wireless internet usage duration and the total sperm count (r = −0.089, p = 0.039).
We have also explored the negative effect of wireless internet use on sperm motility according to our preliminary results.
Excerpts

Infertility is a common disorder that affects 15% of couples and nearly half of the cases are due to male infertility. As mentioned above, RF-EMR affects many organs including the testes by a direct or a thermal effect [6]. In one study, detrimental effects of RF-EMR on Leydig cells, seminiferous tubules, and especially the spermatozoa were clearly defined [1]. Although RF-EMR reduces testosterone levels, impairs spermatogenesis, and causes sperm DNA damage [4], the relationship between RF-EMR devices and male infertility is still controversial.

According to an anonymous questionnaire, daily active cell phone usage was divided into three groups as following: Group A, < 30 min/d; Group B, from 30 min/d to 2 h/d; and Group C, > 2 h/d. Habits of carrying a mobile phone was recorded as (A) in the pocket of trousers, (B) in a handbag, or (C) in the pocket of jackets. Wireless internet usage was divided in to three groups, Group A: < 30 min/d; Group B, from 30 min/d to 2 h/d; and Group C, > 2 h/d. Internet usage types recorded as wireless or not.

Cell phone using duration: According to our results, there was no significant difference between these three groups regarding sperm parameters such as semen volume, sperm count, total motile sperm count, progressive motile sperm count, and morphology of the sperm.

Habits of carrying mobile phone: There was a significant difference among the three carriage places regarding only sperm morphology (p = 0.028) but no other sperm parameters (Table 2).

Wireless internet using durations: When we compare the wireless internet users regarding the duration of internet usage, there were a significant decrease of total motile sperm count and progressive motile sperm count (p = 0.032 and p = 0.033; respectively; Table 3) ... there were no significance among the semen parameters regarding the wired internet group (p = 0.128).

Type of internet usage: Total motile sperm count and progressive motile sperm count were lower in the wireless internet usage group compared with the wired internet usage group (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018; respectively). Type of internet connection does not affect the other sperm parameters (Table 4).

There was a negative correlation between the cell phone usage duration and the total sperm count (r = −0.064, p = 0.04). Similarly, there was also a negative correlation between the wireless internet usage duration and the total sperm count (r = −0.089, p = 0.019). Otherwise there were no significant correlations among the other four main question branches (cell phone usage time, cell phone carriage habits, wireless internet usage time. and internet connection type) and sperm parameters.
Turkish Telecommunication and Information Technology Agency declared that the daily usage of internet is nearly 6 hours in Turkey [15]. Therefore, according to us, Wi-Fi usage needs to get more attention than cell phone usage due to its higher frequency ranges and longer exposure times [16]. Even though there are some studies performed on the effects of RF-EMR and cell phones on male fertility, there is not so much scientific data about the association between Wi-Fi internet usage and male fertility [17]. Unlike other RF-EMR sources, devices such as laptops and tablets usually stay near the reproductive organs.
Conclusion
The possible effects of RF-EMR due to cellular phone and Wi-Fi usage should be investigated by researchers in more detail because the harmful effects should be proven instead of just implying the possible detrimental effects. Our findings display contrast results when we compared them with existing information and beliefs. We have not seen any difference between sperm parameters and cell phone and wireless internet usage. Larger population based studies combined with the laboratory results are needed to reach a definitive conclusion.
Open access paper: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1016/j.kjms.2015.06.006
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Shokri et al. Effects of Wi-Fi (2.45 GHz) Exposure on Apoptosis, Sperm Parameters and Testicular Histomorphometry in Rats: A Time Course Study. Cell J. 2015 Summer;17(2): 322-31.

Abstract


In today's world, 2.45-GHz radio-frequency radiation (RFR) from industrial, scientific, medical, military and domestic applications is the main part of indoor-outdoor electromagnetic field exposure. Long-term effects of 2.45-GHz Wi-Fi radiation on male reproductive system was not known completely. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the major cause of male infertility during short- and long-term exposure of Wi-Fi radiation.

This is an animal experimental study, which was conducted in the Department of Anatomical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, IRAN, from June to August 2014. Three-month-old male Wistar rats (n=27) were exposed to the 2.45 GHz radiation in a chamber with two Wi-Fi antennas on opposite walls. Animals were divided into the three following groups: I. control group (n=9) including healthy animals without any exposure to the antenna, II. 1-hour group (n=9) exposed to the 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi radiation for 1 hour per day during two months and III.7-hour group (n=9) exposed to the 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi radiation for 7 hours per day during 2 months. Sperm parameters, caspase-3 concentrations, histomorphometric changes of testis in addition to the apoptotic indexes were evaluated in the exposed and control animals.

Both 1-hour and 7-hour groups showed a decrease in sperm parameters in a time dependent pattern. In parallel, the number of apoptosis-positive cells and caspase-3 activity increased in the seminiferous tubules of exposed rats. The seminal vesicle weight reduced significantly in both1-hour or 7-hour groups in comparison to the control group.

Regarding the progressive privilege of 2.45 GHz wireless networks in our environment, we concluded that there should be a major concern regarding the time-dependent exposure of whole-body to the higher frequencies of Wi-Fi networks existing in the vicinity of our living places.


Excerpts


The exposure system was a chamber (180 cm×80 cm×70 cm), designed for whole-body exposure of free-moving rats to a Wi-Fi signal. Two Wi-Fi antennas (NanoStation Loco M2, 2.45 GHz, 8.5 dBi, Ubiquiti Networks, Inc. USA) were placed at the center of two sides of the chamber.


We found that sperm concentration, motility and morphology were affected significantly by exposure to the 2.45 GHz RFR from a Wi-Fi antenna. The observed effects were dependent on the longevity of exposure per day.


It was also shown that microwave radiation decreases the sperm count (). A plausible explanation for the impaired sperm motility could be induced oxidative stress by RF-EMW from Wi-Fi devices ().

High frequency, specifically 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi radiation, induces a decrease in sperm parameters along with an increase in apoptosis-positive cells and caspase-3 activity in the seminiferous tubules of Wistar rats, specially in 7-hour group. It reduced seminal vesicle weight following 2.45 GHz exposure. Considering the progressive privilege of 2.45 GHz wireless networks in our environment, we concluded that there should be a major concern about the time-dependent exposure of our body to the higher frequencies of Wi-Fi antenna.


Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4503846/

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Dasdag et al. Effects of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi equipment on microRNA expression in brain tissue. Int J Radiat Biol 2015 Jul; 9(17):555-561.

Abstract


PURPOSE: MicroRNAs (miRNA) play a paramount role in growth, differentiation, proliferation and cell death by suppressing one or more target genes. However, their interaction with radiofrequencies is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from a Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) system on some of the miRNA in brain tissue.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out on 16 Wistar Albino adult male rats by dividing them into two groups such as sham (n = 8) and exposure (n = 8). Rats in the exposure group were exposed to 2.4 GHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation for 24 hours a day for 12 months (one year). The same procedure was applied to the rats in the sham group except the Wi-Fi system was turned off. Immediately after the last exposure, rats were sacrificed and their brains were removed. miR-9-5p, miR-29a-3p, miR-106b-5p, miR-107, miR-125a-3p in brain were investigated in detail.RESULTS: The results revealed that long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation can alter expression of some of the miRNAs such as miR-106b-5p (adj p* = 0.010) and miR-107 (adj p* = 0.005). We observed that mir 107 expression is 3.3 times and miR- 106b-5p expression is 3.65 times lower in the exposure group than in the control group. However, miR-9-5p, miR-29a-3p and miR-125a-3p levels in brain were not altered.CONCLUSION: Long-term exposure of 2.4 GHz RF may lead to adverse effects such as neurodegenerative diseases originated from the alteration of some miRNA expression and more studies should be devoted to the effects of RF radiation on miRNA expression levels.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25775055?dopt=Abstract--

Soran ML, Stan M, Niinemets U, Copolovici L. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants. J Plant Physiol. 2014 Jul 8;171(15):1436-1443.

Abstract

Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied.

Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens.

Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied.

These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants.

Excerpts

Plant material including parsley (Petroselinum crispum cv. Plain leaved 2) (P), dill (Anethum graveolens subsp. hortorum cv. Common) (D) and celery (Apium graveolens cv. Pascal Giant) (C) were grown in laboratory from seeds obtained from Agrosel.


The microwave irradiation was performed at bands corresponding to mobile devices (GSM) using a modified AP5200 generator (D-LINK, China), operating in four bands (860–910 MHz frequency range, Pout 29 dBm), and to wireless router (WLAN) using a D-LINK wireless router 802.11 g/2.4 GHz (2.412–2.48 GHz frequency range, Pout 19 dBm). In the irradiation chamber there is one stick antenna placed in the center of the ceiling. The exposure levels where chosen in agreement with the microwave irradiation levels measured in open space for heavily used GSM networks (100 mW/m2) and for indoor WLAN (70 mW/m2) communication protocols.


Irradiation was performed during three weeks, after which plants were removed from the chambers for measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) emission and analyses of leaf structure and essential oil content. All measurements of VOC emission and analyses of leaf structure and essential oil content have been replicated with eight different plants.


The presented data collectively suggest that microwave irradiation constitute a stress to the plants, resulting in enhanced emissions of GLV, up-regulation of terpenoid emissions and modification in essential oil content and foliage anatomy. Anatomical and emission traits suggested that WLAN-frequency irradiation resulted in more severe stress than GSM-frequency irradiation, but the effect of WLAN-frequency irradiation on essential oil was inhibitory. There was an agreement between anatomical and chemical traits with anatomically most resistant species Apium graveolens being chemically least responsive.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4410321/
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
20.9.2022 20:56

Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality


Diagram representing various sources of RF EMF exposure effect on brain and testicular organ and deleterious outcomes (Kesari, Agarwal & Henkel, 2018)

Review Papers
Pusan National University scientists reveal links between sperm quality and cell phone use

The findings of their updated meta-analysis hint at the potential dangers of modern electronic gadgets

Pusan National University, News Release

An infographic depicting the key findings of the new meta-analysis

image: After examining a series of studies from 2012 to 2021, researchers have performed an updated meta-analysis that clearly indicates the connection between cell phone and decreased sperm quality. view more

Credit: Pusan National University

Cell phones have succeeded in bringing the world closer, making life tolerable during a very trying time. But cellphones also have their downsides. They can have negative effects on health. This is because cell phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMWs), which are absorbed by the body. According to a meta-analysis from 2011, data from previous studies indicate that RF-EMWs emitted by cell phones degrade sperm quality by reducing their motility, viability, and concentration. However, this meta-analysis had a few limitations, as it had low amounts of in vivo data and considered cell phone models that are now outdated.

In an effort to bring more up-to-date results to the table, a team of researchers led by Assistant Professor Yun Hak Kim from Pusan National University, Korea, conducted a new meta-analysis on the potential effects of cell phones on sperm quality. They screened 435 studies and records published between 2012 and 2021 and found 18—covering a total of 4280 samples—that were suitable for the statistical analyses. Their paper was made available online on July 30, 2021 and was published in Volume 202 of Environmental Research in November, 2021.

Overall, the results indicate that cell phone use is indeed associated with reduced sperm motility, viability, and concentration. These findings are more refined than those from the previous meta-analysis thanks to a better subgroup analysis of the data. Another important aspect that the researchers looked into was if higher exposure time to cell phones was correlated to lower sperm quality. However, they found out that the decrease in sperm quality was not significantly related to exposure time—just to exposure to mobile phones itself. Considering the results were consistent across both in vivo and in vitro (cultured sperm) data, Dr. Kim warns that "Male cell-phone users should strive to reduce mobile phone use to protect their sperm quality."

Knowing that the number of cell phone users is most likely going to increase in the future, it's high time we start considering exposure to RF-EMW as one of the underlying factors causing a reduction in sperm quality among the male population. Moreover, seeing how technologies evolve so quickly, Dr. Kim remarks that "additional studies will be needed to determine the effect of exposure to EMWs emitted from new mobile phone models in the present digital environment." The bottom line is, if you're worried about your fertility (and potentially other aspects of your health), it may be a good idea to limit your daily cell phone use.

https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/941005

Effects of mobile phone usage on sperm quality – No time-dependent relationship on usage: A systematic review and updated meta-analysis

Sungjoon Kim, Donghyun Han, Jiwoo Ryu, Kihun Kim, Yun Hak Kim. Effects of mobile phone usage on sperm quality – No time-dependent relationship on usage: A systematic review and updated meta-analysis. Environmental Research. 202:111784, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2021.111784.
Abstract

Background Mobile phones emit radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic waves (EMWs), a low-level RF that can be absorbed by the human body and exert potential adverse effects on the brain, heart, endocrine system, and reproductive function. Owing to the novel findings of numerous studies published since 2012 regarding the effect of mobile phone use on sperm quality, we conducted a systematic review and updated meta-analysis to determine whether the exposure to RF-EMWs affects human sperm quality.

Methods This study was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The outcome measures depicting sperm quality were motility, viability, and concentration, which are the most frequently used parameters in clinical settings to assess fertility.
Results We evaluated 18 studies that included 4280 samples. Exposure to mobile phones is associated with reduced sperm motility, viability, and concentration. The decrease in sperm quality after RF-EMW exposure was not significant, even when the mobile phone usage increased. This finding was consistent across experimental in vitro and observational in vivo studies.

Discussion Accumulated data from in vivo studies show that mobile phone usage is harmful to sperm quality. Additional studies are needed to determine the effect of the exposure to EMWs from new mobile phone models used in the present digital environment.
Excerpts
"... 18 studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis (Table 1 and Fig. 1) (Agarwal et al., 2008, 2009; Ahmad and Baig, 2011; Al-Bayyari, 2017b; De Iuliis et al., 2009; Ding et al., 2018a; Dkhil et al., 2011; Erogul et al., 2006; Falzone et al., 2008; Fejes et al., 2005; Kaya et al., 2020; Malini, 2017b; Rago et al., 2013; Sajeda and Al-Watter, 2011; Veerachari and Vasan, 2012; Wdowiak et al., 2018; Yildirim et al., 2015; Zalata et al., 2015). Nine studies from a previous meta-analysis and nine new studies that included 4280 samples were used for analysis. One conference paper included in the previous study was excluded. The sperm quality parameters established in each paper varied and were subjected to a meta-analysis; 16 papers provided data on sperm motility, 6 provided data on sperm viability, and 12 provided data on sperm concentration. All in vitro studies were experimental, whereas all in vivo studies were observational. We identified the MD values of the entire 4280 samples and analyzed the MD values of each group after classifying them according to four criteria: control group setting (non-exposure vs. less exposure), study design (in vivo and in vitro), participant group (fertility clinic and population), and storage location (trousers or not)."
Conclusion

"Mobile phone use decreased the overall sperm quality by affecting the motility, viability, and concentration. It was further reduced in the group with high mobile phone usage. In particular, the decrease was remarkable in in vivo studies with stronger clinical significance in subgroup analysis. Therefore, long-term cell phone use is a factor that must be considered as a cause of sperm quality reduction. Additional studies are needed to determine the effect of the exposure to EMWs emitted from new mobile phone models in the present digital environment."
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935121010781
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Romualdo Sciorio, Luca Tramontano, Sandro C Esteves. Effects of mobile phone radiofrequency radiation on sperm quality. Zygote. 2021 Aug 13;1-10. doi: 10.1017/S096719942100037X
Abstract

In the last decades, the universal use of mobile phones has contributed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation environmental pollution. The steady growth in mobile phone usage has raised concerns about the effects of phone radiation on male reproductive health. Epidemiological studies report a sharp decline in sperm counts in developing countries, and worldwide with c. 14% of couples having difficulties to conceive, many of which are attributed to a male infertility factor. Environment and lifestyle factors are known to contribute to male infertility. Exposure to heat, radiation, or radioactivity might induce damage to biological tissue organs, including the testis. Given the ubiquitous use of mobile phones, the potential adverse effects of the resulting environmental radiation needs to be elucidated further. It seems to be an apparent relationship between the increased exposure to mobile phone radiofrequency and sperm quality decline, but the evidence is not conclusive. Our review summarizes the evidence concerning the possible adverse effects of cell phone radiation on the male reproductive system, with a focus on sperm quality. Also, we critically analyze the effects of elevated testicular temperature and oxidative stress on male fertility and how these factors could interfere with the physiological activities of the testis.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34384508/
Future perspectives and conclusions

The rapid technological advances in personal computers and communication devices might pose a risk for human health. Cell phone devices emit radiofrequency electromagnetic waves that seem to affect male reproductive health and other body functions (McClelland 3rd and Jaboin, 2018; Sage and Burgio, 2018; Wall et al., 2019). Although the current data are not unequivocal, it seems sound to speculate that mobile phone exposure might be contributing to subfertility. However, the existing evidence primarily relates to adverse effects on sperm motility and morphology, which are limited endpoints for evaluating the male fertility potential.

The exact mechanisms of how RF-EMR might affect the testis, epididymis, and sperm have not yet been fully understood. Additional studies are warranted, particularly prospective studies assessing sperm functional markers, such as sperm DNA integrity and OS, in fertile and subfertile men. Equally important will be to analyze whether the decreased sperm quality associated with mobile phone exposure translates into impaired pregnancy chances. The effects of short-term and long-term exposure and energy intensity should be also investigated in more detail, taking into account relevant confounders. Only then will scientific societies and regulatory bodies be able to provide users with transparent information concerning the risks and guidance for proper use.

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Gang Yu, Zhiming Bai, Song Chao, Qing Cheng, Gang Wang, Zeping Tang, Sixing Yang. Current progress on the effect of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of human and animal studies. Environmental Pollution. Published online: 30 March 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116952.
Highlights

• Mobile phone use was related to sperm quality decline of men in some areas.
• Mobile phone RF-EMR directly impaired mature sperm of men in vitro.
• Mobile phone RF-EMR affected some parameters of sperm quality in experiment animals.
• Experiment conditions affected pooled results of animal experiments.
• More studies should be conducted to investigate this issue in new era.

Abstract
Potential suppression of fertility due to mobile phone radiation remains a focus of researchers. We conducted meta-analyses on the effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality using recent evidence and propose some perspectives on this issue. Using the MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, WOS, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases, we retrieved and screened studies published before December 2020 on the effects of mobile phone use/mobile phone RF-EMR on sperm quality.
Thirty-nine studies were included. Data quality and general information of the studies were evaluated and recorded. Sperm quality data (density, motility, viability, morphology, and DFI) were compiled for further analyses, and we conducted subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses.
The pooled results of human cross-sectional studies did not support an association of mobile phone use and a decline in sperm quality. Different study areas contributed to the heterogeneity of the studies. In East Europe and West Asia, mobile phone use was correlated with a decline in sperm density and motility. Mobile phone RF-EMR exposure could decrease the motility and viability of mature human sperm in vitro.
The pooled results of animal studies showed that mobile phone RF-EMR exposure could suppress sperm motility and viability. Furthermore, it reduced sperm density in mice, in rats older than 10 weeks, and in rats restrained during exposure. Differences regarding age, modeling method, exposure device, and exposure time contributed to the heterogeneity of animal studies. Previous studies have extensively investigated and demonstrated the adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm.
In the future, new standardized criteria should be applied to evaluate potential effects of mobile phone RF-EMR dosages. Further sperm-related parameters at the functional and molecular levels as well as changes in biological characteristics of germ cells should be evaluated. Moreover, the impact of mobile phone RF-EMR on individual organs should also be examined.
Conclusion

The results of our meta-analysis indicated that in East Europe and West Asia, mobile phone use is associated with a decline in human sperm density and motility. Mobile phone RF-EMR can reduce motility and viability of mature human sperm in vitro, and it can also reduce sperm motility and viability in male animals and decrease sperm density of sexually mature restrained rats. Some important factors that affect the results of animal experiments are study setup and radiation device as well as age and exposure time. Our study is an extension of previous studies and has scientific value for future studies on effects of mobile phone RF-EMR associated with sperm quality.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0269749121005340
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Pooja Negi, Rajeev Singh. Association between reproductive health and nonionizing radiation exposure. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Published online: 20 Jan 2021. DOI: 10.1080/15368378.2021.1874973.
Abstract

Recently, a decreasing rate of fertility has to be credited to an array of factors such as environmental, health and lifestyle. Male infertility is likely to be affected by the strong exposure to heat and radiations. The most common sources of nonionizing radiations are cell phones, laptops, Wi-Fi and microwave ovens, which may participate to the cause of male infertility. One of the major sources of daily exposure to non-ionizing radiation is mobile phones. A mobile phone is now basically dominating our daily life through better services such as connectivity, smartphone devices. However, the health consequences are linked with their usage are frequently ignored. Constant exposure to non-ionizing radiations produced from a cell phone is one of the possible reasons for growing male infertility. Recently, several studies have shown that cell phone users have altered sperm parameters causing declining reproductive health. Cell phone radiation harms male fertility by affecting the different parameters like sperm motility, sperm count, sperm morphology, semen concentration, morphometric abnormalities, increased oxidative stress along with some hormonal changes. This review is focusing on the prevailing literature from in vitro and in vivo studies suggesting that non-ionizing exposure negatively affects human male infertility.


Negi & Singh, 2021

Conclusion

Generally, the outcome of the studies has indicated that mobile phone usage changes different sperm parameters in both ways in-vitro (human) and in-vivo (animals). Several studies disclose that the exposure to cell phones produces harmful effects on the testes, which may affect sperm motility, sperm number, sperm concentration, and morphology and an increased DNA damage, causing micronuclei formation and reactive oxygen species within the cell. So many evidences showed that exposure from cell phones results in elevated oxidative stress with disintegrated DNA and it is directly and indirectly dependent on the time of cell phone use. Further researches are required to provide strong evidence that the use of mobile phones may disturb sperm and testicular activity. Several evidences suggest that the irregularities reported due to RF-EMF-exposure depend on physical parameters such as utilized RF wavelength, penetration range into the object, and transmission length of the radiation. Unfortunately, existing studies are not able to suggest a true mechanism between the harmful effects of RF-EMF radiation and the male reproductive system. To conclude all of the above, government bodies and agencies should form strong guidelines against cell phone exposure and take preventive actions such as in the usage of mobile phones, preventing chatting, reducing the overall contact time, and holding the gadget away from the groin may be of significant help to people pursuing fertility. Moreover, very limited studies are available on protective actions so far so a large-scale analysis is also required to determine the reproductive parameters.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15368378.2021.1874973?src=&journalCode=iebm20

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Chidiebere Emmanuel Okechukwu. Does the Use of Mobile Phone Affect Male Fertility? A Mini-Review. J Hum Reprod Sci. Jul-Sep 2020;13(3):174-183. doi: 10.4103/jhrs.JHRS_126_19.
Abstract

Presently, there is a rise in the use of mobile phones, laptops, and wireless internet technologies such as Wi-Fi and 5G routers/modems across the globe; these devices emit a considerable amount of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) which could interact with the male reproductive system either by thermal or nonthermal mechanisms. The aim of this review was to examine the effects of mobile phone use on male fertility. Related studies that reported on the effects of EMR from mobile phones on male fertility from 2003 to 2020 were evaluated. PubMed database was used. The Medical Subject Heading system was used to extract relevant research studies from PubMed. Based on the outcomes of both human and animal studies analyzed in this review, animal and human spermatozoa exposed to EMR emitted by mobile phones had reduced motility, structural anomalies, and increased oxidative stress due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Scrotal hyperthermia and increased oxidative stress might be the key mechanisms through which EMR affects male fertility. However, these negative effects appear to be associated with the duration of mobile phone use.

Conclusion

Based on the outcomes of both human and animal studies examined in this review, animal and human spermatozoa exposed to EMR emitted by mobile phones had reduced motility, structural anomalies, and increased oxidative stress due to the production of ROS. Scrotal hyperthermia and increased oxidative stress might be the key mechanisms by which EMR affects male fertility. However, these negative effects appear to be associated with the duration of mobile phone use.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727890/

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Jaffar FHF, Osman K, Ismail NH, Chin KY, Ibrahim SF. Adverse Effects of Wi-Fi Radiation on Male Reproductive System: A Systematic Review. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2019;248(3): 169-179. doi: 10.1620/tjem.248.169. (Note: Smartphones emit Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and various types of cellular radiation.)

Abstract

Extensive use of Wi-Fi has contributed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) pollution in environment. Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter on male reproduction health. However, there are conflicting findings between studies. Thus, this review aims to elucidate the possible effects of 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi exposure on both animal and human male reproductive system. A computerized database search performed through MEDLINE via Ovid and PUBMED with the following set of keywords: 'Wi-Fi or WiFi or wireless fidelity or Wi-Fi router or WiFi router or electromagnetic or radiofrequency radiation' AND 'sperm or spermatozoa or spermatogenesis or semen or seminal plasma or testes or testis or testosterone or male reproduction' had returned 526 articles. Only 17 studies conformed to pre-set inclusion criterion. Additional records identified through Google Scholar and reviewed article further revealed six eligible articles. A total of 23 articles were used for data extraction, including 15 studies on rats, three studies on mice, and five studies on human health. Sperm count, motility and DNA integrity were the most affected parameters when exposed to RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter. Unfortunately, sperm viability and morphology were inconclusive. Structural and/or physiological analyses of the testes showed degenerative changes, reduced testosterone level, increased apoptotic cells, and DNA damage. These effects were mainly due to the elevation of testicular temperature and oxidative stress activity. In conclusion, exposure towards 2.45 GHz RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter is hazardous on the male reproductive system.

Open access paper: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/248/3/248_169/_article

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Kesari KK, Agarwal A, Henkel R. Radiation and male fertility. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018 Dec 9;16(1):118. doi: 10.1186/s12958-018-0431-1.

AbstractDuring recent years, an increasing percentage of male infertility has to be attributed to an array of environmental, health and lifestyle factors. Male infertility is likely to be affected by the intense exposure to heat and extreme exposure to pesticides, radiation, radioactivity and other hazardous substances. We are surrounded by several types of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and both have recognized causative effects on spermatogenesis. Since it is impossible to cover all types of radiation sources and their biological effects under a single title, this review is focusing on radiation deriving from cell phones, laptops, Wi-Fi and microwave ovens, as these are the most common sources of non-ionizing radiation, which may contribute to the cause of infertility by exploring the effect of exposure to radiofrequency radiation on the male fertility pattern. From currently available studies it is clear that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have deleterious effects on sperm parameters (like sperm count, morphology, motility), affects the role of kinases in cellular metabolism and the endocrine system, and produces genotoxicity, genomic instability and oxidative stress. This is followed with protective measures for these radiations and future recommendations. The study concludes that the RF-EMF may induce oxidative stress with an increased level of reactive oxygen species, which may lead to infertility. This has been concluded based on available evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies suggesting that RF-EMF exposure negatively affects sperm quality. Open access paper: https://rbej.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12958-018-0431-1

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Ford-Glanton BS, Melendez DA. Male reproductive toxicants: Electromagnetic radiation and heat. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 2018.
Abstract

Human population in today's world lives surrounded by radiofrequency fields (RF) and electromagnetic radiation (EM) fields, transmitting almost all forms of electronic communication and data that humans produce every second. Mobile devices and laptop computers are EMR-emitting devices. The effect of mobile phone emitted radiation and heat on fertility is the subject of recent interest and investigations. Many studies have found a decrease in semen quality which has increased the focus on male reproductive health. Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples of reproductive age, and nearly half of these cases are linked to male fertility (Sharlip et al., 2002). Different harmful environmental influences have led to changes in semen analysis standards by reducing the lower limits of normal ranges, which were declared by the World Health Organization (2010). The possible negative impact of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality has been well established. While no certain conclusions can be drawn from current evidence, a growing number of studies indicate a decrease in male fertility associated with increased cellular phone usage (Agarwal et al., 2011) and laptop computers using Wi-Fi (Avendaño et al., 2012a). Here we review the current evidence regarding the effects of electromagnetic radiation and heat in male fertility.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012383645361

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Yahyazadeh A, Deniz OG, Kaplan AA, Altun G, Yurt KK, Davis D. The genomic effects of cell phone exposure on the reproductive system. Environ Res. 2018 Nov;167:684-693. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.017.


Abstract

Humans are exposed to increasing levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at various frequencies as technology advances. In this context, improving understanding of the biological effects of EMF remains an important, high priority issue. Although a number of studies in this issue and elsewhere have focused on the mechanisms of the oxidative stress caused by EMF, the precise understanding of the processes involved remains to be elucidated. Due to unclear results among the studies, the issue of EMF exposure in the literature should be evaluated at the genomic level on the reproductive system. Based on this requirement, a detail review of recently published studies is necessary. The main objectives of this study are to show differences between negative and positive effect of EMF on the reproductive system of animal and human. Extensive review of literature has been made based on well known data bases like Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus. This paper reviews the current literature and is intended to contribute to a better understanding of the genotoxic effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones and wireless systems on the human reproductive system, especially on fertility. The current literature reveals that mobile phones can affect cellular functions via non-thermal effects. Although the cellular targets of global system for mobile communications (GSM)-modulated EMF are associated with the cell membrane, the subject is still controversial. Studies regarding the genotoxic effects of EMF have generally focused on DNA damage. Possible mechanisms are related to ROS formation due to oxidative stress. EMF increases ROS production by enhancing the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase in the cell membrane. Further detailed studies are needed to elucidate DNA damage mechanisms and apoptotic pathways during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in germ cells exposed to EMF.

Conclusion

This paper reviews the current literature and is intended to contribute to a better understanding of the genotoxic effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones and wireless systems on the human reproductive system, especially on fertility. The current literature reveals that mobile phones can affect cellular functions via non-thermal effects (Diem et al., 2005; Hanci et al., 2013 ; Odaci et al., 2016a). Although the cellular targets of GSM-modulated EMF are associated with the cell membrane, the subject is still controversial (Eberhardt et al., 2008). Studies regarding the genotoxic effects of EMF have generally focused on DNA damage (Mortelmans and Rupa, 2004; Young, 2002; Zeiger, 2004; Panagopoulos, 2012 ; Turedi et al., 2016). Possible mechanisms are related to ROS formation due to oxidative stress (Moustafa et al., 2004; Hanukoglu et al., 2006). EMF increases ROS production by enhancing the activity of NADH oxidase in the cell membrane (Friedman et al., 2007b). In this context, EMF affected spermatozoa may have a high degree rate of infertilization. It seems that previous genomic studies do not show definitive evidence regarding EMF affected cells in the fertilization. Although we evaluated broadly the genomic effects of cell phone exposure on the reproductive system using both animal and human studies, one of the weaknesses of this work is insufficient review of human studies. This may come from limited number of EMF based human studies in the literature. Further detailed studies are needed to elucidate DNA damage mechanisms and apoptotic pathways during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in germ cells that are exposed to EMF.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29884549


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Altun G, Deniz OG, Yurt KK, Davis D, Kaplan S. Effects of mobile phone exposure on metabolomics in the male and female reproductive systems. Environ Res. 2018 Nov;167:700-707. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.02.031.
Highlights


• Long-term exposure to EMF decreases sperm motility and fertilization.• Effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones are related to protein synthesis.
• Oxidative stress based EMF exposure modulates nitric oxide level in the germ cells.
• Oxidative stress based EMF exposure inhibits antioxidant mechanisms in the germ cells.


Abstract
With current advances in technology, a number of epidemiological and experimental studies have reported a broad range of adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health. Multiple cellular mechanisms have been proposed as direct causes or contributors to these biological effects. EMF-induced alterations in cellular levels can activate voltage-gated calcium channels and lead to the formation of free radicals, protein misfolding and DNA damage. Because rapidly dividing germ cells go through meiosis and mitosis, they are more sensitive to EMF in contrast to other slower-growing cell types. In this review, possible mechanistic pathways of the effects of EMF exposure on fertilization, oogenesis and spermatogenesis are discussed. In addition, the present review also evaluates metabolomic effects of GSM-modulated EMFs on the male and female reproductive systems in recent human and animal studies. In this context, experimental and epidemiological studies which examine the impact of mobile phone radiation on the processes of oogenesis and spermatogenesis are examined in line with current approaches.

Conclusion

EMF emitted by mobile phones has a number of well-documented adverse metabolomic effects on the male and female reproductive systems and can lead to infertility by increasing ROS production and reducing GSH and other antioxidants. The primary target of the EMF emitted by mobile phones may be the cell membrane (Pall in press, this volume). This then results in accelerated activity of membrane NADH oxidase and, consequently, greater rates of ROS formation that cannot be easily conjugated or detoxified. Although many studies have reported morphological and functional deteriorations in testis and ovary following EMF exposures, as well both structural and functional deficits in reproductive health, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. To assist in further clarification of these processes and mechanisms, Table 1 summarizes key studies on the metabolomic effects of EMF on reproductive systems. Future studies will benefit greatly from standardized exposure protocols and evaluations of key metabolomic indicators.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29884548
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Sepehrimanesh, M. & Davis, D.L. Proteomic impacts of electromagnetic fields on the male reproductive system. Comp Clin Pathol. 26(2):309-313. 2017. doi:10.1007/s00580-016-2342-x.

Abstract
The use of mobile phones and other wireless transmitting devices is increasing dramatically in developing and developed countries, as is the rate of infertility. A number of respected infertility clinics in Australia, India, USA, and Iran are reporting that those who regularly use mobile phones tend to have reduced sperm quantity and quality. Some experimental studies have found that human sperm exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF), either simulated or from mobile phones, developed biomarkers of impaired structure and function, as well as reduced quantity. These encompass pathological, endocrine, and proteomic changes. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, and the proteome is the entire array of proteins—the ultimate biomolecules in the pathways of DNA transcription to translation. Proteomics is the art and science of studying all proteins in cells, using different techniques. This paper reviews proteomic experimental and clinical evidence that EMF acts as a male-mediated teratogen and contributor to infertility.
Conclusions

As among the most rapidly proliferating human cells, spermatogenesis and associated activities offer an important endpoint for evaluation. More than 60 different compounds or industrial processes have been identified as increasing defects in human sperm or testicular tissue and possibly increasing the risk to offspring from male-mediated exposures. In this study, we reviewed structural and functional proteomic changes related to EMF exposure. Reported changes are categorized based on main affected tissue and also the most important adverse effects. Overall, these results demonstrate significant effects of radio frequency-modulated EMF exposure on the proteome, including both structural and functional impacts such as a decrease in the diameter and weight of the seminiferous tubules and the mean height of the germinal epithelium (Ozguner et al. 2005) and/or pathological and physiological changes in key biochemical components of the testicular tissues (Luo et al. 2013). These structural and functional changes may account for the pathological impact of EMF on the male reproductive system reported in the experimental work that we and others have conducted. While EMF is currently being used for a number of therapeutic applications (REF), the work we have reviewed here clearly indicates a range of harmful effects, especially on genital systems.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00580-016-2342-x

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Houston B, Nixon B, King BV, De Iuliis G, Aitken RJ. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function. Reproduction. 2016 Dec;152(6):R263-R276.

Abstract

Mobile phone usage has become an integral part of our lives. However, the effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted by these devices on biological systems and specifically the reproductive systems are currently under active debate. A fundamental hindrance to the current debate is that there is no clear mechanism of how such non-ionising radiation influences biological systems. Therefore, we explored the documented impacts of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system and considered any common observations that could provide insights on a potential mechanism.

Among a total of 27 studies investigating the effects of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, negative consequences of exposure were reported in 21. Within these 21 studies, 11 of the 15 that investigated sperm motility reported significant declines, 7 of 7 that measured the production of reactive oxygen species documented elevated levels and 4 of 5 studies that probed for DNA damage highlighted increased damage, due to RF-EMR exposure. Associated with this, RF-EMR treatment reduced antioxidant levels in 6 of 6 studies that studied this phenomenon, while consequences of RF-EMR were successfully ameliorated with the supplementation of antioxidants in all 3 studies that carried out these experiments.
In light of this, we envisage a two-step mechanism whereby RF-EMR is able to induce mitochondrial dysfunction leading to elevated ROS production.
A continued focus on research which aims to shed light on the biological effects of RF-EMR will allow us to test and assess this proposed mechanism in a variety of cell types.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27601711

Conclusion
To date, contradictory studies surrounding the impacts of RF-EMR on biological systems maintain controversy over this subject. Nevertheless, research into the biological responses stimulated by RF-EMR is particularly important given our ever-increasing use of mobile phone technology. While clinical studies are identifying possible detrimental effects of RF-EMR, it is imperative that mechanistic studies are conducted that elucidate the manner in which RF-EMR perturbs biological function, thus supplying a rational cause. A focus on the male reproductive system may experience as consequences of the personal storage of mobile devices, the unique vulnerability of the highly specialised sperm cell, and the future health burden that may be created if conception proceeds with defective, DNA-damaged spermatozoa. While this subject remains a topic of active debate, this review has considered the growing body of evidence suggesting a possible role for RF-EMR induced damage of the male germ line. In a majority of studies, this damage has been characterized by loss of sperm motility and viability as well as the induction of ROS generation and DNA damage. We have therefore given consideration to the potential mechanisms through which RF-EMR may elicit these effects on spermatozoa, which we utilized as a sensitive model system. We propose a mechanistic model in which RF-EMR exposure leads to defective mitochondrial function associated with elevated levels of ROS production and culminates in a state of oxidative stress that would account the varying phenotypes observed in response to RF-EMR exposure. With further complementary data, this model will provide new impetus to the field and stimulate research that will allow us to confidently assess the reproductive hazards of mobile phone usage.
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Adams JA, Galloway TS, Mondal D, Esteves SC, Mathews F. Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Int. 2014 Sep;70:106-12. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.015.

Summary

Mobile phones are owned by most of the adult population worldwide. Radio-frequency radiation (RFR) from these devices could affect sperm development and function. Around 14% of couples in high- and middle-income countries have difficulty conceiving. Male infertility is involved approximately 40% of the time. Several countries have reported unexplained declines in semen quality.Animal research has found that RFR can affect the cell cycle of sperm, increase sperm cell death and produce histological changes in the testes. Research on humans has found that prolonged mobile phone use is associated with decreased motility, sperm concentration, morphology and viability suggesting a likely impact on fertility.
The authors of this peer-reviewed study conducted a systematic review of the research and a quantitative analysis to determine whether exposure to mobile phone radiation affects human sperm quality. Participants were from fertility clinics and research centers.
The study examined the sperm quality outcome measures most frequently used to assess fertility in clinical settings: motility (the ability to move properly through the female reproductive tract), viability (the ability to fertilize the egg), and concentration (the number of sperm in a milliliter of ejaculate).
Ten studies were examined including 1,492 human sperm samples. Exposure to mobile phones was found to be associated with a significant eight per cent average reduction in sperm motility and a significant nine per cent average reduction in sperm viability. The effects on sperm concentration were more equivocal. The results were consistent across experimental laboratory studies and correlational observational studies.

The authors concluded that the overall results suggest that mobile phone exposure negatively affects sperm quality in humans. The clinical importance of these effects in this study may be limited to subfertile men and to men at the lower-end of the normal spectrum.Open access paper: https://bit.ly/cellphonespermdamage.

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Liu K, Li Y, Zhang G, Liu J, Cao J, Ao L, Zhang S.
Association between mobile phone use and semen quality: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Andrology. 2014 Jul;2(4):491-501.

Abstract

Possible hazardous health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations emitted from mobile phone on the reproductive system have raised public concern in recent years. This systemic review and meta-analysis was prepared following standard procedures of the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and checklist. Relevant studies published up to May 2013 were identified from five major international and Chinese literature databases: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, the VIP database and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane Library. Eighteen studies with 3947 men and 186 rats were included in the systemic review, of which 12 studies (four human studies, four in vitro studies and four animal studies) with 1533 men and 97 rats were used in the meta-analyses. Systemic review showed that results of most of the human studies and in vitro laboratory studies indicated mobile phone use or radiofrequency exposure had negative effects on the various semen parameters studied. However, meta-analysis indicated that mobile phone use had no adverse effects on semen parameters in human studies. In the in vitro studies, meta-analysis indicated that radiofrequency radiation had detrimental effect on sperm motility and viability in vitro [pooled mean difference (MDs) (95% CI): -4.11 (-8.08, -0.13), -3.82 (-7.00, -0.65) for sperm motility and viability respectively]. As for animal studies, radiofrequency exposure had harmful effects on sperm concentration and motility [pooled MDs (95% CI): -8.75 (-17.37, -0.12), -17.72 (-32.79, -2.65) for sperm concentration and motility respectively]. Evidence from current studies suggests potential harmful effects of mobile phone use on semen parameters. A further multicentred and standardized study is needed to assess the risk of mobile phone use on the reproductive system.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24700791


Recent Studies (Updated: 9/20/2022)
Abeer M. Hagras, Eman A. Toraih, Manal S. Fawzy. Mobile phones electromagnetic radiation and NAD+-dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase as a mitochondrial marker in Asthenozoospermia. Biochimie Open. Available online July 25, 2016. https://bit.ly/2b69gh9

Adams JA, Galloway TS, Mondal D, Esteves SC, Mathews F. Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environment International. 70:106-112. September 2014. https://bit.ly/cellphonespermdamage

Agarwal A, Deepinder F, Sharma RK, Ranga G, Li J. Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study. Fertil Steril. 2008 Jan;89(1):124-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17482179

Agarwal A, Desai NR, Makker K, Varghese A, Mouradi R, Sabanegh E, Sharma R. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril. 2009;92(4):1318-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18804757

Agarwal A, Singh A, Hamada A, Kesari K. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences.Int Braz J Urol. 2011; 37(4):432-54. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21888695


Akbari HA, Gaeini AA. Moderate exercise training as an effective strategy to reduce the harmful effects of cell phone radiation on Wistar rat's semen quality. Int J Radiation Research. 19(2):317-323. 2021. doi: 10.18869/acadpub.ijrr.19.2.317. https://ijrr.com/article-1-3646-en.html
Akdag MZ, Dasdag S, Canturk F, Karabulut D, Caner Y, Adalier N. Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats? J Chem Neuroanat. 2016 Jan 8. https://1.usa.gov/1RjkMVb

Al-Bayyari N. Middle East Fertility Society Journal. The effect of cell phone usage on semen quality and fertility among Jordanian males. Published online Apr 7, 2017. https://bit.ly/2pfcO6L

Al-Quzwini OF, Al-Taee, Al-Shaikh SF. Male fertility and its association with occupational and mobile phone towers hazards: An analytic study. Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 2016 Apr 8. https://bit.ly/1SRUWWs

Andrašková S, Holovská K, Ševčíková Z, Andrejčáková Z, Tóth Š, Martončíková M, Račeková E, Almášiová V. The potential adverse effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on the testes of prenatally exposed peripubertal male rats. Histol Histopathol. 2021 Dec 2:18402. doi: 10.14670/HH-18-402. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34854072/

Bin-Meferij MM, El-Kott AF. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats.Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Aug 15;8(8):12487-97. https://1.usa.gov/1MURLR1

Boga A, Emre M, Sertdemir Y, Uncu İ, Binokay S, Demirhan O. Effects of GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation during the oogenesis and spermiogenesis of Xenopus laevis. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2016 Mar 24;129:137-144. https://1.usa.gov/1VQh4pP

Çetkin M, Kızılkan N, Demirel C, Bozdağ Z, Erkılıç S, Erbağcı H. Quantitative changes in testicular structure and function in rat exposed to mobile phone radiation. Andrologia. 2017 Jan 26. https://bit.ly/2jIxlyh

Er H, Gamze Tas G, Soygur B, Ozen S, Sati L. Acute and Chronic Exposure to 900 MHz Radio Frequency Radiation Activates p38/JNK-mediated MAPK Pathway in Rat Testis. Reprod Sci. 2022 Jan 11. doi: 10.1007/s43032-022-00844-y.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35015292/
Fatehi D, Anjomshoa M, Mohammadi M, Seify M, Rostamzadeh A. Biological effects of cell-phone radiofrequency waves exposure on fertilization in mice; an in vivo and in vitro study. Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 23 October 2017. https://bit.ly/2iUT4Yd

Ford-Glanton BS, Melendez BA. Male Reproductive Toxicants: Electromagnetic Radiation and Heat. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801238-3.64536-1.
Gautam R, Singh KV, Nirala J, Murmu NN, Meena R, Rajamani P. Oxidative stress-mediated alterations on sperm parameters in male Wistar rats exposed to 3G mobile phone radiation. Andrologia. 2019 Apr 51(3):e13201. https://bit.ly/2PT5dwg
Gao XH, Hu HR, Ma X2, Chen J, Zhang GH. [Cellphone electromagnetic radiation damages the testicular ultrastructure of male rats]. [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2016 Jun;22(6):491-495. https://bit.ly/2ywyJig

Gohari FA, Saranjam B, Asgari M, Omidi L, Ekrami H, Moussavi-Najarkola SA. An experimental study of the effects of combined exposure to microwave and heat on gene expression and sperm parameters in mice. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2017 Apr-Jun;10(2):128-134. https://bit.ly/2EpfWVM

Gupta V, Srivastava R. 2.45 GHz microwave radiation induced oxidative stress: Role of inflammatory cytokines in regulating male fertility through estrogen receptor alpha in Gallus gallus domesticus. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2022 Sep 8;629:61-70. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2022.09.009.
Hancı H, Kerimoğlu G, Mercantepe T, Odacı E. Changes in testicular morphology and oxidative stress biomarkers in 60-day-old Sprague Dawley rats following exposure to continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field for 1 h a day throughout adolescence. Reprod Toxicol. 2018 Oct;81:71-78. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30009952

Hassanzadeh-Taheri M, Khalili MA, Mohebati AH, Zardast M, Hosseini M, Palmerini MG, Doostabadi MR. The detrimental effect of cell phone radiation on sperm biological characteristics in normozoospermic. Andrologia. 10 October 2021. doi: 10.1111/and.14257. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34628682/

Hatch EE, Willis SK, Wesselink AK, Mikkelsen EM, Eisenberg ML, Sommer GJ, Sorensen HT, Rothman KJ, Wise LA. Male cellular telephone exposure, fecundability, and semen quality: results from two preconception cohort studies. Hum Reprod. 2021 Apr 20;36(5):1395-1404. doi: 10.1093/humrep/deab001. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33564831/

Houston B, Nixon B, King BV, De Iuliis G, Aitken RJ. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function. Reproduction. 2016 Sep 6. pii: REP-16-0126. https://bit.ly/2cJJ2pE

Houston BJ, Nixon B, King BV, Aitken RJ, De Iuliis GN. Probing the origins of 1,800 MHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation induced damage in mouse immortalized germ cells and spermatozoa in vitro. Front. Public Health. 2018 Sep 21. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2018.00270

Houston BJ, Nixon B, McEwan KE, Martin JH, King BV, Aitken RJ, De Iuliis GN. Whole-body exposures to radiofrequency-electromagnetic energy can cause DNA damage in mouse spermatozoa via an oxidative mechanism. Sci Rep. 2019 Nov 25;9(1):17478.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-53983-9

Kamali K, Atarod M, Sarhadi S, Nikbakht J, Emami M, Maghsoudi R, Salimi H, Fallahpour B, Kamali N, Momtazan A, Ameli M. Effects of electromagnetic waves emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems on human semen analysis. Urologia. 2017 Sep 14:0.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28967061

Khoshbakht S, Motejaded F, Karimi S, Jalilvand N, Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan A. Protective effects of selenium on electromagnetic field-induced apoptosis, aromatase P450 activity, and leptin receptor expression in rat testis. Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2021;24(3):322-330. doi: 10.22038/ijbms.2021.45358.10554. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087852/

Lewis RC, Mínguez-Alarcón L, Meeker JD, Williams PL, Mezei G, Ford JB, Hauser R; EARTH Study Team.Self-reported mobile phone use and semen parameters among men from a fertility clinic. Reprod Toxicol. 2016 Nov 9. pii: S0890-6238(16)30408-7. https://bit.ly/2fV0DuM
(Note: Authors report conflict of interest and limited statistical power to detect effects.)

Li R, Yang WQ, Chen HQ, Zhang YH. Morinda Officinalis How improves cellphone radiation-induced abnormality of LH and LHR in male rats. Article in Chinese. 2015 Sep;21(9):824-7. https://bit.ly/1Sn6Qsy

Lin YY, Wu T, Liu JY, Gao P, Li KC, Guo QY, Yuan M, Lang HY, Zeng LH, Guo GZ. 1950 MHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation inhibits testosterone secretion of mouse Leydig cells. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Dec 23;15(1). https://bit.ly/2CV3VKc

Liu Q, Si T, Xu X, Liang F, Wang L, Pan S. Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats. Reprod Health. 2015; 12:65. https://bit.ly/2hhk9mF
Ma HR, Cao XH, Ma XL, Chen JJ, Chen JW, Yang H, Liu YX. [Protective effect of Liuweidihuang Pills against cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in rat testes]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2015 Aug;21(8):737-41. [Article in Chinese]. https://1.usa.gov/1MtbdCM

Nakatani-Enomoto S, Okutsu M, Suzuki S et al. Effects of 1950 MHz W-CDMA-like signal on human spermatoza. Bioelectromagnetics. 11 Jun 2016. https://bit.ly/28L7nE5

Narayanan SN, Lukose ST, Arun G, Mohapatra N, Pamala J, Concessao PL, Jetti R, Kedage V, Nalini K, Bhat PG. Modulatory effect of 900 MHz radiation on biochemical and reproductive parameters in rats. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2018;119(9):581-587. https://bit.ly/2pxJx9B

Odaci E, Hanci H, Yuluğ E, Türedi S, Aliyazıcıoğlu Y, Kaya H, Çolakoğlu S.Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymal sperm quality. Biotech Histochem. 2015 Oct 15:1-11. https://1.usa.gov/1LB2jyE

Oh JJ, Byun SS, Lee SE, Choe G, Hong SK. Effect of Electromagnetic Waves from Mobile Phones on Spermatogenesis in the Era of 4G-LTE. Biomed Res Int. 2018 Jan 29;2018:1801798. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5896334/

Oyewopo AO, Olaniyi SK, Oyewopo CI, Jimoh AT. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats. Andrologia. 2017 Mar 6. https://bit.ly/2lZ1rP1

Pandey N, Giri S, Das S, Upadhaya P. Radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz)-induced DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in testicular germ cells in swiss albino mice. Toxicol Ind Health. 2016 Oct 13. https://bit.ly/2e1OscT

Parsanezhad M, Mortazavi SMJ, Doohandeh T, Namavar Jahromi B, Mozdarani , Zarei A, Davari M, Amjadi S, Soleimani A, Haghani M. Exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers adversely affects the quality of human sperm. International Journal of Radiation Research. 15(1). Jan 2017. https://bit.ly/2nyVhck

Radwan, M, Jurewicz, J, Merecz-Kot, D, Sobala, W, Radwan, P, Bochenek, M, Hanke, W. Sperm DNA damage—the effect of stress and everyday life factors. International Journal of Impotence Research. 14 April 2016. https://bit.ly/1W0igXi

Saygin M, Asci H, Ozmen O, Cankara FN, Dincoglu D, Ilhan I. Impact of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on the testicular inflammatory pathway biomarkers in young rats: The role of gallic acid. Environ Toxicol. 2015 Aug 13. doi: 10.1002/tox.22179. [Epub ahead of print] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268881?dopt=Abstract

Schauer I, Mohamad Al-Ali B. Combined effects of varicocele and cell phones on semen and hormonal parameters. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2017 Oct 13. doi: 10.1007/s00508-017-1277-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29030685

Sepehrimanesh, M. & Davis, D.L. Proteomic impacts of electromagnetic fields on the male reproductive system. Comp Clin Pathol (2016). doi:10.1007/s00580-016-2342-x. https://bit.ly/2dTj1oT

Sepehrimanesh M, Kazemipour N, Saeb M, Nazifi S, Davis DL.Proteomic analysis of continuous 900-MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure in testicular tissue: a rat model of human cell phone exposure. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Apr 10. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-8882-z. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28397118

Shokri M, Shamsaei ME, Malekshah AK, Amiri FT. The protective effect of melatonin on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields of mobile phone-induced testicular damage in an experimental mouse model. Andrologia. 2020 Oct 11;e13834. doi: 10.1111/and.13834.
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Sokolovic D, Djordjevic B, Kocic G, Stoimenov TJ, Stanojkovic Z, Sokolovic DM, et al. The Effects of Melatonin on Oxidative Stress Parameters and DNA Fragmentation in Testicular Tissue of Rats Exposed to Microwave Radiation. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2015 May-Jun;24(3):429-36. doi: 10.17219/acem/43888. https://1.usa.gov/1hJdzAz

Solek P, Majchrowicz L, Bloniarz D, Krotoszynska E, Koziorowski M. Pulsed or continuous electromagnetic field induce p53/p21-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway in mouse spermatogenic cells in vitro and thus may affect male fertility. Toxicology. 2017 Mar 16. pii: S0300-483X(17)30092-6. https://bit.ly/2ntlHvN


Wang D, Li B, Liu Y, Ma YF, Chen SQ, Sun HJ, Dong J, Ma XH, Zhou J, Wang XH. [Impact of mobile phone radiation on the quality and DNA methylation of human sperm in vitro]. [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2015 Jun;21(6):515-520. https://1.usa.gov/1OTD4tG
Wessapan T, Rattanadecho P. Temperature induced in the testicular and related tissues due to electromagnetic fields exposure at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 102:1130-1140. 2016. https://bit.ly/2bh0xtd

Yahyazadeh A, Altunkaynak BZ, Kaplan S. Biochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometrical investigation of the effect of thymoquinone on the rat testis following exposure to a 900-MHz electromagnetic field. Acta Histochem. 2019 Nov 26:151467.
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Yu G, Tang Z, Chen H, et al. Long-term exposure to 4G smartphone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation diminished male reproductive potential by directly disrupting Spock3-MMP2-BTB axis in the testes of adult rats. Sci Total Environ. 2019 Aug 31;698:133860. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31514029

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Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
16.9.2022 06:31

Cellphone Industry Product Liability Lawsuit


Cell phone-brain tumor case finally goes to trial A major lawsuit originally filed in 2001 by individuals who got brain cancer from their cell phones is being heard in the D.C. Superior Court before Judge Alfred S. Irving (Murray et al. v. Motorola et al.; case no. 2001 CA 008479 B). The evidentiary hearings for this multi-plaintiff case are being held from September 12 to September 30, 2022. This case has dragged on for 21 years due to delaying tactics and appeals by the defendants. The defendants constitute much of the telecommunications industry including Verizon, AT&T, T-Mobile, Sprint, Motorola, Samsung, Nokia, Qualcomm, the CTIA, the IEEE, the FCC, and many other telecom companies. In the interim many plaintiffs have died. The hearings begin weekdays at 9:30 A.M. ET. The public can bear witness to this historic case:
Option 1: Dial 844-992-4726, meeting ID 129 685 3445#, then press # again if asked for another code.
Option 2: Open your web browser in Google Chrome and copy and paste the following URL or click: https://dccourts.webex.com/meet/ctb518. You will be connected to the waiting room or the live WebEx session. If this is your first time connecting to a WebEx session, you may receive a notification requesting that you download the WebEx program to your computer. When prompted, click "Join Meeting" to enter the session.
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D.C. court considers how to screen out 'bad science' in local trials

Ann E. Marimow, Washington Post, Nov 24, 2015
Excerpts
The District's highest court on Tuesday considered whether to change the rules for screening out "bad science" from trials and to adopt the standards used in most states and federal courts.
The case before the appellate court involves the question of whether cellphones can cause brain cancer. Plaintiffs have sued cellphone manufacturers and providers in D.C. Superior Court alleging that long-term exposure to cellphone radiation causes brain tumors.
The appellate court will not rule on that specific issue, but the full court is taking the opportunity to weigh how judges decide which expert witnesses are allowed to testify.
Under the standard used in the District, Illinois and a small number of other states, the judge determines whether a methodology or theory has gained "general acceptance" in the expert's field. The test is known as Frye, a reference to a 1923 D.C. Circuit case.
After a landmark 1993 Supreme Court case, Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, federal courts — and now the majority of states — adopted a more extensive test, making the judge the "gatekeeper" for ensuring that the scientific evidence is "not only relevant, but reliable."
On one hand, [Judge] Weisberg said, there is not enough evidence for any scientist to conclude with certainty that cellphones cause brain cancer. On the other, because of the District's standards for admitting evidence, Weisberg said he would permit the testimony of five experts who would say in effect that cellphones are more likely than not to cause or promote certain brain tumors.
But Weisberg also noted that in a federal courtroom, that testimony was unlikely to be aired.
Attorneys for the 13 plaintiffs and a local organization of trial lawyers had urged the court in its filings to keep the standard, which lawyer Jeffrey B. Morganroth said Tuesday is "working just fine."
Plaintiffs' attorneys, representing people who suffer from or have died from brain tumors, said any change would be a "drastic departure" from current practice.
https://wapo.st/1MQclwA


Case on Health Risk From Cellphones Is Back in Court

Ryan Knutson, Wall Street Journal, Nov 22, 2015


Excerpts
Murray v. Motorola faces another test Tuesday when the two sides argue over what legal standard to use
In the years since the lawsuit was filed, other plaintiffs have brought more than two dozen similar cases, the most recent one in October. Defendants include almost all the major cellphone and wireless companies, including AT&T Inc., Verizon Communications Inc., Apple Inc. and Samsung Electronics Co.
Representatives for Motorola and the other defendants referred questions to the CTIA, the wireless industry trade group, which said in a statement that "peer-reviewed scientific evidence has overwhelmingly indicated that wireless devices do not pose a public health risk for adults or children."
So far, the cases have mostly been a battle over legal procedure, not science ...
... A total of 13 cases have been consolidated into the Murray case, and the plaintiffs are seeking more than $1.9 billion in damages combined.
In filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, cellphone manufacturers and wireless carriers specifically acknowledge the risk posed by health-related lawsuits. "We may incur significant expenses in defending these lawsuits," Verizon wrote in its 2015 annual filing. "In addition, we may be required to pay significant awards or settlements."
... Eight of the plaintiffs in other cases have died while the lawsuits have been pending, he said. A decision in favor of Motorola and the other defendants, which are pushing for the Daubert standard, would send ripples beyond the Murray lawsuit. Seventeen of the other cellphone-health cases are stayed pending a ruling in this case.
If the plaintiffs prevail, discovery will begin on the broad issue of whether cellphones can cause brain tumors, specifically, glioma and acoustic neuroma. In addition, the plaintiffs would need to prove cellphones caused the cancer in their specific cases.
https://on.wsj.com/1LuI2cW


August 8, 2014

My comments: This superior court ruling enables the discovery phase of the trial to begin. Perhaps, we will soon learn whether the wireless industry has been covering up knowledge of the health risks of mobile phone use.

The insurance industry has refused to provide product liability insurance on cell phones primarily due to this concern as they fear that cell phone litigation may turn out like tobacco or asbestos litigation did with huge punitive awards.


My most recent press release, "FCC: 98 Scientific Experts Demand Stronger Regulation of Cellphone Radiation" makes the case that the scientific community has known for many years about the health risks of mobile phone radiation. The wireless industry, however, has confused government officials and the public by co-opting scientists to support the industry's disinformation campaign to buy time.

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29 brain tumor lawsuits move toward trial in Washington, DC

Arthur Firstenberg, Cellular Phone Task Force, Aug 11, 2014

Twenty-nine high-profile lawsuits brought by people whose brain tumors were caused by their cell phones are finally moving toward trial. Six of these cases were originally filed in 2001 and 2002. Many of the plaintiffs are no longer alive.

On Friday, Judge Frederick H. Weisberg, in the D.C. Superior Court, admitted the testimony of five expert witness for the plaintiffs, and the 12- and 13-year-old cases will now move into the discovery phase. Each of the plaintiffs is asking for more than $100,000,000. There are 46 defendants including Motorola, Nokia, AT&T, Bell Atlantic, Cellular One, Cingular Wireless, SBC Communications, Verizon, Vodafone, the Telecommunications Industry Association, the IEEE, ANSI, the CTIA, and the FCC. The plaintiffs are represented by Jeffrey B. Morganroth of Morganroth & Morganroth, a law firm in Birmingham, Michigan.

For over a decade the industry and the plaintiffs have played tug-of-war with the oldest cases, sending them back and forth between federal and state courts, and fighting over whether the plaintiff's claims were preempted by the Telecommunications Act of 1996.

In 2009 the D.C. Court of Appeals, in Murray v. Motorola (982 A. 2d 764), ruled that the telecommunications companies could not be sued over brain tumors caused by cell phones manufactured after 1996. But since all of these plaintiffs had used pre-1996 phones, their lawsuits were allowed to go forward. They were also allowed to go forward on their claims that the defendants made false and misleading statements and failed to disclose information about the dangers of cell phones. These claims were brought under the D.C. Consumer Protection Procedures Act.

In December 2013 and January 2014, testimony was heard from:

DR. SHIRA KRAMER, a Maryland epidemiologist;

DR. MICHAEL KUNDI, professor of epidemiology and occupational health at the Medical University of Vienna;

DR. VINI KHURANA, a neurosurgeon and professor of neurosurgery at the Australian National University in Canberra;

DR. IGOR BELYAEV, head research scientist at the Cancer Research institute at the Slovak Academy of Science in Bratislava, Slovakia;

DR. WILHELM MOSGOELLER, professor and medical doctor at the University of Vienna Medical School's Institute for Cancer Research;

DR. DIMITRIS PANAGAPOULOUS, founder of the Radiation Biophysics Laboratory at the University of Athens;

DR. ABRAHAM LIBOFF, professor emeritus of physics at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan; and

DR. LAURA PLUNKETT, pharmacologist and toxicologist in Houston.

On Friday, August 8, 2014, the testimony of Drs. Kramer, Khurana, and Panagopoulos was disallowed. But the testimony of Drs. Kundi, Belyaev, Mosgoeller, Liboff, and Plunkett was admitted. They will testify at trial about "general causation," i.e. that cell phones can cause brain tumors.

The lawsuits now move into the discovery phase, in which each side is compelled to produce documents and answer questions. This is the first time that the industry has had to turn over data. There will then be a fight over the admission of the testimony of witnesses on "specific causation," i.e. doctors and others who will testify that these specific cell phones caused these specific tumors.

Friday's decision by Judge Weisberg allowed 13 of the cases, which have been consolidated in one action, to go forward. The other 16 cases are being tried separately, but the parties in those cases agreed to be bound by Friday's decision.


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Judge Frederick H. Weisberg, Washington D.C. Superior Court: Expert Preemption Order (page 5):

"Federal law is the supreme law of the land, but there is no constitutional provision that says federal facts are the supreme facts of the land. Federal law can preempt state law, but it cannot preempt scientific fact. The scientific truth, whatever it may be, lies outside of the FCC's regulations about what is 'safe' or 'unsafe.' The experts have offered their opinions on the state of the scientific knowledge and general causation. They have testified about the methodology they used to reach those opinions. Their testimony on these points, at this stage of the case, is not subject to preemption."
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Judge Weisberg's ruling on expert witness admissibility

Michael Patrick Murray et al. v. Motorola, Inc. et al.
Superior Court for the District of Columbia

https://bit.ly/DC_expert_ruling

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Microsoft Corporation. Form 10-K. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. Washington. July 31, 2015. pp. 87-88.
https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/789019/000119312515272806/d918813d10k.htm

U.S. cell phone litigation
Nokia, along with other handset manufacturers and network operators, is a defendant in 19 lawsuits filed in the Superior Court for the District of Columbia by individual plaintiffs who allege that radio emissions from cellular handsets caused their brain tumors and other adverse health effects. We have assumed responsibility for these claims as part of the NDS acquisition and have been substituted for the Nokia defendants. Nine of these cases were filed in 2002 and are consolidated for certain pre-trial proceedings; the remaining 10 cases are stayed. In a separate 2009 decision, the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia held that adverse health effect claims arising from the use of cellular handsets that operate within the U.S. Federal Communications Commission radio frequency emission guidelines ("FCC Guidelines") are pre-empted by federal law. The plaintiffs allege that their handsets either operated outside the FCC Guidelines or were manufactured before the FCC Guidelines went into effect. The lawsuits also allege an industry-wide conspiracy to manipulate the science and testing around emission guidelines.
In September 2013, defendants in the consolidated cases moved to exclude plaintiffs' expert evidence of general causation on the basis of flawed scientific methodologies. In March 2014, defendants filed a separate motion to preclude plaintiffs' general causation testimony. In August 2014, the court granted in part defendants' motion to exclude plaintiffs' general causation experts. The plaintiffs filed an interlocutory appeal. In December 2014, the District of Columbia Court of Appeals agreed to hear en banc defendants' interlocutory appeal challenging the standard for evaluating expert scientific evidence. Trial court proceedings are stayed pending resolution of the appeal.
Canadian cell phone class action
Nokia, along with other handset manufacturers and network operators, is a defendant in a 2013 class action lawsuit filed in the Supreme Court of British Columbia by a purported class of Canadians who have used cellular phones for at least 1,600 hours, including a subclass of users with brain tumors. Microsoft was served with the complaint in June 2014 and has been substituted for the Nokia defendants. The litigation is not yet active as several defendants remain to be served.

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Court Allows Expert Testimony in Litigation Alleging Cell Phone-Linked Tumors According to Consumers' Legal Team

WASHINGTON -- Aug 8, 2014 /PRNewswire/ -- A Washington D.C. superior court ruled that five scientific expert witnesses can testify for consumers suffering from brain tumors allegedly caused or promoted by cell phone use Ashcraft & Gerel LLP Morganroth and Morganroth PLLC Lundy Lundy Soileau & South L.L.P. and co-counsel said today.

Judge Frederick H. Weisberg who is presiding over 13 consolidated lawsuits against the telecom industry ruled that experts met the Dyas/Frye legal standards and can offer testimony related to injury causation and health effects. The court held evidentiary hearings in December 2013 and January 2014 and reviewed hundreds of exhibits.

Judge Weisberg noted that while the court did not decide the issue of whether cell phones cause brain tumors new scientific studies and information have emerged recently. His order referred to a May 2014 French case-control epidemiological study that found support for "a possible association between heavy mobile phone use" and brain tumors.

Each of the plaintiffs in the litigation suffers from a brain tumor or is suing for a family of someone who died of brain cancer.

The plaintiffs are represented by Morganroth and Morganroth PLLC of Birmingham Mich.; Ashcraft & Gerel LLP of Washington D.C. and Lundy Lundy Soileau & South LLP of Lake Charles La.; The Knoll Law Firm LLC of Marksville La.; Pribanic & Pribanic LLC of Pittsburgh; Frasier Frasier & Hickman LLP of Tulsa Okla.; and Bernstein Liebhard LLP of New York.

Hunter Lundy of Lundy Lundy Soileau & South LLP said "The telecom industry argued for years that cell phone consumer litigants could not produce scientists who could relate exposure to cell phone radiation to tumors. The ruling today refutes that contention and our experts' opinions having met the Dyas/Frye test are admissible."

Jeffrey B. Morganroth of Morganroth and Morganroth PLLC said "We now have opinions and testimony from prominent scientific experts that will be admissible and support our clients' claims that cell phone radiation can cause brain tumors in humans. With this landmark ruling the cases are moving forward to fact discovery."

Michelle Parfitt and James F. Green of Ashcraft & Gerel LLP said "The evidence presented at the evidentiary hearings months ago only included publicly available materials and did not include any testing data or information in possession of the defendants. We will seek that information as soon as possible."

The first of the consolidated cases is "Michael Patrick Murray et al. v. Motorola Inc. et al." Case No. 2001 CA 008479 B in the Superior Court for the District of Columbia. The defendants in the cases are Motorola Inc. Qualcomm Inc. Nokia Inc. Audiovox Communications Corp. and Samsung Telecomm American LLC.

Contact: Erin Powers Powers MediaWorks LLC for Ashcraft Gerel LLP info@powersmediaworks.com.

SOURCE Ashcraft & Gerel LLP




Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
16.9.2022 06:29

The "Havana syndrome": A special case of electrohypersensitivity?


The Moscow Signals Declassified: Microwave Diplomacy, 1967-1977
William Burr & Peter Kornbluh, National Security Archive (Briefing Book #805), Sep 15, 2022

"The history of the Moscow Signal has received renewed media attention in recent months as a potential historical precedent for the 'Havana Syndrome'—a mysterious constellation of cognitive and neurological symptoms suffered by CIA and State Department personnel in Havana and elsewhere that led to the shuttering of the CIA Station in Cuba and drastic staff reductions at the U.S. Embassy in Havana five years ago this month. Significant differences between the two phenomena notwithstanding, in interviews and articles a number of former diplomats who were exposed to the Moscow Signal have compared the two episodes. "Today's Havana Syndrome is 'like déjà vu all over again,'" wrote retired diplomat James Schumaker, who developed leukemia after serving in Russia in the 1970s, in an article for The Foreign Service Journal titled 'Before Havana Syndrome there was Moscow Signal.'

The Archive's 'Microwave Diplomacy, 1967-1977' posting is the second of a two-part series on the Moscow Signal. Part I, 'PANDORA/BIZARRE,' was published on September 13. A related posting concerning the Soviet beaming of ionizing radiation, 'Irradiating Richard Nixon,' will be published the week of September 19...."

"High-level U.S. efforts to press Soviet leaders to halt the radiation activity began in 1967 and continued under four administrations into the Carter era. The microwave transmissions, believed to be related to bugging devices hidden in the Embassy walls, continued for decades after they were first detected when the U.S. Chancery opened in the early 1950s...."

For more information on the Moscow Signal, see summaries of 32 recently declassified documents in addition to the original documents:

https://nsarchive.gwu.edu/briefing-book/intelligence-russia-programs/2022-09-15/moscow-signals-declassified-microwave
See also: The Guardian US: US hid fears of radiation in Moscow embassy in 70s from staff, documents reveal.
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Intelligence Community Expert Panel: Executive Summary

On February 1, 2022, the executive summary from a report prepared by the IC (U.S. Intelligence Community) Expert Panel on Anomalous Health Incidents (AHIs) was declassified by Avril Haines, Director of National Intelligence.

The report makes the following conclusions:

"Four 'core characteristics' were prominent among these AHIs: the acute onset of audio-vestibular sensory phenomena, sometimes including sound or pressure in only one ear or on one side of the head; other nearly simultaneous signs and symptoms such as vertigo, loss of balance, and ear pain; a strong sense of locality or directionality; and the absence of known environmental or medical conditions that could have caused the reported signs and symptoms."

"The signs and symptoms of AHIs are genuine and compelling. The panel bases this assessment on incident reports, medical data from affected individuals and interviews with their physicians, and interviews with affected individuals themselves. Some incidents have affected multiple persons in the same space, and clinical samples from a few affected individuals have shown early, transient elevations in biomarkers suggestive of cellular injury to the nervous system. The reported signs and symptoms of AHIs are diverse and may be caused by multiple mechanisms, but no case should be discounted."

"... the combination of the four core characteristics is distinctly unusual and unreported elsewhere in the medical literature, and so far have not been associated with a specific neurological abnormality. Several aspects of this unique neurosensory syndrome make it unlikely to be caused by a functional neurological disorder. The location dependence and sudden onset and offset, for example, argue for a stimulus that is spatially and temporally discrete. The perception of sound and pain within only one ear suggests the stimulation of its mechanoreceptors, a specific cranial nerve, or nuclei in the brainstem, all of which mediate hearing and balance. The lack of other symptoms also helped rule-out known medical conditions."

"Pulsed electromagnetic energy, particularly in the radiofrequency range, plausibly explains the core characteristics, although information gaps exist. There are several plausible pathways involving various forms of pulsed electromagnetic energy, each with its own requirements, limitations, and unknowns. For all the pathways, sources exist that could generate the required stimulus, are concealable, and have moderate power requirements. Using nonstandard {redacted words} antennas and techniques, the signals could be propagated with low loss through air for tens to hundreds of meters, and with some loss, through most building materials. {redacted sentence}."

"Ultrasound also plausibly explains the core characteristics, but only in close-access scenarios and with information gaps...."

"Psychosocial factors alone cannot account for the core characteristics, although they may cause some other incidents or contribute to long-term symptoms...."

"Ionizing radiation, chemical and biological agents, infrasound, audible sound, ultrasound propagated over large distances, and bulk heating from electromagnetic energy are all implausible explanations for the core characteristics in the absence of other synergistic stimuli. These mechanisms are unlikely, on their own, to account for the required effects or are technically or practically infeasible...."

Three of the seven recommendations are completely redacted: Detectors, Biological Effects, and Devices to Aid Research.

The executive summary can be downloaded:

https://www.dni.gov/files/ODNI/documents/assessments/2022_02_01_AHI_Executive_Summary_FINAL_Redacted.pdf

--

Nov 9, 2021 (Updated Nov 26, 2021)

"Secretary of State Antony Blinken on Friday detailed new efforts to investigate "Havana syndrome," the mysterious health affliction affecting dozens of U.S. personnel first identified in Cuba and now including several countries."

"Symptoms include headaches, dizziness, cognitive difficulties, tinnitus, vertigo and trouble with seeing, hearing or balancing. Many officials have suffered symptoms years after reporting an incident, while some have been diagnosed with traumatic brain injuries."

"In an effort to learn more, Blinken confirmed Friday that the State Department has deployed new technology to U.S. missions around the world to help understand the cause.

'The details I can provide on this are limited as well, but I can say that new technology is helping us more quickly and thoroughly evaluate a variety of potential causes of these incidents, and we've distributed across posts so that we can respond rapidly to new reports,' he said."

(Conor Finnegan and Matt Seyler, "Blinken details new efforts to investigate 'Havana syndrome," ABC News, Nov 5, 2021)

In my opinion, the "Havana syndrome" is likely caused by exposure to microwave or radio frequency radiation (RFR) resulting in the onset of electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in exposed individuals who have greater sensitivity to RFR. Moreover, as I explained to the Daily Mail in December 2017 the symptoms may be caused by exposure to low-moderate intensity microwave radiation used for surveillance:

"The finding that the attacks led to perceptible changes in their brains is also one of several factors fueling growing skepticism that some kind of sonic weapon was involved.

'This makes me think the victims may have developed electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) from exposure to electromagnetic fields in the embassy,' Joel Moskowitz, a community health professor at the University of California, Berkeley, told Daily Mail Online.

'This happened during the Cold War to personnel stationed in the US embassy in Moscow when the Soviets were bombarding the embassy with microwaves to monitor oral communications in the ambassador's office.'"

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-5151315/Doctors-identify-brain-abnormalities-Cuba-attack-patients.html
If my hypothesis is correct that a surveillance device is the source of exposure for the "Havana syndrome" rather than a weapon, and if only a minority of exposed individuals are susceptible to developing serious symptoms associated with EHS, then the extent of surveillance could be widespread, placing our nation's secrets at risk.
William Broad of the New York Times interviewed me for a story on the "Havana syndrome" in September 2018. He dismissed my hypothesis that the effects observed in Havana were due to EHS and that the source of the exposure may have been microwave-based surveillance technology rather than weaponry. In his article, he did not cite me or Dr. Beatrice Golomb, a colleague from UC San Diego whom he also interviewed who had published a paper on the Havana syndrome in which she hypothesized that it was caused by pulsed microwave radiation (see abstract below).

In October 2019, following up on a referral from Allan Frey (who pioneered the research on microwave hearing and blood-brain-barrier penetration), Dr. Thaddeus Thomas from the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) contacted me to learn about the science regarding health effects from RFR exposure. He informed me that the ARL was heading a joint military task force to determine whether an adversary had developed new weapon technology based on RFR. I shared with him the research on EHS. I cautioned him not to assume that the "attack" was a weapon as it could have been from microwave-based surveillance technology because health effects have been observed in many individuals who experienced relatively low levels of RFR exposure. Moreover, Russian surveillance was a prime explanation for similar incidents that occurred at the U.S. embassy in Moscow during the Cold War (aka "Moscow signal").

BTW, the smallest microwave weapon I am aware of, the Silent Guardian active denial system, requires a 10,000 pound containerized system to generate a 30-kilowatt beam. The primary symptom is a burning sensation in the skin, not strange sounds.
In October 2021, pursuing the military weapon angle, Dr. Thomas and his colleagues published the following paper in the AAAS journal Science Advances. This joint U.S. Army/Air Force study found pulsed microwaves compliant with current safety standards could potentially cause traumatic brain injury.
--

Computational modeling investigation of pulsed high peak power microwaves and the potential for traumatic brain injury
Amy M Dagro, Justin W Wilkerson, Thaddeus P Thomas, Benjamin T Kalinosky, Jason A Payne. Computational modeling investigation of pulsed high peak power microwaves and the potential for traumatic brain injury. Sci Adv. 2021 Oct 29;7(44):eabd8405. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.abd8405.
Amy Dagro and Thaddeus Thomas are with the U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD; Benjamin Kalinosky is with General Dynamics Information Technology, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX; and Jason Payne is with U.S, Air Force Research Laboratory, 711th Human Performance Wing, Airman Systems Directorate, Bioeffects Division, Radio Frequency Bioeffects Branch, JBSA Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX; Justin Wilkerson is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
Abstract

When considering safety standards for human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave energy, the dominant concerns pertain to a thermal effect. However, in the case of high-power pulsed RF/microwave energy, a rapid thermal expansion can lead to stress waves within the body. In this study, a computational model is used to estimate the temperature profile in the human brain resulting from exposure to various RF/microwave incident field parameters. The temperatures are subsequently used to simulate the resulting mechanical response of the brain. Our simulations show that, for certain extremely high-power microwave exposures (permissible by current safety standards), very high stresses may occur within the brain that may have implications for neuropathological effects. Although the required power densities are orders of magnitude larger than most real-world exposure conditions, they can be achieved with devices meant to emit high-power electromagnetic pulses in military and research applications.

Excerpts

"The bulk of scientific literature uses continuous waves and moderate field strengths (typical of real-life scenarios), with less emphasis on pulsed fields of very high peak strength that may occur with ultrawideband pulse generators or EM pulse simulators (4). It is worth investigating whether extremely high peak power sources applied with a slow repetition frequency, or low duty cycle, can induce injurious effects without thermal buildup greater than a few degrees Celsius."

"With the exception of low intracranial absorption at 1400 MHz, the highest ratio of peak average intracranial SAR* to peak average skin SAR* occurs between 1 to 1.8 GHz."

"The MAE, also referred to as "microwave hearing" or the "Frey effect" due to its discovery by Allan Frey in 1961 (7, 8), was initially observed when subjects standing up to hundreds of feet away from a radar transponder could hear an audible tonal noise (e.g., chirping, buzzing, or clicking). The scientific underpinnings of the MAE were controversial for the first several years (9–11). After more than a decade of investigations, it became generally accepted that the perceived sound is due to the cochlea detecting stress waves that result from a rapid temperature rise in tissues within the head due to pulsed RF/microwave exposure (11, 12)."

"Typically, relatively low-average powers and small temperature changes (10−6°C) are required to elicit the MAE (12). Although adverse health effects from the MAE have not been previously established, one study on rodents suggests that very high–peak power pulsed microwaves can result in cognitive deficits (13)."

"This study uses a two-simulation approach to investigate whether an HPM source could theoretically induce adverse mechanical responses within the brain."

"This study has shown that, by applying a small temperature increase (<0.0005°C) in a very short amount of time (less than several microseconds), potentially injurious stress waves are created."

"For frequencies between 400 MHz to 2 GHz, the IEEE C95.1 RF exposure guidelines limit the exposure reference limit (ERL) to fmhz/200 (W/m2) over an averaging time of 30 min. For 1-GHz exposures, the IEEE C95.1 ERL of 5 W/m2 over 30 min would equate to an average energy density of 9000 J/m2. Our computational model shows that, for sufficiently high incident power densities, a single pulse could potentially result in biologically meaningful pressures. For example, large pressures may occur following 1-GHz frequency, a pulse duration of 5 μs, and incident power densities of at least 1.5 × 107 W/m2. The energy density associated with such a pulse would be equal to PIN×τd or 75 J/m2 (significantly less than the ERL standard)."

"Note that the proposed HPM power densities in this study are extremely large and several orders of magnitude larger than power densities typically experienced by the public. As an illustrative example, at around 200 feet from a cell phone base station, a person will be exposed to a power density of only 0.001 mW/cm2 or less (36). This study establishes a testable hypothesis between potential neurocognitive effects and the thermoelastic mechanism from HPM systems. To date, however, adverse effects from HPM systems have not been established in the scientific literature."

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8555891/
==
New Report Assesses Illnesses Among U.S. Government Personnel and Their Families at Overseas Embassies

News Release, National Academy of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, December 5, 2020

WASHINGTON — Government personnel and their families at the U.S. embassy in Havana, Cuba, in late 2016, and later at the U.S. consulate in Guangzhou, China, began suffering from a range of unusual — and in some cases suddenly occurring — symptoms such as a perceived loud noise, ear pain, intense head pressure or vibration, dizziness, visual problems, and cognitive difficulties, and many still continue to experience these or other health problems. As part of its effort to ascertain potential causes of the illnesses, inform government employees more effectively about health risks at posts abroad, and determine best medical practices for screening, prevention, and treatment for both short- and long-term health problems, the U.S. Department of State asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide advice. After undergoing a security review, the National Academies' report is now available.

In examining plausible causes of these illnesses, the committee that conducted the study and wrote the report considered the possibilities of directed, pulsed radio frequency energy, chemical exposures, infectious diseases such as Zika, and psychological issues. An Assessment of Illness in U.S. Government Employees and Their Families at Overseas Embassies says that among the mechanisms the committee considered, directed, pulsed radio frequency energy appears to be the most plausible mechanism in explaining these cases, especially in individuals with the distinct early symptoms. Persistent postural-perceptual dizziness (PPPD) — a functional (not psychiatric) vestibular disorder that may be triggered by vestibular, neurologic, or other medical and psychological conditions — is a secondary reinforcing mechanism, as well as the possible additive effects of psychological conditions.

The committee could not rule out other possible mechanisms and found it is likely that a multiplicity of factors explains some cases and the differences between others. In particular, it could not be certain that the individuals with only the chronic set of signs and symptoms suffered from the same causes and mechanisms as those who reported the initial, sudden onset set of signs and symptoms. The committee noted that it faced several challenges in its assessment, related to the extreme variability in the clinical cases as well as lack of access to specific health or personal information on the affected individuals.

"The committee found these cases quite concerning, in part because of the plausible role of directed, pulsed radiofrequency energy as a mechanism, but also because of the significant suffering and debility that has occurred in some of these individuals," said committee chair David Relman, Thomas C. and Joan M. Merigan Professor in Medicine, professor of microbiology and immunology, and senior fellow at the Center for International Security and Cooperation at Stanford University. "We as a nation need to address these specific cases as well as the possibility of future cases with a concerted, coordinated, and comprehensive approach."

The report includes a number of recommendations for rehabilitation and actions the State Department should take to enhance responses to future threats to the well-being of its personnel and their families.

The study — undertaken by the Standing Committee to Advise the U.S. Department of State on Unexplained Health Effects on U.S. Government Employees and Their Families at Overseas Embassies — was sponsored by the U.S. Department of State. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine are private, nonprofit institutions that provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions related to science, technology, and medicine. They operate under an 1863 congressional charter to the National Academy of Sciences, signed by President Lincoln.

Consensus Study Report: An Assessment of Illness in U.S. Government Employees and Their Families at Overseas Embassies

In late 2016, U.S. Embassy personnel in Havana, Cuba, began to report the development of an unusual set of symptoms and clinical signs. For some of these patients, their case began with the sudden onset of a loud noise, perceived to have directional features, and accompanied by pain in one or both ears or across a broad region of the head, and in some cases, a sensation of head pressure or vibration, dizziness, followed in some cases by tinnitus, visual problems, vertigo, and cognitive difficulties. Other personnel attached to the U.S. Consulate in Guangzhou, China, reported similar symptoms and signs to varying degrees, beginning in the following year. As of June 2020, many of these personnel continue to suffer from these and/or other health problems. Multiple hypotheses and mechanisms have been proposed to explain these clinical cases, but evidence has been lacking, no hypothesis has been proven, and the circumstances remain unclear.

The Department of State asked the National Academies to review the cases, their clinical features and management, epidemiologic investigations, and scientific evidence in support of possible causes, and advise on approaches for the investigation of potential future cases. In An Assessment of Illness in U.S. Government Employees and Their Families at Overseas Embassies, the committee identifies distinctive clinical features, considers possible causes, evaluates plausible mechanisms and rehabilitation efforts, and offers recommendations for future planning and responses.

https://www.nap.edu/read/25889/chapter/1
==

Diplomats' Mystery Illness and Pulsed Radiofrequency/ Microwave Radiation
Beatrice Alexandra Golomb. Diplomats' Mystery Illness and Pulsed Radiofrequency/ Microwave Radiation. Neural Computation. November 2018. 30(11):2882-2985. doi: 10.1162/neco_a_01133.
UC San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA.
Abstract
Importance:
A mystery illness striking U.S. and Canadian diplomats to Cuba (and now China) "has confounded the FBI, the State Department and US intelligence agencies" (Lederman, Weissenstein, & Lee, 2017). Sonic explanations for the so-called health attacks have long dominated media reports, propelled by peculiar sounds heard and auditory symptoms experienced. Sonic mediation was justly rejected by experts. We assessed whether pulsed radiofrequency/microwave radiation (RF/MW) exposure can accommodate reported facts in diplomats, including unusual ones.
Observations:
(1) Noises: Many diplomats heard chirping, ringing or grinding noises at night during episodes reportedly triggering health problems. Some reported that noises were localized with laser-like precision or said the sounds seemed to follow them (within the territory in which they were perceived). Pulsed RF/MW engenders just these apparent "sounds" via the Frey effect. Perceived "sounds" differ by head dimensions and pulse characteristics and can be perceived as located behind in or above the head. Ability to hear the "sounds" depends on high-frequency hearing and low ambient noise.
(2) Signs/symptoms: Hearing loss and tinnitus are prominent in affected diplomats and in RF/MW-affected individuals. Each of the protean symptoms that diplomats report also affect persons reporting symptoms from RF/MW: sleep problems, headaches, and cognitive problems dominate in both groups. Sensations of pressure or vibration figure in each. Both encompass vision, balance, and speech problems and nosebleeds. Brain injury and brain swelling are reported in both.
(3) Mechanisms: Oxidative stress provides a documented mechanism of RF/MW injury compatible with reported signs and symptoms; sequelae of endothelial dysfunction (yielding blood flow compromise), membrane damage, blood-brain barrier disruption, mitochondrial injury, apoptosis, and autoimmune triggering afford downstream mechanisms, of varying persistence, that merit investigation.
(4) Of note, microwaving of the U.S. embassy in Moscow is historically documented.
Conclusions and relevance:
Reported facts appear consistent with pulsed RF/MW as the source of injury in affected diplomats. Nondiplomats citing symptoms from RF/MW, often with an inciting pulsed-RF/MW exposure, report compatible health conditions. Under the RF/MW hypothesis, lessons learned for diplomats and for RF/MW-affected civilians may each aid the other.
https://cognet.mit.edu/journal/10.1162/neco_a_01133
==
The "Moscow signal" epidemiological study, 40 years on
Martínez JA. The "Moscow signal" epidemiological study, 40 years on. Rev Environ Health. 2019 Mar 26;34(1):13-24. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2018-0061.
Abstract

Between 1953 and 1979, the USSR irradiated the United States embassy in Moscow with microwaves. This episode, a classic Cold War affair, has acquired enormous importance in the discussions on the effect of non-ionizing radiation on people's health. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as being a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B), but the results of recent laboratory and epidemiological studies have led some researchers to conclude that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields should be reclassified as a human carcinogen instead of merely a possible human carcinogen. In 1978, the "Moscow signal" case was officially closed after the publication of the epidemiological study of (Lilienfeld AM, Tonascia J, Tonascia S, Libauer CA, Cauthen GM. Foreign Service health status study. Evaluation of health status of foreign service and other employees from selected Eastern European posts. Report on Foreign Service Health Status Study, U.S. Department of State 6025-619073, 1978.), showing no apparent evidence of increased mortality rates and limited evidence regarding general health status. However, several loose ends still remain with respect to this epidemiological study, as well as the affair as a whole. In this paper, we summarize the available evidence concerning this case, paying special attention to the epidemiological study of Lilienfeld et al. After reviewing the available literature (including declassified documents), and after some additional statistical analyses, we provide new insights which do not complete the puzzle, but which may help to better understand it.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30676008/
Excerpts
The Soviet objective

To activate listening devices on the walls? This may well have been, as we have just indicated, one of the explanations given by the Americans, but serious doubts had, by this time, been cast on American institutional credibility. After all, the State Department had, for more than 15 years, hidden from its own employees the fact that that they were being irradiated, had lied to them about the purpose of the blood tests, and had categorically denied that some of the results were of concern to their health. For example, the State Department had reported that Ambassador Walter Stoessel was in good health and that blood tests showing high levels of white blood cells were unrelated to leukemia (13). Nevertheless, Stoessel died of leukemia on December 9, 1986, aged 66 (27).

The mind control hypothesis was also considered by the American government (28). The Americans themselves had been experimenting on mind control as part of the MK ULTRA project, and suspected that the Soviets might be doing the same.

The former CIA agent Victor Marchetti claimed that the microwave bombardment had nothing to do with a threat to health, but with a strategy of confusion in order to waste the time of the American government while it studied and analyzed what it believed might be taking place (13). Whether this is true or not, the reality is that the American government had indeed devoted huge resources and efforts to analyzing what had happened, especially with the epidemiological study of Lilienfeld et al. (1).

The Soviets, on the other hand, finally admitted at the beginning of 1976 to the use of microwaves, after denying it for 15 years. The official version until then had been that the radiation detected by the Americans at the embassy was caused by the industrial activity of a large city such as Moscow. When they finally came clean, they indicated that the purpose of the bombardment had not been to damage the health of the American personnel, but to interfere in the communications of the embassy (11).

In the end, both official versions concurred, which, given the history of lies and deceit by the two sides involved, may be equally suspect....


Four decades on, the "Moscow signal" case has transmuted into "the Thing" or "the Havana syndrome" (45). From December, 2016, to August, 2017, some State Department personnel and other CIA employees began to suffer a series of neurological symptoms, including headaches, dizziness and sleep abnormalities, while working at the Cuban embassy, or staying at other places in Havana, such as the Capri and Nacional hotels.

Because of the political nature of this affair, many details remain undisclosed, such as the names of the CIA employees affected, who exactly was responsible for the attack (the Cuban government continues to deny all knowledge), or the specific "weapon" employed (some scientists suspect a microwave attack). However, the preliminary results of the study of Swanson et al. (7) on 21 individuals identified by the US Department of State as having possibly been exposed, showed persistent cognitive, vestibular, and oculomotor dysfunction, as well as sleep impairment and headaches, along with reports of directional audible and/or sensory phenomena of unclear origin. As Swanson et al. (7) concluded, these individuals appeared to have sustained injury to widespread brain networks without an associated history of head trauma.

Therefore, there exist clear similitudes with the Moscow embassy case; a (hypothesized) directional weapon that produces several identifiable neurocognitive symptoms and that leaves no detectable traces, contextualized in a framework of secrecy and political tension. The main difference is that, in the Cuban case, there is still no confirmation of the use of microwaves....


Power densities measured at the Moscow embassy were higher than the average levels typically found nowadays in homes, schools and urban areas, and were of the same order of magnitude as the more extreme case of living just a few meters from a base station (see (19)) This means that exposure at the embassy could have been high in terms of today's typical levels of exposure. Nevertheless, the exposure was several orders of magnitude lower than those suggested by the ICNRIP guidelines, adopted by many countries as legal limits. As Hardell et al. (19) indicated, the BioInitiative Report (49) with updated references defined the scientific benchmark for possible health risks as 0.000003–0.000006 mW/cm2. Consequently, the exposure at the Moscow embassy was from 3 to 4 orders of magnitude higher than this safety benchmark, but 3 orders of magnitude lower than the legal limits of many countries.


Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
15.9.2022 18:51

5G Wireless Technology: Cutting Through the Hype


See the bottom of this page for links to recent news stories about 5G hype.


The CTIA, the wireless industry trade association, has launched an advertising campaign entitled, "The Global Race to 5G." The ads claim that unless the U.S. wins this "global race" to become the first nation to deploy the fifth generation of wireless technology or 5G, we will not reap the economic benefits of this technology.

The CTIA claims that "compared to today's 4G networks, 5G will be up to 100x faster, support 100x more devices, and provide a 5x faster response time." Moreover, the association asserts that the nation's wireless industry is prepared to invest $275 billion in 5G which will yield three million new jobs and $500 billion in economic growth. If we win the global race, the "next-generation of wireless will drive $2.7 trillion of new economic benefits to American families and businesses."

The CTIA has denied for decades that there are adverse health effects from exposure to wireless radiation. By establishing a revolving door between its leadership and the FCC's, the CTIA ensures that the federal regulatory agency maintains the inadequate, obsolete radio frequency exposure limits which the FCC adopted in 1996.

The FCC and federal health agencies have been oblivious to the health concerns raised by more than 240 scientists from 44 nations who have published peer-reviewed research on the biologic or health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields.
More than 400 scientists and medical doctors from over 40 countries signed a declaration demanding a moratorium on the planned increase of cell antennas for 5G deployment in the European Union. Concerns over health effects from higher radiation exposure include potential neurological impacts, infertility, and cancer.
The following excerpts were extracted from a 23-page special report from RCR Wireless that cuts through much of the hype surrounding the deployment of 5G. The excerpts are direct quotes from the report. RCR Wireless is a trade publication that has reported on the wireless industry and wireless technology since 1982.
Transitioning to a 5G World
Kelly Hill, RCR Wireless, November 2017

Excerpts from the Report
Hype is certainly high for 5G, given that the industry is still technically in a pre-standard phase and that standalone 5G systems are still some time off.
5G is coming even faster than originally expected. In December, the first official specification from the Third Generation Partnership Project is expected to be released; 5G New Radio will finally make its standardized debut – although like Long Term Evolution, 5G will continue to evolve and be refined in the coming years.
"5G will not replace LTE," Rysavy Research concluded in an August report for the GSMA. "In most deployments, the two technologies will be tightly integrated and co-exist through at least the late-2020s."
Although the industry is preparing for 5G, LTE [4G] capabilities will continue to improve in LTE Advanced Pro through the rest of the decade," Rysavy wrote .... 5G will eventually play an important role, but it must be timed appropriately so that the jump in capability justifies the new investment.
KT, for example, plans to support two different frequencies from the get-go in its 5G network: 3.5 GHz as an anchor with better propagation, complemented by 28 GHz in dense areas. Given that networks are expected to initially be 4G/5G networks, testing will have to continue to support LTE alongside 5G.
Hurtarte of LitePoint noted that although "millimeter wave" tends to be treated as one category, there are significant differences between the components and frequency planning needed at 28 GHz versus 39 GHz. In addition, although some frequencies are widely agreed upon, there are other frequencies that may get the nod for 5G use: 24 GHz in China, possibly 40-43 Ghz and possibly even above 70 GHz.
There are some major challenges to the success of 5G, which are all interrelated: the move to mmwave, the need for ultra-density, and the question of when the economics of 5G will actually work well enough to take off.
Mmwave [millimeter wave] provides the huge bandwidths that are needed for fast speeds and high capacity, but the higher the frequency, the shorter its range and more susceptible it is to being easily blocked and reflected (thus the need for beamforming in order to focus the energy more tightly). Seasonal foliage, energy efficient glass windows with special coatings, and standard housing materials all present effective barriers to mmwave reaching indoors to customer premise equipment, operators and vendors have found in their field testing.
Denisowski pointed out that fixed wireless is one thing, but moving objects are another. Obstruction, not radiating sources of energy, is likely to be the main cause of interference in 5G systems: vehicles driving back and forth, or even wind farms can scatter microwave radiation.
Density of foliage "plays a big role," said Thadasina of Samsung, which has been working with a number of carriers on 5G trials. "What we found is that for the mmwave signal, as it penetrated through trees, the thickness of the trees matters. Initially the impedence offered by foliage is linear, but beyond a certain density it is no longer linear … it kills the signal." Building materials are well-known to play a role in transmission from outdoors to indoors, he added, but the angle of incidence does as well. The difference between 30 degrees to 60 degrees to 90 degrees can create additional impedance, Thadasina said, "some of those things make it challenging in terms of closing the link." Moisture levels play a role as well, he said ....
Fiber is fuel for 5G, and its prevalence is increasing. SNL Kagan found earlier this year that global fiber residential investment increased sharply in 2016, and that fiber is on track to reach 1 billion subscribers by 2021. Meanwhile, in the U.S., Vertical Systems Group reported that 49.6% of multi-tenant and enterprise buildings had access to fiber last year, compared to only 10% in 2004.

Deloitte said earlier this year that it expects to see $130 billion-$150 billion in "deep fiber" investment in the U.S. over 5-7 years, due to a combination of broadband competition, ensuring 5G readiness, and expanding fiber into new areas.

Murphy of Nokia said that operators should expect that, depending on which frequency they deploy in, they will need 2.5 to 10 times as many sites as they have now. That's a tall order, especially given that small cell sites in cellular frequencies can take 18 to 24 months to get site approvals – scaling small cells has been hard enough in LTE, with the market moving much more slowly than analysts had predicted or carriers would like.
"It's going to take a long time," Einbinder said. "Constructing a cell tower is hard. A micro-cell has a lot of the same issues": power and fiber and access to a site, which a community may be reluctant to grant – California, for instance, recently rejected a measure passed at the state level that would have streamlined processes for small cells.
... Einbinder thinks that some communities will take initiative and want to be 5G economic centers. While that's encouraging for operators, it may also mean that 5G coverage maps look very different from the familiar red, blue, yellow and magenta maps indicating nationwide coverage. "The resulting coverage maps might have a lot more to do with [communities] than any economic or technological drivers – it's going to be driven by local preference."
While early work estimated that as many as 40 to 50 homes could be covered by a single fixed wireless site, according to Rouault of EXFO, that number has turned out to be around five in testing because of the complexity of beamforming necessary to support multiple homes. "It's not at the point we would say the verdict is out," Rouault added. "The technology is proven to work, but to make the business case work, the scale is the problem right now."
So the biggest question is where a breakthrough is going to happen that becomes the point at which 5G becomes a more attractive investment than LTE. "What can 5G do that other systems can't? This is where there is no clear answer," said Hemant Minocha, EVP for device and IoT at TEOCO. There is no 5G requirement for IoT [Internet of Things], he points out, and the business case hasn't yet been proven out for ultra-low latency (not to mention that LTE is capable of lower latency than it has achieved to this point in networks).
Key Takeaways:
• The industry is moving quickly toward 5G, with momentum in testing and trials. The first official 5G specification from 3GPP is expected in December, with a protocol-focused release coming in the spring of 2018.
• Many features and architectures in LTE, particularly gigabit LTE, will both underpin future 5G networks and provide lessons learned in making 5G systems work. These include dense fiber deployment, higher-order and massive MIMO, network slicing, virtualization, and mobile edge computing.
• The biggest challenge for 5G lies in a millimeter-wave based RAN, with significant challenges ahead for designing and deploying a workable, optimized and profitable mmwave network on a large scale.
The RCR Wireless report, "Transitioning to a 5G World," can be downloaded at https://bit.ly/5Ghype.


Related posts
Regulators Steamroll Health Concerns as the Global Economy Embraces 5G (The Washington Spectator)"We Have No Reason to Believe 5G is Safe" (Scientific American)Scientific American Created Confusion about 5G's Safety: Will They Clear It Up?
Scientists and Doctors Demand Moratorium on 5G5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?
5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health Effects

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5G Hype: 100+ News Stories (Updated 9/14/2022)
AT&T can't upgrade most 5G phones to new bands, regrets the errorKevin Purdy, ArsTechnica, Sep 14, 2022
5G Networks Are Worryingly Hackable
Edd Gent, IEEE Spectrum, Aug 24, 2022
The Death of Millimeter-wave Cellular?
CCG Consulting, POTs and PANs, Apr 8, 2022
5G's false start is over and the iPhone SE proves it: Apple built an iPhone without millimeter wave, and it mattersSean Hollister, The Verge, Mar 9, 2022The 5G iPhone SE will be for carriers, not customers: Apple's latest 5G upgrade is more marketing than mandatory. Chaim Gartenberg, The Verge, Mar 7, 2022
5G Has Been a $100 Billion Whiff So Far: Big telecom providers still haven't persuaded consumers to embrace the faster system. Scott Moritz & Rob Golum, Bloomberg Businessweek, Mar 3, 2022
Why 5G is 'less exciting' for consumers, analyst explains
Craig Moffett, Yahoo Finance, Jan 26, 2022

When will we see real 5G?CCG Consulting, POTs and PANs, Jan 19, 2022
5G wireless — yet another reason to fear flyingTara Sonenshine, The Hill, Dec 27, 2021
Verizon's 5G mmWave Network Has a Tree ProblemMatt Kapko, sdx Central, Dec 26, 2021
I've paid for 5G for more than 2 years and it has been a complete waste of money
Andy Boxall, Digital Trends, Dec 25, 2021

Why You Won't Really Feel 5G Until 2027Sascha Segan, PC Magazine, Oct 15, 2021
5G networks left us wanting in 2020. One year later, they're still a work in progress.Washington Post, Sep 24, 2021
Barely anyone is using mmWave 5G in the U.S.
Pranob Mehrotra, XDA, July 15, 2021
Why 5G is just not catching onErnest Worthman, Above Ground Level, May 17, 2021
Dear wireless carriers: the 5G hype needs to stopAllison Johnson, The Verge, Apr 29, 2021
Why Are Carriers Telling Us to Turn Off 5G?
Sascha Segan, PC Magazine (UK), Mar 5, 2021
How Deep is 5G Fake News?Miguel Coma, Wall Street International, Jan 23, 2021
Here's Why Verizon iPhone Users Must Turn Off 5G Right NowSascha Segan, PC Magazine, Dec 22, 2020
The failure of 5G: 5G was supposed to be a revolution. So far in 2020, it's not even been a great evolution
Vlad-Gabriel Anghel, DCD, Dec 15, 2020
There Is No 'Race To 5G.' And The U.S. Wouldn't Be Winning Even If There Was
Karl Bode, TechDirt, Nov 10, 2020

U.S. vs. China in 5G: The Battle Isn't Even Close: China is leading the way in the size and consistency of its 5G networkDan Strumpf, Wall Street Journal, Nov 9, 2020

Poor 5G connectivity disappoints South Korean users: Over 560,000 consumers return to 4G as applications for dispute mediation riseSotoro Suzuki, Nikkei Asia, Nov 7, 2020

Better Business Bureau finds T-Mobile to be misleading Americans about 5G in adsGSMArena, Nov 5, 2020

Study Finds That US 5G Speeds Are Slower Than 14 Other Countries
Jason Cohen, PC, Oct 30, 2020

Is 5G a Race We Want to Win?Doug Dawson, CircleID, Oct 29, 2020
Why the 5G Pushiness? Because $$$. Selling 5G capability is a huge opportunity for phone companies. Be careful.
Shira Ovide, New York Times, Oct 22, 2020
Why 5G phones aren't a smart investment in the future (yet)JR Raphael, Computerworld, Oct 22, 2020
iPhone 12 has 5G, but we're still not sure if we even need it
Shara Tibken, c|net, Oct 18, 2020
Ignore Phone Companies About 5G. The cellular networks might be life-changing in the future. Not today. Shira Ovide, New York Times, Oct 15, 2020
Chinese 5G Not Living up To Its HypeJohn Xie, The News Lens (Voice of America), Oct 12, 2020
At this point, 5G is a jokeSteven J. Vaughan-Nichols, Computerworld, Sep 17, 2020
The 5G lie: The network of the future is still slowGeoffrey A. Fowler, Washington Post, Sep 8, 2020

AT&T's current 5G is slower than 4G in nearly every city tested by PCMag
Jon Brodkin, Ars Technica, Sep 8,2020
Verizon told to stop 'most powerful 5G' claim
Monica Alleven, Fierce Wireless, Sep 1, 2020
Verizon's 5G network is tiny—Verizon ads "falsely implied" it's nationwideJon Brodkin, Ars Technica, Jul 15, 2020

AT&T will stop using '5G Evolution' marketing phrases to refer to its 4G LTE networkClare Duffy, CNN, May 20, 2020

The 5G revolution has been a big fail so far
Philip Michaels, Toms Guide, May 16, 2020

Verizon's nationwide 5G will only be a "small" upgrade over 4G at first
Jon Brodkin, Ars Technica, May 13, 2020

Could 5G spell trouble for Android flagships?
J.R. Raphael, Computerworld, May 12, 2020

Under the Weather: The battle between meteorologists and 5G
Mary Cuddehe, Columbia Journalism Review, Spring 2020

The 5G of T-Mobile, Verizon and AT&T all rank badly for different reasons
Linda Hardesty, Fierce Wireless, Mar 3, 2020

The 'race to 5G' is a mythKevin Werbach, CNN, Feb 3, 2020
The 'race to 5G' is a giant pile of lobbyist nonsenseKarl Bode, TechDirt, Jan 27, 2020
The 5G revolution isn't a revolutionNoah Kulwin, The Outline, Jan 13, 2020
There are three types of 5G — most of what you'll get is not the super-fast kindAlex Sherman, Todd Hazelton, CNBC, Jan 9, 2020
What AT&T, Verizon and T-Mobile don't want you to know about their 5G deploymentsMonica Alleven, Fierce Wireless, Jan 2, 2020
5G underwhelms its first big testEun-Young Jeong, Wall Street Journal, Dec 31, 2019
In the 5G race of 2019, consumers were the real losers: The carriers were largely in testing mode, and consumers were the guinea pigsRoger Cheng, c|net, Dec 24, 2019
5G Is Here — And for Real This Time: New Verizon, AT&T and T-Mobile offerings are speedy, but hardly revolutionary
Daniel Frankel, Multichannel News, Dec 2, 2019

Qualcomm Publishes Half-Baked Study to Make 5G Look Good
Joel Hruska, Extreme Tech, Oct 24, 2019

Rain fade on your parade: Why 5G use cases in business are still years away
James Sanders, Tech Republic, Oct 10, 2019
AT&T and other carriers want to hide detailed 5G maps from FCC and publicJon Brodkin, Ars Technica, Oct 10, 2019
5G is mostly hype so farRob Pegoraro, Yahoo Finance, Oct 7, 2019
5G hype still exceeds reality — Verizon's 5G network isn't good enough to cover an entire NFL stadiumJon Brodkin, Ars Technica, Sep 6, 2019

5G Hype Won't Close the Digital DivideDhara Singh, c|net, Aug 14, 2019
Verizon warns that mid-band 5G will perform more like 4GJeremy Horwitz, Venture Beat, Aug 7, 2019
The Downside of 5G: Overwhelmed Cities, Torn-Up Streets, a Decade Until CompletionChristopher Mims, Wall Street Journal, Jun 29, 2019

The History of Cellular Networks Doesn't Bode Well for 5GThreat Lab, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Jun 26, 2019
Verizon Claims 5G Will Help Fight Cancer. Experts Say That's Not LikelyKarl Bode, Vice.com, Jun 14, 2019
Choosing the Wrong Lane in the Race to 5GJessica Rosenworcel (FCC Commissioner), Wired, Jun 10, 2019

Wait, why the hell is the 'race to 5G' even a race? No one has a good answer to this question.Nilay Patel, Verge, May 23, 2019
The Terrifying Potential of the 5G Network
The future of wireless technology holds the promise of total connectivity. But it will also be especially susceptible to cyberattacks and surveillance.Sue Halpern, The New Yorker, Apr 26, 2019

Millimeter-wave 5G isn't for widespread coverage, Verizon admits ... 5G's highest speeds will only be for select areas
Jon Brodkin, ars Technica, Apr 23, 2019

5G is still just hype for AT&T and Verizon
Chaim Gartenberg, The Verge, Apr 5, 2019

Verizon 5G Home service too expensive to scale, attracts few users
Jeremy Horwitz, Venture Beat, Mar 22, 2019

What is 5G and will it live up to the hype?
Staff, The Week, Mar 17, 2019


Executives Don't Believe the Hype Around 5G, According to Accenture StudyPatrick Kulp, Adweek, Mar 1, 2019

Cutting through the 5G hype: Survey shows telcos' nuanced views
Ferry Grijpink et al, McKinsey & Company, Feb, 2019

Verizon's stalled 5G rollout reportedly covers less than 10% of Sacramento
Jeremy Horwitz, VentureBeat, Feb 12, 2019
Enough of the 5G Hype
Ernesto Falcon, Electronic Frontier Foundation, Feb 11, 2019

Sprint files lawsuit against AT&T over 5G claimsCorinne Reichert, ZDNet, Feb 11, 2019 5G can't fix America's broadband problems
Don't expect the new generation of wireless tech to replace fiber....
Karl Bode, The Verge, Feb 6, 2019

Apple just endorsed AT&T's fake 5G E network
Chaim Gartenberg, The Verge, Feb 4, 2019

Verizon and AT&T Jumped the Gun on 5G
Sascha Segan, PC Magazine, Jan 31, 2019


Telecom Companies Are Seriously Overhyping 5G NetworksAmir Nasr, Slate, Jan 30, 2019
5G has 200 times more access points for hackers than existing networks, experts warnEmily Jackson, Ottawa Citizen, Jan 24, 2019

Time to move beyond 5G hype
Tom Wheeler, Brookings, Jan 11, 2019

Beware the 5G Hype: Wireless Rivals Fuel Confusion
Drew FitzGerald, Wall Street Journal, Jan 9, 2019

Verizon and T-Mobile bash AT&T over 'fake 5G'
Marguerite Reardon, c|net, Jan 8, 2019

Dial Down the 5G Hype
Dan Gallagher, Wall Street Journal, Jan 2, 2019

AT&T is branding 4G networks & phones as 5G in a marketing scam: Advanced 4G is not 5G
Isaac Mayer, Techspot, Dec 22, 2018
2018 was the year of 5G hype. The 5G reality is yet to come
Brian Fung, Washington Post, Dec 21, 2018
AT&T will put a fake 5G logo on its 4G LTE phones
Jacob Kastrenakes, The Verge, Dec 21, 2018
5G wireless service is coming, but Deloitte forecasts slow rolloutTroy Wolverton, Business Insider, Dec 14, 2018

Don't buy a 5G smartphone—at least, not for a while
Ron Amadeo, Ars Technica, Dec 14, 2018

Why 5G Hype is Out of Control This Week
Sam Rutherford, Gizmodo, Dec 7, 2018

The first 'real world' 5G test was a dud
Sean Hollister, The Verge, Dec 4, 2018

5G Corporate Grail: Smart cities/dumb people?
Joyce Nelson. Watershed Sentinel, Nov 5, 2018.

Do we even need 5G at all?
Jeremy Kaplan, Digital Trends, Oct 26, 2018

Why 5G is out of reach for more people than you think
Shara Tibken, c|net, Oct 25, 2018

Volkswagen a winner as EU set to favour wifi over 5G: draft
Foo Yun Chee, Reuters, Oct 19, 2018

The 5G hype cycle is about to run into a hard truth: Subsidies needed!
Strategy Analytics, Business Wire, Oct 18, 2018

Carriers race to establish 5G as critics say slow down
Frederica Kolwey, Jackson Hole News & Guide, Oct 17, 2018

5G is almost a reality. Here's what it'll really feel like. Hype alert: Don't expect 5G to change your life right away.
Robert Cheng, c|net, Oct 17, 2018

Verizon's 5G rollout experiences are a mixed bag so far
Dexter Johnson, IEEE Spectrum, Oct 11, 2018

Experts worry 5G can widen digital divide in cities
Ali Breland, The Hill, Sep 30, 2018

Why 5G will disappoint everyone
Mike Elgan, Computerworld, Sep 29, 2018

Has 5G Hype Outpaced Reality?
Kate Patrick, Government Technology, Sep 28, 2018

Rural America worries it will miss out on 5G
Ali Breland, The Hill, Sep 26, 2018

FCC angers cities and towns with $2 billion giveaway to wireless carriers
Jon Brodkin, Ars Technica, Sep 21, 2018

FCC's 5G masterstroke little more than big biz cash giveaway – expert
Kieren McCarthy, The Register, Sep 19, 2018

The Problem with 5G (PC Magazine censored Dvorak's article and replaced it with another article. The link is to the internet archive.)
John C. Dvorak, PC Magazine, Aug 22, 2018.
Rising Cost of 5G: Big increases in power consumption & uncertainty about how to test these devices have yet to be resolvedEd Sperling, Semiconductor Engineering. Aug 22, 2018.
The Week In 5G:6/1/2018 – 3GPP Set To Announce Final Phase-1 Standard In June; 5G Sparks Security and Health Concerns AnewJof Enriquez, RF Globalnet, June 1, 2018
The 'Race to 5G' Is Just Mindless Marketing Bullshit
Karl Bode, Motherboard, May 4, 2018
MWC and the 5G Hype Machine Keep on Giving, and Giving and Giving...
Ernest Worthman, AGL Media Group, Apr 19, 2018

"5G" Wireless Is the New Fiber Optic, Bait-and-Switch Scandal
Bruce Kushnick, Medium, Mar 8, 2018

The 5G Hype Machine Continues to Mislead
Ernest Worthman, Above Ground Level, Feb 1, 2018

Super-fast 5G wireless is coming this year, but it probably won't be cheap
David Lazarus, Los Angeles Times, Jan 9, 2018

Upgrade to 5G Costs $200 Billion a Year, May Not Be Worth ItOlga Kharif and Scott Moritz, Bloomberg, Dec 18, 2017

Impact of EMF Limits on 5G Network Rollout
Christer Tornevik, ITU Workshop on 5G, EMF and Health, Dec 5, 2017

Microwave Radiation Coming to a Lamppost near You
Merinda Teller, MPH, PhD, Weston A. Price Foundation, Dec 1, 2017

5G Is Not the Answer For Rural Broadband
Larry Thompson and Warren Vande Stadt, Broadband Communities. March/April, 2017

The Next Generation of Wireless -- "5G"-- Is All Hype
Susan Crawford, Wired, Aug 11, 2016

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
23.9.2022 03:54

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields


I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on radio frequency and other non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month since 2016. Several hundred EMF scientists around the world receive these updates.
The complete collection contains more than 1,600 abstracts and links to more than 1,800 papers.
You can download the complete collection of abstracts, a 1,355-page document (pdf) by clicking on the following link:
https://bit.ly/EMF090822
The abstracts for the most recent papers appear below.


Protocol for a systematic review of the in vivo studies on radiofrequency (100 kHz–300 GHz) electromagnetic field exposure and cancer
Pinto R, Ardoino L Giardullo P, Villani P, Marino C. Protocol for a systematic review of the in vivo studies on radiofrequency (100 kHz–300 GHz) electromagnetic field exposure and cancer. Syst Rev 11, 29 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13643-022-01898-4

Abstract

Background An Italian project aims to review the scientific literature on the possible carcinogenicity of radiofrequency (100 kHz–300 GHz) electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The ENEA team has to carry out a systematic review of the in vivo studies on this topic.
Objectives Development of a protocol for a systematic review (meta-analysis included) to investigate the potential carcinogenic risk following RF-EMF in vivo exposure to doses above or within legal limits. The aims of this review are (1) to provide a descriptive and, if possible, a quantitative summary of the results of the examined RF-EMF in vivo studies, together with an assessment of the consistency of observations and of the causes of heterogeneity, and (2) to assess the weight of evidence to support or refute the hypothesis of carcinogenic effects caused by RF-EMF exposure and to draw conclusions about the potential for carcinogenicity of RF-EMF exposure.
Methods We will search for relevant studies in electronic academic databases and in the reference list of selected papers and reviews on the topic, including the descriptive reviews on RF-EMF carcinogenic effect carried out by international panels of experts since 2011. The following elements of the PECO question were defined: experimental studies on rodents of both sexes, all ages and species, all genetic backgrounds (Population) exposed to RF-EMF alone, or in combination with other physical or chemical agents (Exposure); only studies reporting outcome data in exposed and sham control groups (Comparison); and all types of cancer with all tumor-related outcome measures (Outcome) will be included.

Only peer-reviewed articles written in English will be considered without limit in the publication date.

Eligibility criteria were defined for papers to be included. A risk of bias assessment will be performed using a tool specifically developed for animal studies. A meta-analysis will be performed, if feasible, for all outcome measures; for subgroup analysis, a minimum of 3 studies per subgroup will be required. If meta-analysis will not be possible, a narrative synthesis of the results will be reported.

Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42020191105

Open access paper: https://systematicreviewsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13643-022-01898-4

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Base transceiver station antenna exposure and workers' health

Hosseinali Rangkooy, Afshin Rahmati, Behzad Fouladi Dehaghi. Base transceiver station antenna exposure and workers' health. International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics. 04 Aug 2022. doi: 10.1080/10803548.2022.2085892.

Abstract

Objectives. With the rapid development of technologies related to the communications industry, human exposure to electromagnetic fields has increased during recent decades. The study aimed at investigating the effect of exposure to waves emitted from the base transceiver stations (BTS) on workers' health.

Methods. 240 workers participated in the study. In order to determine the general health conditions in two groups, along with electromagnetic waves exposure measurement, the general health questionnaire (GHQ) was completed and the data on blood parameters were assessed.

Results. The mean age and job experience in the case and control groups were 34.1 ± 4.8 and 10.1 ± 6 years and 31.6 ± 5.5 and 8.8 ± 7 years, respectively. According to the GHQ results, only anxiety and insomnia subscales showed a significant difference between the two groups. The white blood cell and red blood cell counts in the case and control groups were 6715.6 ± 1591 and 7594 ± 2416, 5.3 × 106 ± 4.6 × 105 and 5.05 × 106 ± 5.39 × 105 per ml, respectively. Analysis of the results showed that the difference between the two groups was significant.

Conclusion. The results revealed that blood parameters in the BTS operators showed more changes. Thus, it can be concluded that these health impacts result from occupational exposure to BTS waves.

https://doi.org/10.1080/10803548.2022.2085892
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Simulating the Dispersion of the Energy Flux Density of the Electromagnetic Field Generated by Antennas for Mobile Communications
Buckus R, Chlebnikovas A, Strukcinskiene B, Stukas R, Austys D, Caban J, Bogucki M, Sidlauskiene A, Seleviciene V, Kilikevičius A, Matijošius J, Kilikevičienė K, Vainorius D. Simulating the Dispersion of the Energy Flux Density of the Electromagnetic Field Generated by Antennas for Mobile Communications. Electronics. 2022; 11(15):2431. https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics11152431.
Abstract
The last two decades have faced a significantly increased number of telecommunication antennas emitting electromagnetic radiation in residential areas. The theoretical simulation of the dispersion of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field has been performed applying the physical peculiarities of the waves generating electromagnetic radiation. Having evaluated studies on simulation, the visual representation of the spread of electromagnetic radiation has been carried out according to the results obtained applying the AutoCad package. A comparison of the simulated value of the energy flux density radiated from antennas for mobile telecommunications with the measured one has disclosed an overlap of 30%. The simulation of the energy flux density showed that, in the close proximity zone (under a distance of 30 m), antennas radiate values within the range 10–10,000 µW/cm2. At a distance larger than 30 m, the values of energy flux density fluctuate from 10 to 0.001 µW/cm2.

ConclusionsThe simulation of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field allows estimating electromagnetic radiation emitted by antennas for mobile telecommunications, which results in the termination of the conducted experiments. A comparison of the simulated value of the energy flux density radiated from antennas for cell telecommunications with the measured one point to an overlap of 30%, because simulation encounters difficulties in precisely measuring a variety of natural and human-made obstacles and reflections. Thus, the properly selected simulation software allows understanding and preliminarily estimating the electromagnetic fields of mobile telecommunications as well as visually determining places where electromagnetic radiation exceeds the established standards.
The simulation of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field of antennas for mobile telecommunications showed that, in the close proximity zone (under a distance of 30 m), antennas radiate values from 10 to 10,000 µW/cm2, whereas the values fluctuate between 10 and 0.001 µW/cm2 at a distance larger than 30 m. The values of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field decrease according to square dependence in free space, while at distances exceeding 100 m fluctuate in the range from 0.01 to 1 µW/cm2. The maximum density was equal to 10–100 µW/cm2 under the distance less than 25 m from the antenna in the direction of the most intensive radiation.
The examination of the upcoming or available antenna or other powerful source of radio waves includes calculating the theoretical parameters of the density taking into account the qualities of the antenna and accepting surrounding terrain as an area with no significant unevenness. Similar places have most frequently installed antennas, and, although the obtained measurement results are satisfactory enough, in order to determine necessary safety requirements, the impact of land relief is unnecessarily downgraded. The wave propagated outwards the antenna is dispersed and, having reflected from terrain, is summed up with the previous one, thus creating a maximum. Uneven terrain changes the maximum position of this electromagnetic field, which needs further examination. Thus, if the simulated values are lower than the established standard, it is still advisable to check them experimentally.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2079-9292/11/15/2431/htm
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Microwave Radiation and the Brain: Mechanisms, Current Status, and Future Prospects

Mumtaz S, Rana JN, Choi EH, Han I. Microwave Radiation and the Brain: Mechanisms, Current Status, and Future Prospects. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2022; 23(16):9288. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23169288

Abstract

Modern humanity wades daily through various radiations, resulting in frequent exposure and causing potentially important biological effects. Among them, the brain is the organ most sensitive to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) exposure. Despite numerous correlated studies, critical unknowns surround the different parameters used, including operational frequency, power density (i.e., energy dose), and irradiation time that could permit reproducibility and comparability between analyses. Furthermore, the interactions of EMR with biological systems and its precise mechanisms remain poorly characterized. In this review, recent approaches examining the effects of microwave radiations on the brain, specifically learning and memory capabilities, as well as the mechanisms of brain dysfunction with exposure as reported in the literature, are analyzed and interpreted to provide prospective views for future research directed at this important and novel medical technology for developing preventive and therapeutic strategies on brain degeneration caused by microwave radiation. Additionally, the interactions of microwaves with biological systems and possible mechanisms are presented in this review. Treatment with natural products and safe techniques to reduce harm to organs have become essential components of daily life, and some promising techniques to treat cancers and their radioprotective effects are summarized as well. This review can serve as a platform for researchers to understand the mechanism and interactions of microwave radiation with biological systems, the present scenario, and prospects for future studies on the effect of microwaves on the brain.

Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/23/16/9288
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Specific Absorption Rate Analysis of Smartphone

M. Garvanova, I. Garvanov, D. Borissova. Specific Absorption Rate Analysis of Smartphone. 2022 22nd International Symposium on Electrical Apparatus and Technologies (SIELA), 2022, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/SIELA54794.2022.9845756.
Abstract
This paper discusses and analyzes the process of absorbing electromagnetic energy emitted by a smartphone. The study of the specific absorption rate (SAR) at the depth of the human head was carried out using a computer model simulated with COMSOL Multiphysics software. The computer model takes into account the technical parameters of a working smartphone and the biological characteristics of the human head. The model simulates the absorption process, depending on the type of radiation pattern of the antenna on a smartphone. To validate the results of the model in depth of the human head, an analysis of the brain activity of a person, using a smartphone, was performed.
Excerpts
This study confirms the hypothesis that prolonged use of mobile phones changes a person's brain activity, which may be a prerequisite for fatigue, distraction and stress of the body. This study largely confirms the assumption that SAR affects brain activity, but further research is needed in this direction....

In the places with the greatest absorption of electromagnetic energy, the most significant change in brain activity is observed. Here, statistically significant differences in the theta, alpha and beta ranges of the EEG signal were obtained, established by paired samples t-test. The results with p-values less than 0.05 indicate statistically significant differences in EEG power in T3 (θ, a, and β), T5 (θ and a), and F7 (θ and a) points as shown in Figure 6.
From the computer model for SAR (Fig. 7), it can be seen that the locations with the highest absorption levels of the electromagnetic field coincide with the locations of the most significant change in the spectrum of the EEG signals. Due to the computer model for simulating SAR from an EMF, it can be physically explained why a change in the signal spectrum occurs at several points in the human head. With the help of the computer model it is possible to study the effects of elevated values of electromagnetic radiation, which can be harmful to human health. Through the model it is also possible to visualize invisible processes that predict various negative effects from prolonged use of a mobile phone....
Conclusions

This article examines the SAR caused by the use of a smartphone. The EMF absorption level at the depth of the human head is simulated using a computer model. Depending on the parameters of the smartphone and the characteristics of the tissues of the human head, different SAR results are obtained. The computer model was tested by processing the EEG signals and analyzing the spectra of the EEG signals from all electrodes. It is interesting that the results of the model coincide with the results of the EEG analysis. The places with the highest EMF absorption values coincided with the places of greatest change in brain activity induced by smartphone operation. In our future research, we will focus on the analysis of the excessive use of smartphones by children and adolescents.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9845756
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Interference With Implanted Upper Airway Stimulation Device by Phones With Magnet Technology (iPhones 12 and 13)

Plawecki A, Tripathi N, Tovar Torres M, Yaremchuk K. Interference With Implanted Upper Airway Stimulation Device by Phones With Magnet Technology. Laryngoscope. 2022 Aug 17. doi: 10.1002/lary.30348.
Abstract
Newer iPhone models [12 and 13] with MagSafe magnetic technology can cause electromagnetic interference with the Inspire upper airway stimulator device (a surgical implant for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/35975894
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Simulating the Dispersion of the Energy Flux Density of the Electromagnetic Field Generated by Antennas for Mobile Communications
My note: The FCC exposure limit is 1 mW/cm2 or 1000 µW/cm2 which means within 30 meters of a cellular antenna the electromagnetic field could be up to 10 times the limit at some locations.
Buckus R, Chlebnikovas A, Strukcinskiene B, Stukas R, Austys D, Caban J, Bogucki M, Sidlauskiene A, Seleviciene V, Kilikevičius A, Matijošius J, Kilikevičienė K, Vainorius D. Simulating the Dispersion of the Energy Flux Density of the Electromagnetic Field Generated by Antennas for Mobile Communications. Electronics. 2022; 11(15):2431. doi:10.3390/electronics11152431.

Abstract
The last two decades have faced a significantly increased number of telecommunication antennas emitting electromagnetic radiation in residential areas. The theoretical simulation of the dispersion of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field has been performed applying the physical peculiarities of the waves generating electromagnetic radiation. Having evaluated studies on simulation, the visual representation of the spread of electromagnetic radiation has been carried out according to the results obtained applying the AutoCad package. A comparison of the simulated value of the energy flux density radiated from antennas for mobile telecommunications with the measured one has disclosed an overlap of 30%. The simulation of the energy flux density showed that, in the close proximity zone (under a distance of 30 m), antennas radiate values within the range 10–10,000 µW/cm2. At a distance larger than 30 m, the values of energy flux density fluctuate from 10 to 0.001 µW/cm2.

Conclusions
The simulation of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field allows estimating electromagnetic radiation emitted by antennas for mobile telecommunications, which results in the termination of the conducted experiments. A comparison of the simulated value of the energy flux density radiated from antennas for cell telecommunications with the measured one point to an overlap of 30%, because simulation encounters difficulties in precisely measuring a variety of natural and human-made obstacles and reflections. Thus, the properly selected simulation software allows understanding and preliminarily estimating the electromagnetic fields of mobile telecommunications as well as visually determining places where electromagnetic radiation exceeds the established standards.
The simulation of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field of antennas for mobile telecommunications showed that, in the close proximity zone (under a distance of 30 m), antennas radiate values from 10 to 10,000 µW/cm2, whereas the values fluctuate between 10 and 0.001 µW/cm2 at a distance larger than 30 m. The values of the energy flux density of the electromagnetic field decrease according to square dependence in free space, while at distances exceeding 100 m fluctuate in the range from 0.01 to 1 µW/cm2. The maximum density was equal to 10–100 µW/cm2 under the distance less than 25 m from the antenna in the direction of the most intensive radiation.
The examination of the upcoming or available antenna or other powerful source of radio waves includes calculating the theoretical parameters of the density taking into account the qualities of the antenna and accepting surrounding terrain as an area with no significant unevenness. Similar places have most frequently installed antennas, and, although the obtained measurement results are satisfactory enough, in order to determine necessary safety requirements, the impact of land relief is unnecessarily downgraded. The wave propagated outwards the antenna is dispersed and, having reflected from terrain, is summed up with the previous one, thus creating a maximum. Uneven terrain changes the maximum position of this electromagnetic field, which needs further examination. Thus, if the simulated values are lower than the established standard, it is still advisable to check them experimentally
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2079-9292/11/15/2431/htm
--
Regular measurements of EMF in a representative Norwegian city-constant exposure over time despite introduction of new technologies
Markussen AC, Sjoemoen TM, Unander EH, Klaeboe L. Regular measurements of EMF in a representative Norwegian city-constant exposure over time despite introduction of new technologies. Environ Monit Assess. 2022 Aug 19;194(10):694. doi: 10.1007/s10661-022-10231-4.
Abstract
The rapid growth of the wireless communication industry has resulted in the installation of numerous of base stations, everywhere in our surroundings. The population is exposed to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields of varying frequency and strength. This, and introduction of new systems have risen public concerns regarding potential health effects from this RF-EMF exposure. The purpose of this project is to get an overview of any changes in exposure when new technologies are introduced. From June 2013 to October 2019, measurements were made at 16 measurement points in Kristiansand and surrounding areas in the same order, on the same day of the week and at the same time of day. The measurements are performed on the frequency bands 390, 450, 800, 900, 1800, 2100, 2400, and 2600 MHz. When we summed up the exposure for all the frequency bands relative to the limit values in a measuring point, the total values per measuring point showed that the exposure outdoors in most cases is less than 1‰ of the limit value. In 2017, a temporary increase was registered for most measurement points, but during 2018 the levels returned to the levels registered before 2017. During the increase, the levels were still low, around 3‰ of the limit values. The increase may be due to the fact that two mobile operators during this period made a comprehensive reconfiguration of their networks. The measurements presented in this report show that the exposure of the population is low, thousandths of the limit values, and relatively constant over time even though new technologies are introduced.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9391237/
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Comments on Measurements and Analysis of Personal Exposure to RF-EMF Inside and Outside School Buildings
E. Arribas, R. Ramirez-Vazquez, I. Escobar. Comments on "Measurements and Analysis of Personal Exposure to RF-EMF Inside and Outside School Buildings: A Case Study at a Kosovo School." IEEE Access, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3198975.

Abstract
In this comment we present a table with the measurements of the personal exposure in the two Wi-Fi frequency bands inside educational centers such as colleges and universities, in different countries, with the aim of complementing and comparing the measurements carried out in a large school in the city of Pristina, Kosovo. We obtained that the maximum value was recorded in Spain with 120 μW/m2 and the minimum value was recorded in Switzerland with 1.19 μW/m2. The mean value of the data in Table 2 is 36.9 μW/m2, the median is 22.2 μW/m2, and the 95th percentile is 110 μW/m2.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9772682
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Trends in brain cancers (glioma) in New Zealand from 1995 to 2020, with reference to mobile phone use

My note: The study has several shortcomings: (1) it did not examine incidence rates over time for Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common type of glioma (brain cancer). Phillips et al (2018) found that GBM increased substantially over time in England despite a flat trend for glioma. (2) The authors combined temporal and parietal lobe tumors and examined the incidence over time. Their rationale was that these lobes received the most exposure to cell phone radiation; however, Cabré-Riera et al (2020) found that the temporal and frontal lobes received the most exposure; the parietal lobe received the least exposure.

Philips et al (2018). Brain Tumours: Rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme Incidence in England 1995–2015 Suggests an Adverse Environmental or Lifestyle Factor. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, doi:10.1155/2018/7910754.
Cabré-Riera et al (2020). Estimated whole-brain and lobe-specific radiofrequency electromagnetic fields doses and brain volumes in preadolescents. Environ Int. 142:105808. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2020.105808.
J Mark Elwood, Shwe Sin Win, Phyu Sin Aye, Masoumeh Sanagou. Trends in brain cancers (glioma) in New Zealand from 1995 to 2020, with reference to mobile phone use. Cancer Epidemiol. 2022 Aug 9;80:102234. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2022.102234.

Highlights

• Hypothesis is that mobile phone use increases brain cancers such as glioma.
• Mobile phone use in New Zealand increased greatly between 1990 and 2006.
• Incidence of glioma from 1995 to 2020 showed no increase at ages 10–69
• No evidence that phone use increases risk even after many years.
Abstract

Background: Some case-control studies have suggested substantial increased risks of glioma in association with mobile phone use; these risks would lead to an increase in incidence over time.

Methods: Incidence rates of glioma from 1995 to 2020 by age, sex, and site in New Zealand (NZ) recorded by the national cancer registry were assessed and trends analysed. Phone use was based on surveys.

Results: In these 25 years there were 6677 incident gliomas, giving age-standardised rates (WHO world standard) of 6.04 in males, and 3.95 in females per 100,000. The use of mobile phones increased rapidly from 1990 to more than 50% of the population from about 2000, and almost all the population from 2006. The incidence of glioma from ages 10-69 has shown a small decrease over the last 25 years, during which time the use of mobile phones has become almost universal. Rates in the brain locations receiving most radiofrequency energy have also shown a small decrease. Rates at ages of 80 and over have increased.

Conclusion: There is no indication of any increase related to the use of mobile phones. These results are similar to results in Australia and in many other countries. The increase in recorded incidence at ages over 80 is similar to that seen in other countries and consistent with improved diagnostic methods.
Excerpts
In contrast, the incidence of glioma at ages 70 and over has shown a substantial increase over time (Fig. 5), the annual percentage changes being in males 1.5% (95% limits 0.3–2.8), and in females 1.3% (95% limits 0.3–2.3). The increase has been regular throughout the 1995–2020 period in females. In men, the rates rose more quickly from 1995 to 2011, and have since declined: however, this change is not significant and a linear increase gives the best fit to the data.

Further examination shows that the increase is significant in the 80–84 and 85 + age groups, while the 70–74 and 75–79 year old groups show no significant increase (Fig. 6, Table 2). These older groups have a lower incidence of glioma than the 75–79 and 70–75 year old groups, but their rising rates have reduced this difference over time.
In conclusion, the incidence of glioma in the New Zealand population from ages 10–69 has shown a small decrease over the last 25 years, during which time the use of mobile phones has become almost universal. There is no indication of any increase related to the use of mobile phones. There has been an increase in recorded incidence at ages over 80, similar to that seen in other countries and consistent with improved diagnostic methods.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35961280/
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Time trends in mobile phone use and glioma incidence among males in the Nordic Countries, 1979-2016
Isabelle Deltour, Aslak Harbo Poulsen, Christoffer Johansen, Maria Feychting, Tom Børge Johannesen, Anssi Auvinen, Joachim Schüz. Time trends in mobile phone use and glioma incidence among males in the Nordic Countries, 1979-2016. Environment International. 2022. 107487. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2022.107487.
Abstract
Introduction In the Nordic countries, the use of mobile phones increased sharply in the mid-1990s especially among middle-aged men. We investigated time trends in glioma incidence rates (IR) with the perspective to inform about the plausibility of brain tumour risks from mobile phone use reported in some case-control studies.

Methods We analysed IR of glioma in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden among men aged 40-69 years, using data from national cancer registries and population statistics during 1979-2016, using log-linear joinpoint analysis. Information on regular mobile phone use and amount of call-time was obtained from major studies of mobile phones in these countries. We compared annual observed incidence with that expected under various risk scenarios to assess which of the reported effect sizes are compatible with the observed IR. The expected numbers of cases were computed accounting for an impact of other factors besides mobile phone use, such as improved cancer registration.

Results Based on 18,232 glioma cases, IR increased slightly but steadily with a change of 0.1% (95%CI 0.0%, 0.3%) per year during 1979-2016 among 40–59-year-old men and for ages 60-69, by 0.6 % (95%CI 0.4, 0.9) annually. The observed IR trends among men aged 40-59 years were incompatible with risk ratios (RR) 1.08 or higher with a 10-year lag, RR ≥ 1.2 with 15-year lag and RR ≥ 1.5 with 20-year lag. For the age group 60-69 years, corresponding effect sizes RR ≥ 1.4, ≥ 2 and ≥ 2.5 could be rejected for lag times 10, 15 and 20 years.

Discussion This study confirms and reinforces the conclusions that no changes in glioma incidence in the Nordic countries have occurred that are consistent with a substantial risk attributable to mobile phone use. This particularly applies to virtually all reported risk increases reported by previous case-control studies with positive findings.

Excerpts
"Our analyses are based on 18,232 male glioma cases, which occurred in the male population aged 40-69 years in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with 162 million person-years at risk. Rates of glioma showed a slow and constant increase with no marked changes in the trend in the recent years."

"... our study also has some limitations. The exposure prevalence was obtained from two sources with different recruitment methods, age and questionnaire characteristics; the prevalence in the age group 60-69 years was less accurately registered than for the age group 40-59 years, because both studies had small sample sizes in this age range at recruitment, and in addition, the data had to be extrapolated for the distant past. Therefore, using these estimates of exposure prevalence could at best provide a range of possible exposure distributions in the population. The use of hands-free devices was not accounted for, but this was not frequent in these populations (data not shown). Our study is not free of assumptions. The induction period for an effect of mobile phone use on glioma risk, if one exists, is unknown, as is the magnitude of the risk, if any, and the real patterns may be more complex than the scenarios that we simulated. In addition, there are several factors that we were not able to account for. The coverage of the Nordic cancer registries was not perfectly complete, some 1.5% to 10% of the malignant brain tumours were missed in these age groups, but there is no reason to believe this proportion has increased over time. In Sweden, it has been estimated that completeness would not have changed over the period 1998-2014 for the age group 20-69 years, but has increased among ≥70 year olds; completeness might have improved in the other countries due to introduction of automated registration routines (Tettamanti et al., 2019, Gjerstorff, 2011, Leinonen et al., 2017, Larsen et al., 2009). Our analyses incorporated the possibility that other, currently unknown, risk factors, as well as improvement in glioma detection and reporting had a smooth, gradual impact, over the period 1979−2016, consistent with the gradually increasing IRs."

"Our findings indicate that glioma incidence trends among men aged 40-59 years in the Nordic countries are not consistent with increased risks of moderate effect size (RR>1.2-1.4) assuming latency up to 20 years. This means that increased risks reported in some case-control studies are implausible and likely attributable to biases and errors in self-reported use of mobile phone. Our results were consistent with results from prospective cohort studies showing no association between mobile phone use and risk of glioma.
Funding: This study was supported by the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS; grant FM 8867)."
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412022004147
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5G Electromagnetic Radiation Attenuates Skin Melanogenesis In Vitro by Suppressing ROS Generation

Kim K, Lee YS, Kim N, Choi H-D, Lim K-M. 5G Electromagnetic Radiation Attenuates Skin Melanogenesis In Vitro by Suppressing ROS Generation. Antioxidants. 2022; 11(8):1449. https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox11081449

Abstract
Recently, the impacts of 5G electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with 28 GHz on human health have been attracting public attention with the advent of 5G wireless communication. Here, we report that 5G (28 GHz) EMR can attenuate the skin pigmentation in murine melanoma cells (B16F10) and a 3D pigmented human epidermis model (Melanoderm™). B16 cells were exposed to 5G (28 GHz) with or without α-MSH for 4 h per day. Interestingly, 5G attenuated α-MSH-induced melanin synthesis. Fontana–Masson staining confirmed that the dendritic formation of α-MSH stimulated B16 cells was diminished by 5G exposure. To confirm the anti-melanogenic effect of 5G EMR, MelanoDerm™ was irradiated with 5G at a power intensity of 10 W/m2 for 4 h a day for 16 days and melanin distribution was detected with Fontana–Masson staining, which supported the anti-melanogenic effect of 5G EMR. Consistently, 5G EMR suppressed α-MSH induced upregulation of melanogenic enzymes; tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. Of note, 5G EMR attenuated ROS production stimulated by α-MSH and H2O2, suggesting that 5G EMR may dissipate ROS generation, which is pivotal for the melanin synthesis. Collectively, we demonstrated that 5G EMR can attenuate skin pigmentation by attenuating ROS generation.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3921/11/8/1449
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An In Vitro Experimental System for 5G 3.5 GHz Exposures
Y. S. Lee, S. B. Jeon, J. -K. Pack, N. Kim and H. -D. Choi. An In Vitro Experimental System for 5G 3.5 GHz Exposures. IEEE Access, 2022, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3204055.
Abstract
In this study, an in vitro experimental system is developed for fifth-generation (5G) 3.5 GHz exposures. A radial transmission line (RTL) housed in an incubator can support the single-mode propagation at a 3.5 GHz band. A conical antenna is also placed at the center of an RTL to ensure field symmetries. A 5G signal generator along with a customized power amplifier can create 5G new radio time division duplex (TDD) waveforms. Additionally, a feedback scheme implemented by employing a directional coupler and power meter allows power control to ensure a steady output power. The system is evaluated based on temperature measurements using the initial temperature slope and nonlinear curve fitting to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) values. Comparing SARs obtained from a "worst-case" signal of a maximum power condition with the values obtained from a "TDD" signal of an actual 5G TDD transmission gives the initial slope ratio of 0.741, which is very similar to the theoretical duty cycle of 0.743. It is also shown that the average output power, water temperature, incubator air temperature, and CO2 density are adequately controlled for appropriate in vitro experiments.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9875270
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Pilot Study of a New Methodology to Study the Development of the Blue Bottle Fly Under Exposure to Radio-Frequency Fields at 5.4 GHz
My note: The SAR for the 19.4 V/m exposure condition was estimated to be 0.028 W/kg. At this SAR, the median delay in pupal emergence was twice as long as in the sham condition. Yet, this full-body SAR is less than the so-called 50-fold safety limit of 0.08 W/kg of full body exposure adopted by the FCC and ICNIRP. Thus, along with numerous other biological studies, this pilot study suggests that current safety limits are not adequate across different species.

De Paepe S, De Borre E, Toribio Carvajal D, Bell D, Thielens A. Pilot Study of a New Methodology to Study the Development of the Blue Bottle Fly (Calliphora vomitoria) Under Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields at 5.4 GHz. Int J Radiat Biol. 2022 Aug 17:1-49. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2022.2113838.

Abstract
Purpose – Exposure of insects to radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) can have developmental effects. However, there is currently no clear understanding of the exposure level that can lead to such effects. Therefore, the goal of this study was to, for the first time, study the development of the Blue Bottle Fly (Calliphora vomitoria, CV) under exposure to RF-EMFs at 5.4 GHz, using both numerical RF-EMF dosimetry with anatomically accurate 3D models of insects and an RF-EMF exposure experiment.

Materials and Methods - CV was chosen as a model organism in this study because CV's development can be influenced thermally and CV's pupal stage presents a window of several days in which immobile pupae can be exposed to RF-EMFs. The 5.4 GHz frequency was used because it allowed us licence-free operation of the exposure setup. Numerical, EM simulations with 3D anatomically accurate models of CV, obtained using micro-CT scanning, were used in this study. These simulations enable the estimation of the absorbed power and the whole-body averaged specific absorption rate in CV during RF exposure experiments. An experiment with three exposure conditions was designed and executed in which 400 pupae were split into an exposed group that was placed inside the TEM cell for 48 h and a concurrent control. Two exposure conditions used RF-EMF input power into the TEM cell at 5.4 GHz on two different levels. One exposure condition was a sham exposure. Electric field strength measurements were used to validate the proper functioning of the exposure setups and to quantify the RF-EMF exposure of the control groups.

Results and Conclusions - All studied groups of pupae – exposed to RF-EMFs, sham, and control groups- showed similar (evolutions of) masses, lengths and diameters during their development. The total rate of pupal emergence was reduced in one of the studied RF-EMF exposures in comparison to its concurrent control, while the other RF-EMF exposure and the sham exposure did not alter the total rate of pupal emergence. The sham exposure and the lowest of the two studied RF-EMF exposure conditions (19.4 V/m) caused a median delay in pupal emergence of 4 and 8 hours, respectively, in comparison to concurrent control groups. The higher studied exposure of 55 V/m caused a median relative acceleration in development of 8 h.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35976063/
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Effect of RFEMR on NSE and MDA levels in Sprague Dawley rats


Pagadala, P; Shankar, V and Sumathi, ME. Effect of RFEMR on NSE and MDA levels in Sprague Dawley rats. Jun 2022. Bioinformation.18 (6): 501-505.

Abstract

Radiofrequency emitted radiations (RFEMR) from mobile phones are known to produce a stress response because of its effect on hypothalamus. Mobile phones have become an integral part of our lives with increasing usage not only in terms of number of users but also increase in talk time. Therefore, it is of interest to study the effect of mobile phone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations on NSE and MDA levels in SD rats. Twelve male SD rats of 10-12weeks old, weighing 180-220 grams, were purchased from registered laboratory breeders & housed in a room with 12:12hour's light-dark cycle with adlibitum amount of food and RO water. Present study showed significant increase in NSE and MDA levels in rats exposed to RFEMR. This study proves that mobile RFEMR causes oxidative stress and oxidative damage in SD rats.
https://www.bioinformation.net/018/97320630018501.htm
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Assessment of combined exposure to intermediate-frequency electromagnetic fields and pulsed electromagnetic fields among library workers in Japan
Yamaguchi-Sekino S, Taki M, Ikuyo M, Esaki K, Aimoto A, Wake K, Kojimahara N. Assessment of combined exposure to intermediate-frequency electromagnetic fields and pulsed electromagnetic fields among library workers in Japan. Front Public Health. 2022 Jul 28;10:870784. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2022.870784.

Abstract
Objective: To assess exposure levels to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) among library workers in Japan, focusing on co-exposure to intermediate-frequency EMF (IF-EMF) and pulsed EMF, to propose a new epidemiological research methodology.

Methods: The evaluated exposure sources were an electromagnetic type-electronic article surveillance gate (EM-EAS, IF-EMF (operating frequency 220 Hz-14 kHz)) and an activator/deactivator of anti-theft tags termed as "book check unit" (BCU, pulsed EMF). Short-term exposures were: (E1) whole-body exposure from the EAS gate when sitting within 3 m; (E2) local exposure to transient IF-EMF while passing through or beside the EAS gate; and (E3) local exposure to a pulsed magnetic field on BCU use. E1-E3 were evaluated based on exposure levels relative to magnetic flux density at the occupational reference level (RL; E1) or as per occupational basic restrictions (BR; E2 and E3) delineated by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) 2010 guidelines. Exposure indices based on mid-term exposure (D1-D3), assuming exposure according to employment on a weekly basis, were used to assess exposure in actual working conditions. D1 represents continuous exposure from an EAS gate when sitting within 3 m of the gate. D2 and D3 represent repeated transient exposures occurring during gate pass or on the operation of a BCU. A link to a web-based questionnaire was distributed to librarians working at all libraries where the authors had mailed institutional questionnaires (4,073 libraries). Four exposure patterns were defined according to various exposure scenarios.

Results: We obtained information on exposure parameters and working conditions from the 548 completed questionnaires. The ICNIRP guideline levels were not exceeded in any of the E1-E3 scenarios. Median of the D1 (% ICNIRP RL × hour/week) was 1, and >85% respondents had values <10. However, the maximum value was 513. Altogether, these results indicate that continuous exposure was low in most cases. The same tendency was observed regarding repeated transient exposure from EM-EAS gates (i.e., the median value for D2 (% ICNIRP BR × gate pass) was 5). However, there were several cases in which D1 and D2 values were >10 times the median. The median of D3 (% ICNIRP BR × BCU operation) was 10, and most respondents' D3 values were greater than their D2 values, although the derived results depended on the assumptions made for the estimation.

Conclusion: We conducted an assessment of combined exposures to IF-EMF and pulsed EMF among library workers in Japan by evaluating both short-term exposures (E1-E3) and exposure indices based on mid-term exposures (D1-D3) assuming actual working conditions per questionnaire results. These results provide useful information for future epidemiological studies.
Open access paper: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2022.870784/full
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Effect of Occupational Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Thyroid Gland of Workers: A Prospective Study
Fang YY, Tu Q, Zhang YT, Liu J, Liu HG, Zhao ZH, Wu H, Yin TJ. Effect of Occupational Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure on the Thyroid Gland of Workers: A Prospective Study. Curr Med Sci. 2022 Aug;42(4):817-823. doi: 10.1007/s11596-022-2610-8.
Abstract

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of occupational extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) exposure on the thyroid gland.

Methods: We conducted a prospective analysis of 85 workers (exposure group) exposed to an ELF-EMF (100 μT, 10-100 Hz) produced by the electromagnetic aircraft launch system and followed up on thyroid function indices, immunological indices, and color Doppler images for 3 years. Additionally, 116 healthy volunteers were randomly selected as controls (control group), the thyroid function of whom was compared to the exposure group.

Results: No significant difference was observed in thyroid function between the exposure and control groups. During the follow-up of the exposure group, the serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) level was found to slowly decrease and free thyroxine (FT4) level slowly increase with increasing exposure time. However, no significant difference was found in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) over the three years, and no significant difference was observed in the FT3, FT4 and TSH levels between different exposure subgroups. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in thyroid autoantibody levels and ultrasound images between subgroups or over time.

Conclusion: Long-term exposure to ELF-EMF may promote thyroid secretion of T4 and inhibit deiodination of T4 to T3. ELF-EMF has no significant effect on thyroid immune function and morphology.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35963949/

Excerpt

One of the currently popular research topics is whether thyroid cancer can be induced by long-term ELF-EMF exposure. As we know, cancer is caused by DNA damage, but it is generally believed that ELF-EMF is too weak to directly damage DNA. Nevertheless, a recent study shows that long-term occupational exposure to ELF-EMF may cause a genetically toxic effect. The researchers believe that DNA damage is caused by the magnetic field due to the oxidative stress that the magnetic field induced [32]. Another meta-analysis on the relation between ELF-EMF and the risk of cancer suggests that ELF-EMF increases the risk of cancer [33].
32 Bagheri Hosseinabadi M, Khanjani N, Mirzaii M, et al. DNA damage from long-term occupational exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields among power plant workers. Mutat Res, 2019,846:403079

33 Zhang Y, Lai J, Ruan G, et al. Meta-analysis of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer risk: a pooled analysis of epidemiologic studies. Environ Int, 2016,88:36-43
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Magnetic field effects in biology from the perspective of the radical pair mechanism
Zadeh-Haghighi Hadi, Simon Christoph. Magnetic field effects in biology from the perspective of the radical pair mechanism. J. R. Soc. Interface. Aug 3, 2022. 192022032520220325. doi: 10.1098/rsif.2022.0325.
Abstract
Hundreds of studies have found that weak magnetic fields can significantly influence various biological systems. However, the underlying mechanisms behind these phenomena remain elusive. Remarkably, the magnetic energies implicated in these effects are much smaller than thermal energies. Here, we review these observations, and we suggest an explanation based on the radical pair mechanism, which involves the quantum dynamics of the electron and nuclear spins of transient radical molecules. While the radical pair mechanism has been studied in detail in the context of avian magnetoreception, the studies reviewed here show that magnetosensitivity is widespread throughout biology. We review magnetic field effects on various physiological functions, discussing static, hypomagnetic and oscillating magnetic fields, as well as isotope effects. We then review the radical pair mechanism as a potential unifying model for the described magnetic field effects, and we discuss plausible candidate molecules for the radical pairs. We review recent studies proposing that the radical pair mechanism provides explanations for isotope effects in xenon anaesthesia and lithium treatment of hyperactivity, magnetic field effects on the circadian clock, and hypomagnetic field effects on neurogenesis and microtubule assembly. We conclude by discussing future lines of investigation in this exciting new area of quantum biology.

Open access paper: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsif.2022.0325
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Measurement and Estimation of the Magnetic Fields in Electric Vehicles
M. Garvanova, I. Garvanov, V. Ivanov, D. Borissova. Measurement and Estimation of the Magnetic Fields in Electric Vehicles. 2022 22nd International Symposium on Electrical Apparatus and Technologies (SIELA), 2022, pp. 1-4, doi: 10.1109/SIELA54794.2022.9845773.
Abstract
To solve the problem of harmful emissions emitted by internal combustion vehicles such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, soot and others, the use of electric cars is proposed. These devices operate on electricity that induces "electromagnetic pollution" in or near them. The effects of electromagnetic fields on living organisms are undeniable, but it is not yet clear how harmful they are to humans. In electric car, passengers sit very close to an electrical system that operates at considerable power and for a long period of time. This means that consumers are exposed to artificial magnetic fields. Electric car manufacturers are very familiar with these problems and offer various technological solutions in their design and production. In the present article, experimental measurements of the magnetic fields generated by an electric car operating in different operating modes will be performed and recommendations for its proper operation will be given.
Excerpts
The levels of MF when driving in urban conditions are constantly changing in the range of about 100–200 nT. When starting and stopping, the levels are relatively high in the range of 170–230 nT. When the car is stopped at a traffic light, the level of the MF is in the range of 165–200 nT.
When driving the electric car on the highway at speeds of 50, 80 and 100 km/h, MF levels of the order of 100–300 nT are obtained. The measurement results are shown in Table 2
The obtained results show that in the passenger compartment of a car operating in different operating modes, the MF levels are normal. This is achieved thanks to the engineering solutions used in the production of the electric car. It is noteworthy that when accelerating and stopping the car, relatively high values of MF are observed, but this is for very short periods of time. More worrying is the fact of prolonged exposure and relatively high values of MF at high speeds of the electric car. The power, weight, acceleration and speed of the car affect the power of the MF generated in the car body. When charging the electric car, it is recommended that people are outside the car and as far away from it as possible. The three factors that have the strongest impact on human health are: high levels of electromagnetic fields, small distances between the generators of these fields and passengers, as well as relatively long exposure.
URL: https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.libproxy.berkeley.edu/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9845773&isnumber=9845686
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Comparison of EMF Exposure Limits and Assessment for Electric Vehicle Wireless Power Transfer
N. Li, Y. Wang, J. Zhang, Z. Gan. Comparison of EMF Exposure Limits and Assessment for Electric Vehicle Wireless Power Transfer. 2022 IEEE 5th International Electrical and Energy Conference (CIEEC), 2022, pp. 3944-3948, doi: 10.1109/CIEEC54735.2022.9846400.
Abstract
The electric and magnetic fields (EMF) generated by electric vehicle wireless power transfer might have health effects on the human inside and around the electric vehicle, including persons with active implantable medical devices. The comparative analysis on the EMF limits, measurement methods and assessment methods in the relevant EMF exposure standards were conducted, and the similarities and differences between domestic and foreign EMF standards and the international mainstream view were obtained. These provide the reference for the measurement and environmental impact assessment of electric vehicle wireless power transfer, as well as for revising Chinese national standard. The simulation and test research will be required with respect to the issues in the future, including assessment method of basic restrictions.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9846400
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The effects of operating frequency on wireless power transfer system design and human health in electric vehicles
A. Ağçal, T. H. Doğan, G. Aksu. The effects of operating frequency on wireless power transfer system design and human health in electric vehicles. Electrica. 22(2): 188-197, 2022.

Abstract
Wireless power transfer (WPT) continues to be popular in today's world because it is used in situations where the use of cables is difficult, dangerous, or restrictive. In WPT, electrical energy is transmitted over the air by magnetic connections instead of cables. In this paper, WPT system designs were made with 10 kHz and 20 kHz operating frequencies, 3.3 kW output power, and 50 cm × 50 cm size. The effects of the frequency on the WPT system were analyzed with the designs made for two separate frequencies. The WPT circuits were established in the MATLAB/Simulink program. The coil design of the WPT systems was made in ANSYS® Maxwell 3D. The critical air gap values of the 10 kHz and 20 kHz designs were determined as 15 cm and 17 cm, respectively. In this study, the efficiency of the WPT system was obtained as 88.79% at 15 cm air gap for 10 kHz and 92.74% at 17 cm air gap for 20 kHz. Wireless power transfer systems in different frequency bands at the same power were compared in terms of efficiency, loss, cost, and electromagnetic field distribution. In addition, the effects of WPT systems on human health were examined according to IEEE and ICNIRP standards.
Excerpt
In which regions the magnetic field emitted by the coils is safe and unsafe for human health has been determined according to IEEE and ICNIRP standards. In this study, it has been observed that scattering can pose a danger to human health when one is between or very close to the receiver and transmitter coil. When one moves away from the coils as much as approximately the coil diameter, a safe area for public exposure is reached in 20 kHz systems. On the other hand, in 10 kHz systems, it is necessary to move further away from the boundaries of the 20 kHz system for a safe area. In this case, it is shown that WPT systems need living and object detection systems to shut down the system when a living being or an object is between or near the receiver and transmitter. In addition, it has been observed that the magnetic field created by the 20 kHz design is less than the 10 kHz design. High-frequency designs have lower inductance values, lower number of turns, and correspondingly lower magnetic flux density.
Open access paper: https://electricajournal.org/en/the-effects-of-operating-frequency-on-wireless-power-transfer-system-design-and-human-health-in-electric-vehicles-161797
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Differential biological responses of adherent and non-adherent (cancer and non-cancerous) cells to variable extremely low frequency magnetic fields
Nezamtaheri MS, Goliaei B, Shariatpanahi SP, Ansari AM. Differential biological responses of adherent and non-adherent (cancer and non-cancerous) cells to variable extremely low frequency magnetic fields. Sci Rep. 2022 Aug 20;12(1):14225. doi: 10.1038/s41598-022-18210-y.

Abstract
Extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) induces biological effects on different cells through various signaling pathways. To study the impact of the ELF-EMF on living cells under an optimal physiological condition, we have designed and constructed a novel system that eliminates several limitations of other ELF-EMF systems. Apoptosis and cell number were assessed by flow cytometry and the Trypan Blue dye exclusion method, respectively. In vitro cell survival was evaluated by colony formation assay. The distribution of cells in the cell cycle, intracellular ROS level, and autophagy were analyzed by flow cytometer. Suspended cell differentiation was assessed by phagocytosis of latex particles and NBT reduction assay. Our results showed that response to the exposure to ELF-EMF is specific and depends on the biological state of the cell. For DU145, HUVEC, and K562 cell lines the optimum results were obtained at the frequency of 0.01 Hz, while for MDA-MB-231, the optimum response was obtained at 1 Hz. Long-term exposure to ELF-EMF in adherent cells effectively inhibited proliferation by arresting the cell population at the cell cycle G2/M phase and increased intracellular ROS level, leading to morphological changes and cell death. The K562 cells exposed to the ELF-EMF differentiate via induction of autophagy and decreasing the cell number. Our novel ELF-EMF instrument could change morphological and cell behaviors, including proliferation, differentiation, and cell death.
Open access paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-022-18210-y
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Maternal stress induced anxiety-like behavior exacerbated by electromagnetic fields radiation in female rats offspring
Hosseini E, Farid Habibi M, Babri S, Mohaddes G, Abkhezr H, Heydari H. Maternal stress induced anxiety-like behavior exacerbated by electromagnetic fields radiation in female rats offspring. PLoS One. 2022 Aug 23;17(8):e0273206. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0273206.
Abstract
There is a disagreement on whether extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) have a beneficial or harmful effect on anxiety-like behavior. Prenatal stress induces frequent disturbances in offspring physiology such as anxiety-like behavior extending to adulthood. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of prenatal stress and ELF-EMF exposure before and during pregnancy on anxiety-like behavior and some anxiety-related pathways in the hippocampus of female rat offspring. A total of 24 female rats 40 days of age were distributed into four groups of 6 rats each: control, Stress (rats whose mothers underwent chronic stress), EMF (rats whose mothers were exposed to electromagnetic fields) and EMF/S (rats whose mothers were simultaneously exposed to chronic stress and ELF-EMF). The rats were given elevated plus-maze and open field tests and then their brains were dissected and their hippocampus were subjected to analysis. ELISA was used to measure 24(S)-hydroxy cholesterol, corticosterone, and serotonin levels. Cryptochrome2, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, 3B-Hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2(NMDAr2) and phosphorylated N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2(PNMDAr2) were assayed by immunoblotting. Anxiety-like behavior increased in all treatment groups at the same time EMF increased anxiety induced by maternal stress in the EMF/S group. The stress group showed decreased serotonin and increased corticosterone levels. ELF-EMF elevated the PNMDAr2/NMDAr2 ratio and 24(S)-hydroxy cholesterol compared to the control group but did not change corticosterone. EMF did not restore changes induced by stress in behavioral and molecular tests. The results of the current study, clarified that ELF-EMF can induce anxiety-like behavior which may be attributed to an increase in the PNMDAr2/NMDAr2 ratio and 24(S)-OHC in the hippocampus, and prenatal stress may contribute to anxiety via a decrease in serotonin and an increase in corticosterone in the hippocampus. We also found that anxiety-like behavior induced by maternal stress exposure is exacerbated by electromagnetic field radiation.

Open access paper: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0273206
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Chronic blue light leads to accelerated aging in Drosophila by impairing energy metabolism and neurotransmitter levels
Jun Yang, Song Yujuan, Law Alexander D., Rogan Conno J., Shimoda Kelsey, Djukovic Danijel, Anderson Jeffrey C., Kretzschmar Doris, Hendrix David A., Giebultowicz Jadwiga M. Chronic blue light leads to accelerated aging in Drosophila by impairing energy metabolism and neurotransmitter levels. Frontiers in Aging. Vol. 3, 2022, doi: 10.3389/fragi.2022.983373.

Abstract

Blue light (BL) is becoming increasingly prevalent in artificial illumination, raising concerns about its potential health hazard to humans. In fact, there is evidence suggesting that acute BL exposure may lead to oxidative stress and death of retinal cells specialized for photoreception. On the other hand, recent studies in Drosophila melanogaster demonstrated that chronic BL exposure across lifespan leads to accelerated aging manifested in reduced lifespan and brain neurodegeneration even in flies with genetically ablated eyes, suggesting that BL can damage cells and tissues not specialized for light perception. At the physiological level, BL exposure impairs mitochondria function in flies, but the metabolic underpinnings of these effects have not been studied. Here, we investigated effects of chronic BL on metabolic pathways in heads of eyes absent (eya2) mutant flies in order to focus on extra-retinal tissues. We compared metabolomic profiles in flies kept for 10 or 14 days in constant BL or constant darkness, using LC-MS and GC-MS. Data analysis revealed significant alterations in the levels of several metabolites suggesting that critical cellular pathways are impacted in BL-exposed flies. In particular, dramatic metabolic rearrangements are observed in heads of flies kept in BL for 14 days, including highly elevated levels of succinate but reduced levels of pyruvate and citrate, suggesting impairments in energy production. These flies also show onset of neurodegeneration and our analysis detected significantly reduced levels of several neurotransmitters including glutamate and Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), suggesting that BL disrupts brain homeostasis. Taken together, these data provide novel insights into the mechanisms by which BL interferes with vital metabolic pathways that are conserved between fly and human cells.
Open access paper: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fragi.2022.983373
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Genetic analysis of cryptochrome in insect magnetosensitivity
Kyriacou CP, Rosato E. Genetic analysis of cryptochrome in insect magnetosensitivity. Front Physiol. 2022 Aug 10;13:928416. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2022.928416.
Abstract
The earth's magnetic field plays an important role in the spectacular migrations and navigational abilities of many higher animals, particularly birds. However, these organisms are not amenable to genetic analysis, unlike the model fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, which can respond to magnetic fields under laboratory conditions. We therefore review the field of insect magnetosensitivity focusing on the role of the Cryptochromes (CRYs) that were first identified in Arabidopsis and Drosophila as key molecular components of circadian photo-entrainment pathways. Physico-chemical studies suggest that photo-activation of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) bound to CRY generates a FADo- Trpo+ radical pair as electrons skip along a chain of specific Trp residues and that the quantum spin chemistry of these radicals is sensitive to magnetic fields. The manipulation of CRY in several insect species has been performed using gene editing, replacement/rescue and knockdown methods. The effects of these various mutations on magnetosensitivity have revealed a number of surprises that are discussed in the light of recent developments from both in vivo and in vitro studies.
Open access paper: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2022.928416/full
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High-Power Electromagnetic Pulse Exposure (EMP) of Healthy Mice: Effects on Cognition, Neuronal Activity, and Hippocampal Structures
Hao Y, Liu W, Xu Z, Jin X, Ye Y, Yu C, Hu C, Zuo H, Li Y. High-Power Electromagnetic Pulse Exposure of Healthy Mice: Assessment of Effects on Mice Cognitions, Neuronal Activities, and Hippocampal Structures. Front Cell Neurosci. 2022 Jun 29;16:898164. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2022.898164.

Abstract
Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) is a high-energy pulse with an extremely rapid rise time and a broad bandwidth. The brain is a target organ sensitive to electromagnetic radiation (EMR), the biological effects and related mechanisms of EMPs on the brain remain unclear. The objectives of the study were to assess the effects of EMP exposure on mouse cognitions, and the neuronal calcium activities in vivo under different cases of real-time exposure and post exposure. EMP-treated animal model was established by exposing male adult C57BL/6N mice to 300 kV/m EMPs. First, the effects of EMPs on the cognitions, including the spatial learning and memory, avoidance learning and memory, novelty-seeking behavior, and anxiety, were assessed by multiple behavioral experiments. Then, the changes in the neuronal activities of the hippocampal CA1 area in vivo were detected by fiber photometry in both cases of during real-time EMP radiation and post-exposure. Finally, the structures of neurons in hippocampi were observed by optical microscope and transmission electron microscope. We found that EMPs under this condition caused a decline in the spatial learning and memory ability in mice, but no effects on the avoidance learning and memory, novelty-seeking behavior, and anxiety. The neuron activities of hippocampal CA1 were disturbed by EMP exposure, which were inhibited during EMP exposure, but activated immediately after exposure end. Additionally, the CA1 neuron activities, when mice entered the central area in an Open field (OF) test or explored the novelty in a Novel object exploration (NOE) test, were inhibited on day 1 and day 7 after radiation. Besides, damaged structures in hippocampal neurons were observed after EMP radiation. In conclusion, EMP radiation impaired the spatial learning and memory ability and disturbed the neuronal activities in hippocampal CA1 in mice.

Open access paper: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fncel.2022.898164/full
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
4.8.2022 01:00

5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?


See the bottom of this page for additional resources.

5G Spectrum Allocation
5G (fifth-generation cellular) technology employs low-band (less than 1 gigahertz [GHz]), mid-band (1-6 GHz), and high-band radio frequencies (more than 6 GHz). In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has allocated "low-band" spectrum at 0.6-0.8 GHz (e.g., 600-850 MHz), "mid-band" spectrum in the 2.5-4.0 GHz range, and 11 GHz of "high-band" frequencies including licensed spectrum from 24-28 GHz and 37-47 GHz, as well as unlicensed spectrum from 64-71 GHz which is open to all wireless equipment manufacturers.
Allocation of radio frequency spectrum for 5G varies by country.
The biologic and health effects associated with exposure to 5G radiation depend on the carrier frequency in addition to other factors.

https://www.emf-portal.org/en/article/overview/mobile-communications-5g#level-1

Biological and Health Effects of 5G
There has been essentially no research on the biologic or health effects of 5G. According to EMF-Portal, an archive that contains more than 35,000 publications on electromagnetic fields, of the 408 studies on 5G, only 7 have been medical/biological studies (as of August 1, 2022):
A closer look, however, reveals that although these studies employed carrier frequencies used in 5G, none of these studies modulated or pulsed the signal as required by 5G or used other features of 5G technology (e.g., beamforming, massive MIMO, and phased arrays) that are likely to affect the nature and extent of biological or health effects from exposure to this radiation.
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Brillouin Precursors, a theoretical oddity or a real concern for 5G millimetre-wave bands to be used in future high-speed telecommunications?

Don Maisch, PhD, Discussion Paper, July 21, 2022

The following topics are briefly discussed in the paper:

  • Brillouin Precursors
  • The need for reliable research
  • Uncertainties with ICNIRP's thermally based limits for millimeter wave emissions
  • A potential risk for property owners

Excerpts

"... With a millimeter wavelength of 0.65 mm at 42 GHz. The waves can penetrate into the human skin deep enough to affect most skin structures located in the epidermis and dermis.1 However, these types of waves present other challenges. The first is that when most of the energy is focused in a small area, such as 5G antenna beam-forming, the risk of human tissue heating for anyone in the path of the beam will be increased.
The second challenge is that signals such as radar that are made of sharp pulses behave differently when they enter body tissue containing moving charges (such as potassium ions). Each incoming pulse generates a force that accelerates these moving charges, thereby causing them to become emitters of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). This additional radiation adds large spikes onto the leading and trailing edges of the original EMR pulse. The sharp transients, called "Brillouin Precursors" increase the strength of the original signal and reradiate EMR waves deeper into the body than predicted by conventional thermal models. 2

The creation of Brillouin Precursors within the body by very short pulsed signals in the frequency of 10 GHz or more (millimeter wave bands) was described by Albanese et al in 1994. These authors predicted that the interaction of these signals with human tissue would cause disruption of large molecules, and damage cell membranes leading to blood-brain barrier leakage. 3 ....
It must be pointed out that little research has been carried out on the possibility of adverse biological effects from the creation of Brillouin precursors with 5G phased array antennas (let alone on 6G communications). Considering the high download speeds, which may have unintended adverse biological effects, this should be a priority.
Other damaging effects have been predicted in a paper published in Health Physics in December 2018 by Esra Neufeld and Niels Kuster. The paper suggests that permanent skin damage from tissue heating may occur even after short exposures to 5G millimetre wave pulse trains (where repetitive short, intense pulses can cause rapid, localised heating of skin). The authors stated that there is an urgent need for new thermal safety standards to address the kind of health risks possible with 5G technology ....
It is possible that this advice was in response to the ICNIRP draft guidelines (2019) as some changes were made to the final published guidelines. However, the changes did not conform to those suggested and it is not clear that the possibility of excessive heat absorption from these higher frequencies, which may result in pain, has been addressed in ICNIRP's current guidelines.
The necessity for more reliable research into possible damaging effects of pulsed millimetre waves used for 5G communications is also seen in an August 2021 paper by Foster and Vijayalaxmi ....
Concerns over the lack of scientific data regarding possible biological effects of millimeter waves proposed for use in modern telecommunications have been raised by Nicholas Lawler et al. in Biomedical Optics Express (May 2022). The authors found that the studies cited indicate a strong power and dose dependence of millimeter wave induced effects at biologically relevant exposure levels such as those recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) ....
The "take-home" message from the above mentioned papers is that we still do not have adequate research on 5G millimetre waves to be able to assure the public that the many thousands of 5G antennas, in many instances placed in close proximity to homes and workplaces, are without a possible health risk because the necessary research has not yet been conducted.
Open access paper: https://betweenrockandhardplace.files.wordpress.com/2022/08/don-maisch-brillouin-precursors-july-8-2022.pdf

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Expert reveals 5G risks

Lyn McLean, Director, EMR Australia PL, April 8, 2022

"Frequencies used in Telecommunications – An Integrated Radiobiological Assessment"

By Yuri G. Grigoriev, translated by ORSAA [Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association Inc (www.orsaa.org)]

The book can be downloaded for free: https://bit.ly/GrigorievBook (198 page pdf)

One of the world's leading authorities on wireless radiation has documented the risks of 5G radiation in "the first book on 5G that outlines the potential dangers of 5G technology, both in Russia and overseas."

The book, written by Professor Yuri Grigoriev shortly before his death, was recently translated into English by the Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association (ORSAA) and can now be downloaded for free.

Many countries (including Australia) base their radiation standards on Guidelines developed by the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the book, Prof Grigoriev points out that ICNIRP is not necessarily a credible body, and its members are not impartial scientists. The ICNIRP Guidelines, he believes, are inadequate because they are only designed to protect people from the heating effects of radiation. But even this, they don't do properly.

[Note: In the U.S., the radio frequency radiation guidelines adopted by the FCC are similar to those of ICNIRP.]

Among the problems with these guidelines are that:

  • they don't prevent unacceptable increases in temperature

  • they don't restrict the intensity of spikes of radiation

  • a person would have to hold a 5G mobile phone 8 cm from their head or body to comply with them.

Grigoriev says 'ICNIRP members persist in arguing that the thousands of peer-reviewed studies that have found biological or medical consequences from chronic exposure to non-thermal EMF levels are insufficient to warrant stricter safety regulations.'

Grigoriev refers to studies showing harmful effects of 5G millimetre waves (MMWs). They include:

  • demyelination of nerve cells

  • changes to cell membranes, including changes to ion channels

  • inhibition of cell cycle progression

  • changes to levels of enzyme and proteins in the brain's hippocampus

  • double-strand breaks in DNA

  • effects on reproduction

  • changes to the sensitivity of the skin

  • effects on peripheral and central nervous systems

  • effects on the hypothalamus and pituitary glands and changes to cortisol and testosterone hormones

  • changes to heart rate

  • changes to immune function

  • degranulation of mast cells in the skin (that can cause allergic-type symptoms).

Grigoriev says that individuals react differently to exposure, and this can make it difficult for observers to draw conclusions and can lead to errors in assessing the impacts of radiation.

He writes, "From our evaluation of the results of preliminary studies on the possible impacts on the health of the population of the 5G MMW-exposures alone …, we consider it reasonable to expect the following adverse effects: impacts on normal functioning in the critical organs of the skin and eyes; mediated systemic reactions in the body as a whole; and, most notable, impacts to the nervous and immune systems."

Grigoriev refers to calls by doctors, scientists and administrations in different countries to halt the roll-out of 5G until it can be demonstrated to be safe. He says, 'Irradiation of the human population by MMWs without the appropriate precautionary standards is clearly immoral – in the same way as conducting or observing an experiment would be, when it has the possibility of developing pathological processes; eg, according to the notion: 'Wait and see … then we will be able to establish proper standards.' Of course, by then, it will be too late!"


Professor Yuri G. Grigoriev (PhD, DMedSci) 1925-2021
  • Chief Scientific Officer, Laboratory of Radiobiology and Hygiene of Non-Ionizing Radiation, Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of the Federal Medical Biological Agency (Russia)
  • Academician, Academy of Electro-Technical Sciences (Russia)
  • Deputy Chair, Bureau of Radiobiology, Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Member of the WHO Advisory Committee (International EMF Project)
  • Member of the Russian Scientific Commission on Radiation Protection
  • Member of the Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
  • Member of the International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety
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Mar 24, 2022 5G Observatory Quarterly Report 13 - Up to October 2021
Valdani Vicari & Associati (VVA), PolicyTracker, LS telcom AG. European Commission Study on "European 5G Observatory phase III." CNECT/2021/OP/0008: 1-135. 2021.
Excerpts
  • In the richest nations like the USA, Japan, South Korea and China, commercial 5G services have been in operation for a couple of years, and 5G is now spreading to less developed countries.
  • The USA has assigned the most mmWave (millimeter wave) spectrum: four bands in total, compared to one in some of the EU and none in China.
  • It is important to note that most of the figures collected on the number of 5G base stations are provided by governments, but in some cases such as the USA and Japan, they are based on market research estimates. It is possible that some market-based estimates are not entirely up to date or accurate.
Open access report: https://5gobservatory.eu/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/5G-Obs-PhaseIII_Quarterly-report-13_final-version-11112021.pdf

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Possible health effects on the human brain by various generations of mobile telecommunication: a review based estimation of 5G impact
Hiie Hinrikus, Tarmo Koppel, Jaanus Lass, Hans Orru, Priit Roosipuu, Maie Bachmann. Possible health effects on the human brain by various generations of mobile telecommunication: a review based estimation of 5G impact. Int J Radiat Biol. 2022 Jan 7;1-48. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2022.2026516.

Abstract

Purpose: The deployment of new 5G NR technology has significantly raised public concerns in possible negative effects on human health by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF). The current review is aimed to clarify the differences between possible health effects caused by the various generations of telecommunication technology, especially discussing and projecting possible health effects by 5G. The review of experimental studies on the human brain over the last fifteen years and the discussion on physical mechanisms and factors determining the dependence of the RF EMF effects on frequency and signal structure have been performed to discover and explain the possible distinctions between health effects by different telecommunication generations.

Conclusions: The human experimental studies on RF EMF effects on the human brain by 2G, 3G and 4G at frequencies from 450 to 2500 MHz were available for analyses. The search for publications indicated no human experimental studies by 5G nor at the RF EMF frequencies higher than 2500 MHz. The results of the current review demonstrate no consistent relationship between the character of RF EMF effects and parameters of exposure by different generations (2G, 3G, 4G) of telecommunication technology. At the RF EMF frequencies lower than 10 GHz, the impact of 5G NR FR1 should have no principal differences compared to the previous generations. The radio frequencies used in 5G are even higher and the penetration depths of the fields are smaller, therefore the effect is rather lower than at previous generations. At the RF EMF frequencies higher than 10 GHz, the mechanism of the effects might differ and the impact of 5G NR FR2 becomes unpredictable. Existing knowledge about the mechanism of RF EMF effects at millimeter waves lacks sufficient experimental data and theoretical models for reliable conclusions. The insufficient knowledge about the possible health effects at millimeter waves and the lack of in vivo experimental studies on 5G NR underline an urgent need for the theoretical and experimental investigations of health effects by 5G NR, especially by 5G NR FR2.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34995145/
Excerpts
Experimental human in vivo studies at radiofrequency range 0.01-300 GHz published in peer-reviewed journals in the last fifteen years (2007–2021) were eligible, including all types of telecommunication signals and pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation.

Altogether 73 publications were included in the review.

According to investigated parameters, the studies were divided into four categories: resting electroencephalography (EEG), sleep EEG and sleep quality, event related potentials (ERP) and cognition-behavior and brain metabolism. Statistically significant changes in an investigated parameter between sham and exposed conditions were considered as an effect.

Table 2 presents the studies that report the RF EMF effect or no effect at different signal structures and frequencies.

No clear interdependency between the generation of telecommunication technology and the character of RF EMF effects becomes evident from Table 2. All categories of the reported statistically significant effects as well as no effects include exposure from various generations of telecommunication systems and different RF EMF frequencies.


The rate of studies reporting effect is 78.6% at 450 MHz, 66.7% at 900 MHz, 43.6% at 1800 MHz, and 57.1% at 2450 MHz. The rate of positive findings is maximal, 78.6%, at 450 MHz band and minimal, 43.8%, at 1800 MHz band. However, along with the possible regular frequency dependent trend, the decrease could be related to other factors: differences in signal structures and varying number of experiments at different frequencies. The difference between results at 450 MHz and 1800 MHz can be partly related to the character of applied exposure: at 450 MHz remarkable part of studies have used meander-like pulse-modulated, not telecommunication signals like RF EMF exposure.
The rate of studies reporting effect is 33.3% at TETRA, 63.6% at GSM, 46.2% at WCDMA, 80% at LTE and 20% at WiFi signals. These numbers should be taken with caution due to the small number of studies, especially at LTE, WiFi and TETRA signals. Some trends can be mentioned: the rate of studies reporting RF EMF effect is higher than 50% at LTE and GSM signals, lower than 50% at WCDMA and TETRA signals and minimal at WiFi signals. This trend is not in accordance with the possible dependence on the used radiofrequency and needs explanation based on the characteristic behavior of the used signals.

Conclusions

In the current review, the experimental investigations on RF EMF effects on human EEG, ERP, cognition and behavior were analyzed at the exposure conditions typical for the 2G, 3G and 4G generations of mobile telecommunication technology at frequencies from 450 to 2500 MHz. The search for publications indicated no studies on human EEG, ERP, cognition and behavior by 5G nor at RF EMF frequencies higher than 2500 MHz.

The results of the current review demonstrate no consistent relationship between the character of RF EMF effects and parameters of exposure by different generations (2G, 3G, 4G) of mobile telecommunication technology. The following trends can be mentioned:

  1. Various generations of telecommunication technology seem to contribute to similar effects. There is no special frequency nor signal structure related to a specific effect.

  2. Some decrease in the rate of studies reporting effects with the increase of RF EMF frequency can be declared. However, due to the small number of studies, especially at higher frequencies (≥2 GHz), the results need to be considered with caution.

The existing knowledge about the mechanisms underlying RF EMF effects allows us to formulate the following conclusions:

  1. The dielectric polarization, a physical reason behind the RF EMF effects, decreases with the frequency of RF EMF. The electric permittivity is relatively stable at frequencies over 0.1 and 10 GHz, but decreases fast at frequencies higher than 10 GHz. At frequencies higher than 10 GHz, the effects related to the dielectric polarization become small. The scarce data about the RF EMF effects at frequencies higher than 10 GHz provide insufficient knowledge to clarify the possible interaction mechanisms.

  2. The theory of parametric excitation could explain the impact of the signal structure. The presence of the low-frequency components lower than 1000 Hz in the spectrum of RF EMF exposure (2G-5G) is an important factor to give rise to the RF EMF effects on the nervous system. The RF EMF effects are most probably caused by the telecommunication systems with low-frequency components lower than 100 Hz (4G, 5G FR1, 5G FR2).

Currently, there are no data about RF EMF effects caused by 5G telecommunication systems. Combining data of experimental results with existing knowledge in the mechanisms of RF EMF effects, the conclusions about the possible 5G effects can be derived:

  1. At the RF EMF frequencies lower than 10 GHz, the impact of 5G NR FR1 should have no principal differences compared to the previous generations. The frequencies used in 5G are even higher and the penetration depths of the fields are smaller, therefore the effect is rather lower than at previous generations.

  2. The low-frequency components in the 5G NR FR1 RF EMF spectrum are similar to these of 4G. Therefore, the possible health effects should have the same level.

  3. At the RF EMF frequencies higher than 10 GHz, the mechanism of the effects might change and the impact of 5G NR FR2 becomes unpredictable.

  4. The possible health effects caused by 5G NR FR2 are not limited to the impact on skin but can be widened by the excitation of nervous system.

  5. Existing knowledge about the mechanism of RF EMF effects at millimeter waves lacks sufficient experimental data and theoretical models for reliable conclusions.

The insufficient knowledge about the possible health effects at millimeter waves and the lack of in vivo experimental studies on 5G NR underline an urgent need for the theoretical and experimental investigations of health effects by 5G NR, especially by 5G NR FR2.

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Health Effects of 5G Base Station Exposure: A Systematic Review
Tasneem Sofri, Hasliza A Rahim, Mohamedfareq Abdulmalek, Khatijahhusna Abd Rani, Mohd Hafizi Omar, Mohd Najib Mohd Yasin, Muzammil Jusoh, Ping Jack Soh. Health Effects of 5G Base Station Exposure: A Systematic Review. IEEE Access. Dec 30, 2021. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3139385.

Abstract

The Fifth Generation (5G) communication technology will deliver faster data speeds and support numerous new applications such as virtual and augmented reality. The additional need for a larger number of 5G base stations has sparked widespread public concerns about their possible negative health impacts. This review analyzes the latest research on electromagnetic exposure on humans, with particular attention to its effect on cognitive performance, well-being, physiological parameters, and Electroencephalography (EEG). While most of their results indicated no changes in cognitive function, physiological parameters, or overall well-being, the strength of the EEG alpha wave is noticed to vary depending on various aspects of cognitive functions. However, the available studies have not investigated the health effects resulting from exposure from the 5G mobile phone and base station antennas from 700 MHz to 30 GHz on the cognitive performance, well-being subjective symptoms, human physiological parameters, and EEG of adults. There is a need for such research regarding this current emerging technology. Such studies are significant in determining whether 5G technology is indeed safe for humans.

Conclusion

This work presents an analysis of exposure studies conducted using signals from 400 MHz to 1750 MHz (for 4G). From this analysis, the following conclusions are made:
• Most of the studies in literature using 2G/3G/4G showed no effects and no consistency in how exposure to these signals affected the cognitive, physiological parameters, well-being, and EEG of the volunteers.
• Most research on human cognition, physiological parameters, and well-being so far have focused on the impacts of GSM900/GSM1800/UMTS/4G MPs, GSM900/GSM1800/UMTS BSs, DECT, and Wi-Fi exposures.

• There is an absence of studies reporting the effects of 5G (700 MHz, 3.5 GHz, or 28 GHz) BS signals on adults in terms of cognitive performance, well-being, or physiological markers (heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature).

Figure 9 and 10 illustrated the possible flowchart and schematic diagram to study the effects of 5G BS exposure signals for sub-6 GHz and mmWave bands (of up to 30 GHz) to human subjects. Data from such a study will be useful in explicitly determining the significance signal exposure from 5G BS on human health, considering their much closer proximity to users.

Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9665755
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Health Council of the Netherlands and evaluation of the fifth generation, 5G, for wireless communication and cancer risks
Lennart Hardell. Health Council of the Netherlands and evaluation of the fifth generation, 5G, for wireless communication and cancer risks. World J Clin Oncol 2021; 12(6): 393-403 doi: 10.5306/wjco.v12.i6.393.
Abstract

Currently the fifth generation, 5G, for wireless communication is about to be rolled out worldwide. Many persons are concerned about potential health risks from radiofrequency radiation. In September 2017, a letter was sent to the European Union asking for a moratorium on the deployment until scientific evaluation has been made on potential health risks (https://www.5Gappeal.eu). This appeal has had little success. The Health Council of the Netherlands released on September 2, 2020 their evaluation on 5G and health. It was largely based on a World Health Organization draft and report by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, both criticized for not being impartial. The guidelines by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection were recommended to be used, although they have been considered to be insufficient to protect against health hazards (https://www.emfscientist.org). The Health Council Committee recommended not to use the 26 GHz frequency band until health risks have been studied. For lower frequencies, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines were recommended. The conclusion that there is no reason to stop the use of lower frequencies for 5G is not justified by current evidence on cancer risks as commented in this article. A moratorium is urgently needed on the implementation of 5G for wireless communication.

Core Tip: In this comment, guidelines for radiofrequency radiation are discussed in relation to a recent evaluation by the Health Council of the Netherlands. The Committee recommends that for the deployment of 5G the frequency band 26 GHz should not be used. For lower frequencies, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are recommended. However, these guidelines are not based on an objective evaluation of health risks, which is discussed in this paper.
Conclusion
In conclusion regarding cancer, current scientific evidence clearly demonstrates an increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma for use of mobile and/or cordless phones. In this review other tumor types and health endpoints are not discussed. The increased risk for brain and head tumors is based on human cancer epidemiology studies and is supported by similar tumor types found in animal studies. In fact, these animal studies confirmed the earlier results in case-control studies on increased tumor risk for use of wireless phones (both mobile and cordless phones). Mechanistic aspects on carcinogenesis come from laboratory findings on, e.g., the increase of reactive oxygen species[5] and DNA damage[4]. The current evaluation by the Health Council of the Netherlands is based on a WHO draft and SSM report. It also recommends using ICNIRP guidelines, considered to be insufficient to protect against health hazards, such as cancer, by the majority of the scientists in this field (https://www.emfscientist.org). The report does not represent a thorough, balanced, objective, and up-to-date evaluation of cancer risks and other hazardous effects from RF radiation. It is also strikingly contradictory as it concludes that serious health effects such as cancer and birth defects are "possible." Yet it has no objection to the roll-out of 5G and recommends that later studies are performed to study health outcomes such as cancer and birth defects. Thus, no lessons are learned from existing observations on increased cancer risks[49]. The conclusion by the Commission that there is no reason to stop the use of lower frequencies for 5G up to 3.5 GHz because of no "proven adverse health effects," merely reflects the biased conclusions by ICNIRP dominated groups. Thus that conclusion must be dismissed, and new guidelines for previous and new frequencies must be established considering the new technology, the different propagation pattern for 5G, and increased RF radiation. A moratorium is urgently required on the implementation of 5G for wireless communication[13]. Ultimately, wired solutions are preferred.

Open access paper: https://www.wjgnet.com/2218-4333/full/v12/i6/393.htm

--Related Posts
Regulators Steamroll Health Concerns as the Global Economy Embraces 5G (Washington Spectator)
"We Have No Reason to Believe 5G is Safe" (Scientific American)
Scientific American Created Confusion about 5G's Safety: Will They Clear It Up? (includes "5G, Public Health and Uncomfortable Truths")

5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health Effects5G Wireless Technology: Cutting through the Hype
Scientists and Doctors Demand Moratorium on 5GGovernment Accountability Office (GAO) 2020 Report on 5G5G and Health (Netherlands Health Council)European Parliament: 5G Health Effects and Environmental Impact
ICNIRP's Exposure Guidelines for Radio Frequency Fields
Worldwide Radio Frequency Radiation Exposure Limits versus Health Effects
Cell Tower Health EffectsElectromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS)
Physicians for Safe TechnologyEnvironmental Health TrustMicrowave News
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Health Safety Guidelines and 5G Wireless Radiation [Health Matters]
James C. Lin. Health Safety Guidelines and 5G Wireless Radiation [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine. 23(1):10-17. Jan. 2022, doi: 10.1109/MMM.2021.3117307.
Abstract
The rollout of 5G cellular communication technology is well underway worldwide. The advocates of 5G mobile technology hail it as a faster and more secure technology than its predecessor, 3G and 4G systems. The major enabling infrastructure uses millimeter-wave (mm-wave) and phased-array technology to achieve line-of-sight directivity, high data rates, and low latency. A central vulnerability or security threat is that it may allow spying on users. Nevertheless, this is a system architecture and technology or regulatory issue but not a biological effect or health safety matter.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9632507
My note: James C. Lin, Professor Emeritus in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois Chicago. Dr. Lin is one of the most renowned scientists who has studied the biological interactions of wireless radiation. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Since 2006 he has been the Editor-in-Chief of the Bioelectromagnetics journal published on behalf of the Bioelectromagnetics Society (BEMS), an international organization of biological and physical scientists, physicians and engineers. In a prior article, Dr. Lin, an ICNIRP Commission member from 2004-2016, accused the organization of groupthink: "The simultaneous penchant to dismiss and criticize positive results and the fondness for and eager acceptance of negative findings are palpable and concerning."

Like several previous articles that Dr. JC Lin wrote for IEEE Microwave Magazine, the abstract is biased toward risk minimization so read the paper or the following excerpts.

Excerpts
Low-band 5G starts at roughly 400 MHz and uses existing or previous 3G or 4G frequencies or newly opened frequencies to operate; the latter, for example, may overlap with the existing 4G band. The 5G rollout began with midband, which includes popular frequencies between 3 and 4 GHz. However, primary 5G technological advances are associated with high-band 5G, which promises performance bandwidth as high as 20 GHz, and multiple-input, multiple-output strategies using 64–256 antennas at short distances and offering performances up to 10 times better than the current 4G networks."
"For health safety matters, it is not apparent whether the biological responses to high-band 5G radiations would be akin to earlier generations or low-band 5G radiations, given the distinctive characteristics of mm-wave and its interaction with the complex structure and composition of pertinent, superficial biological cells and tissues such as the cornea of the eye and nerve-rich human skin, the large, protective organ of the body."
"The two most widely promulgated RF health safety guidelines or standards have recently published revisions of their respective 1998 and 2005 versions [1], [2]. The updated International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and IEEE standards appear to cater to industry wishes; they are strongly linked to thermal effects associated with measurable temperature elevations. Also, the updates seem to have been synchronized to accommodate the 5G rollout."
"To date, there has not been a single reported epidemiological study that investigated mm-waves and their potential health effects.
Thus, although there are roughly 100 published laboratory investigations of all types, and the reported biological responses are inconsistent in their association between biological effects and mm-wave exposure. Indeed, the types of reported laboratory investigations are small, limited, and diverse, considering the wide, 5G, mm-wave frequency domain. The jury on biological effects or health impacts is still out on 5G mm-waves. Moreover, there is a lack of ongoing, controlled laboratory investigations...."
"If the entities responsible for safety recommendations believe what appears to be their position concerning experimental results from rats from the NIEHS/NTP that a whole-body temperature rise of 1 °C is carcinogenic, then the safety factors of 50 adopted for the public or 10 for workers would be marginal for their stated purpose and practically meaningless from the perspective of "safety" protection (more so above 6 GHz)."
"As shown in Table 1, for mm-waves, the referenced local-tissue-temperature rise in the head, torso, and limbs of humans is 5 °C. This level of temperature rise would bring the tissue temperature from a normal value of 37 °C to a hyperthermic 42 °C. A 42 °C tissue temperature is known to be cytotoxic, with exponential cell-killing capacities. It is used as the basis for clinical cancer therapy in hyperthermia treatment for cancer protocols [14]–[16]. The recently updated safety recommendations provide a reduction factor of 10 for the public's safety and a reduction factor of two in the case of workers. In this situation, the efficacy of these updated safety recommendations is borderline, and the updated recommendations are meaningless from the perspective of safety protection.

In summary, the safety recommendation updates were based primarily on limiting the tissue-heating potentials of RF radiation to elevate body temperatures. There are significant anomalies in the recently updated safety recommendations. Moreover, aside from the aforementioned anomalies, the existing scientific data are too limited—especially at mm-wavelengths—to make a reliable assessment or conclusion with any certainty. Some of the updated safety recommendations are marginal, questionable, and lack scientific justification from the perspective of safety protection."

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5G Cellular Standards. Total Radiobiological Assessment of the Danger of Planetary Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure to the Population (in Russian)Y.G. Grigoriev, A.S. Samoylov. 5G-cellular standards. Total radiobiological assessment of the danger of planetary electromagnetic radiation exposure to the population. G384; М.: SRC — FMBC, Moscow, 2020.
Abstract

The book discusses the implementation of the 5G-standard in the cellular communication system. 5G-technology works with millimeter waves (MMW) with simultaneous distribution of the IoT (Internet of Things) program — Internet connection between «things», both for home use, and other objects, for example, in transport, in production. MMW are easily shielded. Given this, only the skin and sclera of the eyes will be affected.
A new radiobiological approach to hazard assessment of the 5G-standard is presented. The significance of radiobiological criteria and the degree of risk are considered, taking into account the appearance of new critical organs and the load on existing critical organs and systems during lifetime exposure to EMF in the population. This point of view of the authors is used to assess the total radiobiological danger of planetary electromagnetic radiation exposure to the population.
Ways of possible reduction of the electromagnetic load on the population are suggested.

Relevance of the book by L.A. Ilyin, RAS academician
Both in Russia and in countries abroad, there have been active discussions over the past few years about a promising proposal for optimizing cellular communications — the planetary introduction of a new 5G-standard that will guarantee fast transmission of a large amount of data. For this purpose, millimeter waves (MMW) will be used.
The techno-economic advantage of this offer is obvious and widely reported by the media in many countries. However, the degree of danger of this type of electromagnetic radiation to public health and the environment remains unclear.
Unfortunately, the appeals of scientists and medical professionals to the UN and the European Union about the need for preliminary medical and biological research before implementing the 5G-standard remain beyond real implementation. A number of countries refuse to place the 5G-standard on their territory.

Book by Yu.G. Grigoriev and A.S. Samoylov "5G-CELLULAR STANDARD. TOTAL RADIOBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE DANGER OF PLANETARY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION EXPOSURE TO THE POPULATION" considers the implementation of the 5G-standard in the cellular communication system. Unlike existing wireless technologies 2G, 3G and 4G, which use electromagnetic fields of the radio frequency range, the 5G-standard works with millimeter waves with simultaneous distribution of the IoT (Internet of Things) program — Internet communication between "objects", both for home use and other objects, for example, in transport and in production.
For stable delivery of MMW to the entire territory of our planet, Earth satellites are used. It is planned to launch 4,425 satellites for the implementation of the universal Internet access program, but there are already 800 satellites in space under this program. It should be noted that there are currently several thousand satellites in orbit, which is of great concern to astronomers and the security service of manned space flights in Russia.
In fact, the entire population will be trapped for life in the electromagnetic grid of millimeter waves and no one will be able to avoid their impact.

MMW are easily shielded. Naturally, to cover a certain area with a millimeter cell, you will need to increase the number of base stations (BS). For example, with a cell radius of only 20 meters, you will need about 800 base stations per square kilometer and located 3-5 meters from the consumer. This is in sharp contrast, for example, with 3G and 4G-standards, which use large cells and have ranges from 2 to 15 km or more.

Given that MMW is absorbed in biotissues at a depth of up to 2 mm, only the skin and sclera of the eyes will be affected by them. Therefore, the authors rightly believe that when assessing the risk of MMV, it is necessary to take into account the appearance of new critical organs — the skin and eyes. The skin is a very complex biostructure, has a large number of receptors and is actually a "bio-relay" between the external environment and the functional state of the body.
Naturally, the introduction of 5G-technology raises new questions. First, the technical part of providing this type of communication. A significantly larger number of micro-antenna base station antennas per unit area with satellite support is needed. Second, there is a lack of a consistent methodology for hygienic rationing. Third, there are only assumptions about possible biological effects in the lifetime impact of MMW on populations and ecosystems. There are no data on possible bioeffects with constant exposure to MMW on the skin and sclera of the eyes. Targeted research is still not carried out both in Russia and abroad.

There are different perspectives on the assessment of the dangers of this new technology. The International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assess the hazard only by adding the absorbed dose to existing standards. This is a small addition, and therefore the existing FCC and ICNIRP standards, approved in 1996, are not being revised. International standards, despite criticism from the scientific community and the European Union, have remained unchanged for more than 20 years.
The authors of the reviewed book consider this approach erroneous, because in this case, the radiation load on new critical organs — the skin and eyes--is not taken into account. They considered the significance of radiobiological criteria and the degree of risk, taking into account the emergence of new critical organs and the load on existing critical organs and systems, taking into account the lifetime exposure of the population to EMF. From this point of view, the book presents an assessment of the total radiobiological danger of planetary electromagnetic radiation exposure to the population.

The book offers new ways to reduce the electromagnetic load, taking into account 5G on the population. It is necessary to explain to the population that EMF is considered harmful and their safety is regulated by certain hygiene standards.

Exposure to EMF that exceeds these standards may negatively affect the health of the mobile user. In this regard, the population should strictly follow the existing hygiene recommendations. However, most people perceive gadgets simply as an element of convenient everyday communication without time limits, as a toy for children, for entertainment, using cellular communication without the need. The population should understand that by violating hygiene recommendations, they are putting themselves at a certain risk. This danger must be persistently explained and, above all, through the media. It is recommended to introduce such a concept as "The conscious risk". This is the first generalization on the problem of the danger of 5G-technologies, both in Russia and abroad.
Open access book (in Russian; 196 pp. pdf): https://bit.ly/Grigoriev5G
My comments: A considerable amount of research suggests that exposure to millimeter waves can affect many organs of the body, not just the skin and the eyes.

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Electromagnetic fields, 5G and health: what about the precautionary principle?
John William Frank. Electromagnetic fields, 5G and health: what about the precautionary principle? J Epidemiol Community Health. Published Online First: 19 January 2021. doi: 10.1136/jech-2019-213595.
Abstract

New fifth generation (5G) telecommunications systems, now being rolled out globally, have become the subject of a fierce controversy. Some health protection agencies and their scientific advisory committees have concluded that there is no conclusive scientific evidence of harm. Several recent reviews by independent scientists, however, suggest that there is significant uncertainty on this question, with rapidly emerging evidence of potentially harmful biological effects from radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposures, at the levels 5G roll-out will entail. This essay identifies four relevant sources of scientific uncertainty and concern: (1) lack of clarity about precisely what technology is included in 5G; (2) a rapidly accumulating body of laboratory studies documenting disruptive in vitro and in vivo effects of RF-EMFs—but one with many gaps in it; (3) an almost total lack (as yet) of high-quality epidemiological studies of adverse human health effects from 5G EMF exposure specifically, but rapidly emerging epidemiological evidence of such effects from past generations of RF-EMF exposure; (4) persistent allegations that some national telecommunications regulatory authorities do not base their RF-EMF safety policies on the latest science, related to unmanaged conflicts of interest. The author, an experienced epidemiologist, concludes that one cannot dismiss the growing health concerns about RF-EMFs, especially in an era when higher population levels of exposure are occurring widely, due to the spatially dense transmitters which 5G systems require. Based on the precautionary principle, the author echoes the calls of others for a moratorium on the further roll-out of 5G systems globally, pending more conclusive research on their safety.

Conclusions and recommendation

In assessing causal evidence in environmental epidemiology, Bradford Hill himself pointed out that 'the whole picture matters;' he argued against prioritising any subset of his famous nine criteria for causation. One's overall assessment of the likelihood that an exposure causes a health condition should take into account a wide variety of evidence, including 'biological plausibility'. After reviewing the evidence cited above, the writer, an experienced physician-epidemiologist, is convinced that RF-EMFs may well have serious human health effects. While there is also increasing scientific evidence for RF-EMF effects of ecological concern in other species, both plant and animal, these have not been reviewed here, for reasons of space and the author's disciplinary limitations. In addition, there is convincing evidence, cited above, that several nations' regulatory apparatus, for telecommunications innovations such as the 5G roll-out, is not fit for purpose. Indeed, significant elements in that apparatus appear to have been captured by vested interests. Every society's public health—and especially the health of those most likely to be susceptible to the hazard in question (in the case of EMFs, children and pregnant women)—needs to be protected by evidence-based regulations, free from significant bias.

Finally, this commentary would be remiss if it did not mention a widely circulating conspiracy theory, suggesting that 5G and related EMF exposures somehow contributed to the creation or spread of the current COVID-19 pandemic. There are knowledgeable commentators' reports on the web debunking this theory, and no respectable scientist or publication has backed it. Indeed, combatting it is widely viewed by the scientific community as critical to dealing with the pandemic, as conspiracy theorists holding this view have already carried out violent attacks on mobile phone transmission facilities and other symbolic targets, distracting the public and authorities at a time when pandemic control actions are paramount. 42 This writer completely supports that view of the broader scientific community: the theory that 5G and related EMFs have contributed to the pandemic is baseless.

It follows that, for the current 5G roll-out, there is a sound basis for invoking 'the precautionary principle'. This is the environmental and occupational health principle by which significant doubt about the safety of a new and potentially widespread human exposure should be a reason to call a moratorium on that exposure, pending adequate scientific investigation of its suspected adverse health effects. In short, one should 'err on the side of caution'. In the case of 5G transmission systems, there is no compelling public health or safety rationale for their rapid deployment. The main gains being promised are either economic (for some parties only, not necessarily with widely distributed financial benefits across the population) or related to increased consumer convenience. Until we know more about what we are getting into, from a health and ecological point of view, those putative gains need to wait.

Open access paper: https://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2021/01/04/jech-2019-213595 or https://jech.bmj.com/content/jech/early/2021/01/04/jech-2019-213595.full.pdf

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Chemical polarization effects of electromagnetic field radiation from the novel 5G network deployment at ultra high frequency
Ugochukwu O. Matthew, Jazuli S. Kazaure. Chemical polarization effects of electromagnetic field radiation from the novel 5G network deployment at ultra high frequency. Health Technology (Berl). 2021 Jan 27: 1-13. doi: 10.1007/s12553-020-00501-x.
Abstract
The wide-spectrum of non-ionizing, non-visible radiation emitted from the novel 5G network deployment was investigated and found liable to produce effects capable of heating up and altering human body nomenclature. The Ultra-high frequency magnetic fields, induced circulation of currents in the surrounding human body when potentially exposed. The quantum of these electromagnetic charges is influenced by the magnitude of the external magnetic field. The Magnetic fields warming is the major organic consequence of the electromagnetic fields radiofrequency radiation emitted from 5G network installation especially at a very high frequencies. From the current research, the levels of electromagnetic fields to which individuals are naturally unmasked under 4G network and 5G network technology in SCENARIO1, SCENARIO 2 and SCENARIO 3 are very negligible to alter human body dipolar chemistry. On the several findings of the research, deploying 5G network technology under the ultra-high frequency above 20 GHz will produce effect that will heat up the human body tissues due to electromagnetic field inducement since human body is dipolar in nature. The research established that while the current digital society will continue investment into 5G network technology, caution must be applied not to deploy 5G network under ultra-high frequency above 20 GHz due to its adverse health effects.
Conclusions

From the knowledge and principle of electromagnetism, human beings are constituted of substantial amount of oriented cells with diverse electromagnetic field attributes. The Biological attributes of the human tissue under diverse electromagnetic radiative emission are studied and that had provided the basis upon which the current research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the human body. The heating consequences of the radio electromagnetic waves from 5G network technology deployment had formed the fundamental basis for current research. On the several findings of the research, deploying 5G network technology under the ultra-high baseband above 20 GHz will produce effects such as heating up of the body tissues due to electromagnetic field inducement on the account that human body is dipolar in nature. The effects will extend to produce dielectric polarization, ionic polarization, interfacial polarization and orientational polarization. This is generally on the account that variations on dielectric properties of biological tissues with the frequency of the electromagnetic field inducement are very dissimilar. While it is very imperative to determine the frequency distribution in deploying the novel 5G network to avoid adverse dielectric dispersion that may flow into the human body.

Open access paper: https://www.springerprofessional.de/en/chemical-polarization-effects-of-electromagnetic-field-radiation/18805704

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New IEEE paper questions safety of exposure to 5G cell phone radiation
There has been considerable public pressure in many countries including the U.S. to stop deployment of 5G due to potential health risks. Most of the attention has focused on the cell towers or base stations; however, the safety of using 5G cell phones and other 5G personal devices may be an even greater concern due to the proximity of these devices to our bodies.
A new peer-reviewed paper, "Human Electromagnetic Field Exposure in 5G at 28 GHz," questions the safety of exposure to 5G millimeter waves. The authors found in a simulation study that use of a 5G cell phone at 28 GHz could exceed ICNIRP (i.e. international) radio frequency exposure limits when held at 8 centimeters (i.e., 3 inches) or closer to the head or body. Whereas the ICNIRP exposure limit for the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is 2.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue, the FCC limit is 2-3 times more conservative, namely the SAR limit is 1.6 watts per kilogram averaged over only 1 gram of tissue. This means compliance with the FCC exposure limit would require a greater separation distance from the body than 8 centimeters in the U.S.

Although there have been numerous peer-reviewed papers that have raised serious concerns about the safety of exposure to 5G radiation and/or millimeter waves, this new paper is significant because it is published in an industry-sponsored journal, the November/December issue of IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine.
Seungmo Kim, Imtiaz Nasim. Human Electromagnetic Field Exposure in 5G at 28 GHz. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine. 9(6):41-48. Nov. 1 2020. DOI: 10.1109/MCE.2019.2956223.
Abstract
The fifth-generation wireless (5G) has already started showing its capability to achieve extremely fast data transfer, which makes itself considered to be a promising mobile technology. However, concerns have been raised on adverse health impacts that human users can experience in a 5G system by being exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This article investigates the human EMF exposure in a 5G system and compares them with those measured in the previous-generation cellular systems. It suggests a minimum separation distance between a transmitter and a human user for keeping the EMF exposure below the safety regulation level, which provides consumers with a general understanding on the safe use of 5G communications.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9090831
Excerpts

"First, we discuss the human EMF exposure in the downlink as well as the uplink. Most of the prior work studies the uplink only, while hardly paying attention to EMF emissions generated by BSs [base stations or cell towers] in a 5G network. Recall the aforementioned changes that the 5G adopts: 1) operation at higher carrier frequencies; 2) reduction of cell size (which leads to increase in number of BSs; and 3) concentration of higher EMF energy into an antenna beam. They all imply that in 5G, unlike the previous-generation wireless systems, the downlink can also be a threat to human health as well as the uplink.

Second, we suggest that both SAR [Specific Absorption Rate] and PD [power density] should be used to display human EMF exposure for a wireless system. The reason is that SAR captures an amount of EMF energy that is actually "absorbed" into human tissues, whereas PD is an efficient metric only to present the EMF energy being introduced to a human user.

Third, we present an explicit comparison of human EMF exposure in 5G to those in the currently deployed wireless standards....

Fourth, we consider the maximum possible exposure that a human user can experience...."
"... in a 5G network, a consumer is likely to be exposed to high EMF energy more consistently. Nevertheless, it is easier to apply a "compliance distance" [17] in a downlink than in an uplink. Thus, this article suggests 1) an overhaul of the compliance distances defined in different standards and 2) the consumers' discretion on being close to a BS...."
"... the fact that a high-frequency EMF cannot penetrate deep into human skin does not mean that it is not dangerous. Specifically, although the penetration is limited only at the skin surface, the SAR (illustrated as a heat map in Figure 4) can be higher within the concentrated area, which can cause subsequent health problems such as skin heating."
Downlink vs. Uplink

"Figure 3(c) and (d) compare PD and SAR in uplink to the ICNIRP guidelines set at 10 W/m2 and 2W/kg, respectively. PD and SAR are remarkably higher in uplink than those in downlink, shown via a comparison of the results for uplink to those for downlink shown in Figure 3(a) and (b). It is attributed to smaller separation distance between a transmitter and a human body. Imagine one talking on a voice call; it is a "direct" physical contact of the phone and the head!

Also, it is significant to notice that no regulation exists at 28 GHz where this article investigates for 5G. As such, we refer to the ICNIRP's guideline that is set to be 2 W/kg by ICNIRP[11] at a frequency "below 10 GHz." In Figure 3(d), it provides a ""inferred" understanding on SAR in an uplink. The zoom-in look shown in Figure 3(d) suggests that in 5G, use of a handheld device within the distance of 8 cm causes an EMF absorption exceeding 2 W/kg, which would have been prohibited if the carrier frequency was lower than 10 GHz. This implies the gravity of human EMF exposure in an uplink of 5G."

Conclusion

"This article has discussed human EMF exposure in 5G operating at 28 GHz, while most of the prior work focuses only on the technological benefits that the technology brings. Considering the significance of wireless technologies in our daily life, the potential danger of using them should also be emphasized for sustainable advancement of the technologies. In this article, the first case study has demonstrated how much EMF exposure is caused in a 5G system compared to 4G and 3.9G. Then, the latter case study has suggested an adequate separation distance from a transmitter, in order to keep a human user from being exposed to EMF below a regulatory guideline. This article is expected to ignite continued interest in overarching research on the design of future wireless systems that achieve high performance while keeping consumer safety guaranteed.

However, considering the gravity of this issue, we suggest several directions to be achieved in our future research.

  • Human EMF exposure mitigation strategy: We are particularly interested in exploiting the technical features in future wireless systems—i.e., a larger number of BSs within a unit area. Such a paradigm change will enable a holistic, network-based approach to mitigate the EMF exposure as an optimization problem with a set of constraints representing the PD, SAR, and skin-temperature elevation.

  • Further studies regarding exact human health impacts caused by EMF exposure: The particular focus will be put on 1) skin dielectric effect with respect to frequency and 2) the effect of radiation when the body is covered with clothing or garment materials."

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Modelling of Total Exposure in Hypothetical 5G Mobile Networks for Varied Topologies and User Scenarios

Sven Kuehn, Serge Pfeifer, Beyhan Kochali, Niels Kuster. Modelling of Total Exposure in Hypothetical 5G Mobile Networks for Varied Topologies and User Scenarios. Final Report of Project CRR-816. A report on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). Zurich, IT'IS Foundation. 24 June 2019.
Executive Summary

In January 2019, the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) mandated the IT'IS Foundation to evaluate the total human exposure in hypothetical 5G mobile networks for varied topologies and user scenarios to identify factors that would minimize the total exposure of the population. In this study, total exposure is defined as the combined exposure from network base stations, the user's own device, as well as bystanders' mobile devices.

The influence of various factors on total exposure in mobile communication networks (as defined above) was modeled and analyzed with the help of the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Total exposure is described as the local peak specific absorption rate (SAR) spatially averaged over any 10 g of tissue mass (psaSAR10g) averaged over a period of 6 minutes. The unit psaSAR10g was chosen because it defines the governing basic restriction for wireless exposure as the whole-body average SAR limits (wbaSAR) are intrinsically met if the limits of local exposure are satisfied. The averaging duration of 6 minutes constitutes the internationally accepted averaging time to prevent thermal hazards at frequencies below 6 GHz as instant values have little justification. However, it should be noted that some regulators define shorter averaging time periods, e.g., the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of 100 s.

In a first step, we analyzed the tissue-specific exposure as a function of frequency. The preliminary dosimetric study showed that exposure of the human brain to the 3.6 GHz band, that has been recently added to the Swiss mobile communication frequencies, is reduced by a factor of >6 for the tissue averaged SAR when compared to mobile network operation at <1 GHz. This reduction is due to the smaller penetration depth at higher frequencies. This conclusion, however, does not apply to exposed tissues close to the surface or skin (eyes, testicles, etc.) when the peak SAR in this tissue is evaluated. The peak SAR in the grey matter remains in approximately the same order of magnitude ( 3 dB) over all frequencies but the area of high exposure is reduced at 3.6 GHz.

In a second step, we used data measured in 4G systems and analyzed the latest mobile network standards to extrapolate the exposures for various 5G network scenarios. These measured data were also used to extrapolate the exposure to the future development of data usage in 5G networks.

Specifically, we analyzed the effect on the total exposure of (i) the network topology by varying the cell size and amount of indoor coverage in the network, as well as the usage of (ii) an individual's own device, and (iii) devices of close bystanders.

The results – based on simulations of more than 200 different exposure scenarios – reveal that, for all user types, except for non-users (including passive mobile phone users and users dominantly using downlink data traffic, e.g., video streaming), total exposure is dominated by the person's own mobile device. Compared to non-users, the exposure is increased (i) for light users (with 100 MByte uplink data per day) by 6 – 10 dB (or a factor of 4 to 10), (ii) for moderate users (with 1 GByte uplink data per day) by 13 – 25 dB (or a factor of 20 to >300), and (iii) for heavy users by 15 – 40 dB (or a factor of 30 to >10000). Further, the results show that peak exposure of non-users is not defined by exposure to base stations but by exposure to mobile devices of close bystanders in urban areas resulting in 6 dB (or a factor of 4) higher exposure than from a nearby base station antenna.

While a reduction of the mobile cell size leads to a reduction in total exposure by a factor of 2 to10 for people actively using their mobile devices, this might also lead to a small increase by a factor of 1.6 in total exposure of non-users due the generally increased incident signal levels from the surrounding base stations.

Similarly, the exposure of active users can be reduced by a factor of 4 to 600 by increasing the indoor network coverage. Yet, in line with the results for the mobile cell sizes, increased indoor coverage will also lead to increased exposure of non-users by a factor of 2 to 10. This increase, however, starts at a level 1000 times lower than the typical total exposure of active users.

The results of this study show that the personal mobile device is the dominant exposure source for active mobile network users. Besides a person's own usage behavior, total exposure is also closely linked to the network infrastructure. Generally speaking, a network with a lower path loss, i.e., smaller cells and additional indoor coverage, helps to reduce total exposure. The exposure per transmitted bit is reduced by a factor of <3 by the increased spectral efficiency of the 5G technology, and the reduced penetration depth associated with the new bands at 3.5 – 3.8 GHz.

The results presented above are limited due to the network data that has been used and the definition of total exposure as stated in this report. Furthermore, it only considers time-averaged (6 min) and not instant exposures. This study does not consider (i) the effect of upcoming massive MIMO systems in 5G networks, (ii) alternative data transmission links, for instance the use of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), and (iii) millimeter wave frequencies in 5G mobile networks.
Conclusions
The results of this study show that the absorption of energy by the human brain, resulting from exposure to the 3.6 GHz band newly added to the Swiss mobile communication frequencies, is reduced by a factor >6 for the tissue averaged SAR when compared to mobile networks operating at <1 GHz, and by a factor of >2 when compared to the frequency bands at 1.8 – 2GHz. For deep brain regions, the reduction is much larger.
The reduced exposure for these regions is due to lower penetration depths at higher frequencies. Close to the surface (eyes, testicles, etc.) the exposure can be higher. At the most exposed surface of the grey matter, the values remain approximately 3 dB over all frequencies whereas the area of high exposure is reduced.
More than 200 Monte Carlo simulated exposure scenarios have been analyzed to evaluate total human exposure in 5G Networks for different topologies and user scenarios. The results show that for all users (except non-users), the total exposure is dominated by a person's own mobile device. Compared to a non-user, the exposure is increased for a light user (with 100 MByte uplink data per day) by 6 – 10 dB (or by a factor 4 to 10), for a moderate user (with 1 GByte uplink data per day) by 13 – 25 dB (or by a factor of 20 to >300), and for a heavy user by 25 – 40 dB (or a factor of 300 to >10000). The peak exposure of non-users is further not defined by exposure to surrounding base stations but by mobile devices of close bystanders in urban areas, resulting in 6 dB (or a factor of 4) higher exposure than from a nearby base station antenna.

Reducing the diameter of the mobile cell leads to a decreased overall exposure by a factor of 2 to 10 for people who actively use their mobile devices. At the same time, the reduction in cell size might lead to a small increase by a factor <2 in exposure for non-users. The exposure of active users can be reduced by factors ranging from 4 to 600 by increasing indoor network coverage which, in turn, will be linked to increased exposure of non-users by a factor of 2 to 10. However, such an increase is by a factor 1000 lower than the typical exposure of active users. The results of this study are limited due to the network data that has been used and the definition of total exposure as stated earlier in this report. This study does not consider (i) the effect of upcoming massive MIMO and multi-user MIMO systems in 5G networks, (ii) alternative data transmission links – for instance the use of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and (iii) millimeter wave frequencies in 5G mobile networks.

In summary, the results of this study show that the user's own mobile device is the dominant source of exposure for the population of active mobile network users. Besides personal usage patterns, totl exposure is also closely linked to the network infrastructure. Generally speaking, a network that decreases the path loss by means of smaller cells and additional indoor coverage will help to reduce the total exposure of the population.

https://www.bafu.admin.ch/dam/bafu/en/dokumente/elektrosmog/externe-studien-berichte/modelling-of-total-exposure-in-hypothetical-5g-mobile-networks-for-varied-topologies-and-user-scenarios.pdf.download.pdf/Modelling%20of%20Total%20Exposure%20in%20Hypothetical%205G%20Networks%20-%20Schlussbericht.pdf
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Oct 14, 2020
5G Research from the EMF-Portal Archive
As of June 1, 2020, the EMF-Portal archive listed 133 papers and letters to the editor published in professional journals and presentations at professional conferences that focus on 5G research. Although most discuss technical or dosimetric issues (n = 92), 41 citations address other issues including potential biologic or health effects.
In all, the EMF-Portal archive references more than 30,000 publications and presentations on non-ionizing electromagnetic fields. The Portal is a project based at the University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Germany.

Currently, no peer-reviewed, empirical studies of the biologic or health effects from actual exposure to 5G radiation have been published. Hence, those who claim that 5G is safe because it complies with radiofrequency exposure guidelines are engaging in sophistry.
These guidelines were designed to protect the population from short-term heating (or thermal) risks. However, numerous peer-reviewed studies have found adverse biologic and health effects from exposure to low-intensity or non-thermal levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF). Hence, more than 240 EMF scientists who have signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal have recommended that "guidelines and regulatory standards be strengthened":
"Numerous recent scientific publications have shown that EMF affects living organisms at levels well below most international and national guidelines….
The various agencies setting safety standards have failed to impose sufficient guidelines to protect the general public, particularly children who are more vulnerable to the effects of EMF."
To download the list of 133 papers and presentations: bit.ly/EmfPortal5G
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5G Wireless Deployment and Health Risks: Time for a Medical Discussion
Priyanka Bandara, Tracy Chandler, Robin Kelly, Julie McCredden, Murray May, Steve Weller, Don Maisch, Susan Pockett, Victor Leach, Richard Cullen, Damian Wojcik. 5G Wireless Deployment and Health Risks: Time for a Medical Discussion in Australia and New Zealand. ACNEM Journal. 39(1). July 2020.
No abstract.
Excerpts

"There is an urgent need for clinicians and medical scientists in the Australia-New Zealand region to engage in an objective discussion around the potential health impacts of the fifth generation (5G) wireless technology currently being deployed. The statements of assurance by the industry and government parties that dominate the media in our region are at odds with the warnings of hundreds of scientists actively engaged in research on biological/health effects of anthropogenic electromagnetic radiation/fields (EMR/EMF). (1) There have been worldwide public protests as well as appeals by professionals and the general public (2) that have compelled many cities in Europe to declare moratoria on 5G deployment and to begin investigations. In contrast, there is no medically-oriented professional discussion on this public health topic in Australia and New Zealand, where 5G deployment is being expedited. 5G is untested for safety on humans and other species and the limited existing evidence raises major concerns that need to be addressed. The vast body of research literature on biological/health effects of 'wireless radiation' (radiofrequency EMR) (3,4) indicates a range of health-related issues associated with different types of wireless technologies (1G-4G, WiFi, Bluetooth, Radar, radio/TV transmission, scanning and surveillance systems). These are used in a wide range of personal devices in common use (mobile/cordless phones, computers, baby monitors, games consoles etc) without users being aware of the health risks. Furthermore, serious safety concerns arise from the extra complexity of 5G as follows:
• 5G carrier waves use a much broader part of the microwave spectrum including waves with wavelengths in the millimetre range (hence called 'millimetre waves') which will be used in the second phase of 5G). Until now, millimetre waves have had limited applications such as radar, point-to-point communications links and non-lethal military weapons. (5)
• Extremely complex modulation patterns involving numerous frequencies form novel exposures.
• Beam formation characteristics can produce hotspots of high unknown intensities.
• A vast number of antenna arrays will add millions of microwave transmitters globally in addition to the existing RF transmitters thereby greatly increasing human exposure. This includes 5G small cell antennas to be erected every 200-250 metres on street fixtures, such as power poles and bus shelters, many of which will be only metres from homes with the homeowners having absolutely no say in where the antennas will be located.

This massive leap in human exposure to RF-EMR from 5G is occurring in a setting where the existing scientific evidence overwhelmingly indicates biological interference, (3,4) therefore suggesting the need to urgently reduce exposure...."
"As for the new 5G technology, it is concerning that leading experts in the technical field (6) have reported the possibility of damaging thermal spikes under the current exposure guidelines (from beam forming 5G millimetre waves that transfer data with short bursts of high energy) and some animals and children may be at an increased risk due to smaller body size. Even working within the entirely thermally-based current regulatory process, they pointed out 5G millimetre waves "may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines". (6) Microwave experts from the US Air Force have reported on 'Brillouin Precursors' created by sharp transients at the leading and trailing edges of pulses of mm waves, when beam forming fast millimetre waves create moving charges in the body which penetrate deeper than explained in the conventional models, and have the potential to cause tissue damage. (7) In fact, concerns about moving charges affecting deep tissue are associated with other forms of pulsed RF radiation currently used for wireless communications. This may be one factor explaining why the pulsed radiation used in wireless communication technologies is more biologically active than continuous RF radiation. (8) Such effects of high energy 5G mm waves could have potentially devastating consequences for species with small body size and also creatures that have innate sensitivity to EMF, which include birds and bees that use nature's EMFs for navigation. (9) Unfortunately, non-thermal effects and chronic exposure effects are not addressed in the current guidelines. (10)"
"Our investigation into the scientific literature has found RF-EMR to be a potent inducer of oxidative stress even at so-called "low-intensity" exposures (which are in fact billions of times higher than in nature (26)) such as those from commonly used wireless devices. An analysis (22) of 242 publications (experimental studies) which had investigated endpoints related to oxidative stress - biomarkers of oxidative damage such as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (indicating oxidative DNA damage) and/or altered antioxidant levels - revealed that 216 studies (89%) had reported such findings (Fig. 1). This evidence base on RF-associated oxidative stress from 26 countries (only one study from Australia and none from New Zealand) is relatively new and mostly post 2010, i.e. after the WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RF-EMR as a Group 2B possible carcinogen. Moreover, 180 studies out of the 242 (74.7%) were in vivo studies (including several human studies) which presents strong evidence.
"Proponents of 5G often dismiss concerns about health risks claiming that 5G microwaves will minimally penetrate the skin and therefore any effects are limited to minor skin heating (and they acknowledge that there is some uncertainty around heating effects on the eyes). The medical community understands that skin is the largest organ of the human body and a key part of the neuro-immune and neuro-endocrine systems. Natural UVA and UVB (also so-called non-ionizing radiation) that penetrate the skin less than 5G millimetre waves have profound effects on health and wellbeing of humans. Therefore, artificial 5G waves must be subjected to rigorous safety testing."
"Unfortunately, the questionable conduct of regulatory agencies such as ARPANSA and WHO's international EMF Project (43) with conflicts of interest due to funding links to the wireless industry (44) remains to be investigated. More open questioning and protests are appearing in Europe and North America where there is some level of engagement on the part of government bodies in response to warnings of adverse health effects of anthropogenic EMF/EMR by expert medical bodies such as EUROPAEM and AAEM (31,32) (despite industry opposition)."
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5G Communication Technology and Coronavirus Disease [Health Matters]
James C. Lin. 5G Communication Technology and Coronavirus Disease [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine, 21(9):16-19. Sep 2020.

No abstract.
Excerpts
"The fact is that there is no link between the COVID-19 virus and 5G cell phone technology or 5G base-station communication towers. These are totally different constructs; they are not even close. None of the conspiracy theories that try to link 5G and the coronavirus make any sense scientifically."
"For biological matters, it is not obvious whether the biological responses to high-band 5G radiation will be akin to earlier generations or low-band 5G radiations, given the distinctive characteristics of mm-wave [millimeter wave] and its interaction with the complex structure and composition of pertinent biological tissues."
"It is important to note that the recent NTP and Ramazzini RF exposure studies presented similar findings in terms of heart schwannomas and brain gliomas. Thus, two relatively well-conducted RF exposure studies employing the same strain of rats showed consistent results in significantly increased cancer risks. More recently, an advisory group for the IARC has recommended including reevaluation of the carcinogenicity of human exposure to RF radiation, with high priority, in their monograph series [7]."
"... the 5G frequency domain is divided into low, mid, and high bands. The operating frequencies at low and mid bands can overlap with the current 4G band at 6 GHz or below. Thus, the biological effects of RF radiation at these lower frequency bands are likely to be comparable to 2, 3, or 4G. However, the scenarios of high-band 5G—especially for 24–60 GHz in the mm-wave region for high-capacity, short-range wireless data communications—are relatively recent arrivals and pose considerable challenge to health risk assessment. There is a paucity of data on permittivity and coupling, such as reflection, transmission, and induced energy deposition, in biological tissues in the mm-wave frequency band."
"Induced energy deposition increases with mm-wave frequency. However, at the highest frequencies, the energy deposition in the deeper regions inside the skin is lower because of the reduced penetration depth at these frequencies [11]."
"A recently published review [13] included 45 in vivo studies conducted using laboratory animals and other biological preparations and 53 in vitro studies involving primary cells and cultured cell lines.... This industry-supported review noted that, aside from the wide frequency ranges, the studies were diverse both in subjects and in the end points investigated. Biological effects were observed to occur both in vivo and in vitro for different biological endpoints studied. Indeed, the percentage of positive responses at nonthermal levels in most frequency groups was as high as 70%."
"While many of these investigations with mm-wave exposures reported biological responses, there is inconsistency in the dependence of biological effects and mm-wave intensity used for exposure. Also, the reported in vitro and in vivo laboratory investigations are modest in number and diverse in subject matter, considering the wide 5G/mmwave frequency domain. The jury on the biological effect or health impact is still out on 5G. Moreover, there is a lack of ongoing controlled laboratory investigations. Simply put, the existing scientific data are too limited for any reliable assessment or conclusion with certainty."
https://ieeexplore-ieee-org/document/9154657

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Setting Guidelines for Electromagnetic Exposures and Research Needs
Barnes F, Greenebaum B. Setting Guidelines for Electromagnetic Exposures and Research Needs. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020 Jul;41(5):392-397. doi: 10.1002/bem.22267.
Abstract

Current limits for exposures to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) are set, based on relatively short-term exposures. Long-term exposures to weak EMF are not addressed in the current guidelines. Nevertheless, a large and growing amount of evidence indicates that long-term exposure to weak fields can affect biological systems and might have effects on human health. If they do, the public health issues could be important because of the very large fraction of the population worldwide that is exposed. We also discuss research that needs to be done to clarify questions about the effects of weak fields. In addition to the current short-term exposure guidelines, we propose an approach to how weak field exposure guidelines for long-term exposures might be set, in which the responsibility for limiting exposure is divided between the manufacturer, system operator, and individual being exposed.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32311139/
Excerpts
"Both IEEE and ICNIRP base their analyses on rigorous reviews of the scientific literature and on established firm evidence of health effects in humans. The present guidelines are based on acute exposures; to date both IEEE and ICNIRP have not found sufficient evidence to include health effects of long-term exposures at lower levels. However, over the last 20 years the evidence has become extremely strong that weaker EMF over the whole range for frequencies from static through millimeter waves can modify biological processes. There is now solid experimental evidence and supporting theory showing that weak fields, especially but not exclusively at low frequencies, can modify reactive free radical concentrations and that changes in radical concentration and that of other signaling molecules, such as hydrogen peroxide and calcium, can modify biological processes …"
"The evidence that weak radiofrequency (RF) and low-frequency fields can modify human health is still less strong, but the experiments supporting both conclusions are too numerous to be uniformly written off as a group due to poor technique, poor dosimetry, or lack of blinding in some cases, or other good laboratory practices. Based on recent studies by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) [SmithRoe et al., 2020] and the Ramazzini Foundation [Falcioni et al., 2018] as well as laboratory data, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has declared RF fields as possible human carcinogens [IARC, 2013]. A recent paper extends the NTP studies by evaluating genotoxicity in animals exposed to fields at or over the guideline limits and found DNA damage in Comet assays [SmithRoe et al., 2020]. Many other papers indicate similar results, but many negative results are also in the literature."

"PROPOSED APPROACH TO SETTING EXPOSURE LIMITS

From these and other lines of solid research, the guidelines for exposure could be revised. Increased emphasis on long-term exposures may require refining the concept of dose to more flexibly combine exposure time and field intensity or energy absorbed. Eventual guidelines might suggest limiting cell phone calls to X hours per day with exposure levels above Y W/m2, and for Z days per week exposure should be less than Y W/m2 to allow the body to reset its baseline."

"What is missing in the current guidelines or regulations are guidelines for long-term exposure to weak EMF…."

"Guidelines should be set at three levels: the individual user, local company, and national or international level…. External guidance, in terms of informed recommendations or at least analysis of various intensities and styles of usage from some agency such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) or NIH, would be useful.

Limits on the time for operations of base stations and exposures in adjacent living spaces are not controlled by the user and must be set by competent authorities, based on scientific evidence. It is likely to be difficult to specify times when exposures to RF signals are zero or below some limit. What will be needed is being able to say with some certainty that exposure below a given level has not been shown to cause changes in body chemistry above some level. A starting point might be current levels from TV and radio stations that are large enough to give signal-to-noise ratios around 20 dB (100-fold) with typical receiving systems. Currently, mean values for the population's exposure to these systems are estimated to be around 0.1 V/m and peak exposures range up to 2 V/m, which exceed current exposure limits for a small fraction of the population. Therefore, one starting point for exposure limits might be an average of 0.1 V/m, not based on research but on practicality, until further research results dictate either a lower or higher limit."

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Effects of 5G Wireless Communication on Human Health
Karaboytcheva M. Effects of 5G wireless communication on human health. European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS). Briefing document: PE 646.172. March 2020.
Summary
The fifth generation of telecommunications technologies, 5G, is fundamental to achieving a European gigabit society by 2025.
The aim to cover all urban areas, railways and major roads with uninterrupted fifth generation wireless communication can only be achieved by creating a very dense network of antennas and transmitters. In other words, the number of higher frequency base stations and other devices will increase significantly.
This raises the question as to whether there is a negative impact on human health and environment from higher frequencies and billions of additional connections, which, according to research, will mean constant exposure for the whole population, including children.
Whereas researchers generally consider such radio waves not to constitute a threat to the population, research to date has not addressed the constant exposure that 5G would introduce. Accordingly, a section of the scientific community considers that more research on the potential negative biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and 5G is needed, notably on the incidence of some serious human diseases. A further consideration is the need to bring together researchers from different disciplines, in particular medicine and physics or engineering, to conduct further research into the effects of 5G.
The EU's current provisions on exposure to wireless signals, the Council Recommendation on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz), is now 20 years old, and thus does not take the specific technical characteristics of 5G into account.
In this Briefing
  • Difference between 5G and current technology
  • Regulation of electromagnetic fields and 5G exposure
  • European Parliament Research on EMF and 5G effects on human health
  • Stakeholders' views
  • The road ahead for 5G
Open access paper: https://bit.ly/EUParl5G
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Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking technology under real-life conditions
Kostoff RN, Heroux P, Aschner M, Tsatsakis A. Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking technology under real-life conditions. Toxicology Letters. 323(1):35-40. May 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.01.020.



Highlights

• Identifies wide-spectrum of adverse health effects of non-ionizing non-visible radiation
• Most laboratory experiments were not designed to identify the more severe adverse effects reflective of real-life conditions
• Many experiments do not include the real-life pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal
• Vast majority of experiments do not account for synergistic adverse effects of other toxic stimuli with wireless radiation
• 5G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, but will have adverse systemic effects as well

Abstract

This article identifies adverse effects of non-ionizing non-visible radiation (hereafter called wireless radiation) reported in the premier biomedical literature. It emphasizes that most of the laboratory experiments conducted to date are not designed to identify the more severe adverse effects reflective of the real-life operating environment in which wireless radiation systems operate. Many experiments do not include pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal. The vast majority do not account for synergistic adverse effects of other toxic stimuli (such as chemical and biological) acting in concert with the wireless radiation. This article also presents evidence that the nascent 5G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, as commonly believed, but will have adverse systemic effects as well.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31991167

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Appeals that matter or not on a moratorium on the deployment of the fifth generation, 5G, for microwave radiation
Hardell L, Nyberg R. [Comment] Appeals that matter or not on a moratorium on the deployment of the fifth generation, 5G, for microwave radiation. Molecular and Clinical Oncology. Published online January 22, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.1984.

Abstract

Radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range of 30 kHz‑300 GHz is classified as a 'possible' human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 2011. The evidence has since then been strengthened by further research; thus, RF radiation may now be classified as a human carcinogen, Group 1. In spite of this, microwave radiations are expanding with increasing personal and ambient exposure. One contributing factor is that the majority of countries rely on guidelines formulated by the International Commission on Non‑Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a private German non‑governmental organization. ICNIRP relies on the evaluation only of thermal (heating) effects from RF radiation, thereby excluding a large body of published science demonstrating the detrimental effects caused by non‑thermal radiation. The fifth generation, 5G, for microwave radiation is about to be implemented worldwide in spite of no comprehensive investigations of the potential risks to human health and the environment. In an appeal sent to the EU in September, 2017 currently >260 scientists and medical doctors requested for a moratorium on the deployment of 5G until the health risks associated with this new technology have been fully investigated by industry‑independent scientists. The appeal and four rebuttals to the EU over a period of >2 years, have not achieved any positive response from the EU to date. Unfortunately, decision makers seem to be uninformed or even misinformed about the risks. EU officials rely on the opinions of individuals within the ICNIRP and the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR), most of whom have ties to the industry. They seem to dominate evaluating bodies and refute risks. It is important that these circumstances are described. In this article, the warnings on the health risks associated with RF presented in the 5G appeal and the letters to the EU Health Commissioner since September, 2017 and the authors' rebuttals are summarized. The responses from the EU seem to have thus far prioritized industry profits to the detriment of human health and the environment.

Excerpt
In conclusion, this article demonstrates that the EU has given mandate to a 13‑member, non‑governmental private group, the ICNIRP, to decide upon the RF radiation guidelines. The ICNIRP, as well as SCENIHR, are well shown not to use the sound evaluation of science on the detrimental effects of RF radiation, which is documented in the research which is discussed above (9,10,21‑24,54,55). These two small organizations are producing reports which seem to deny the existence of scientific published reports on the related risks. It should perhaps be questioned whether it is in the realm of protecting human health and the environment by EU and whether the safety of EU citizens and the environment can be protected by not fully understanding the health‑related risks.
Open access paper: https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/mco.2020.1984/download
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Spatial and Time Averaging Restrictions Within the Electromagnetic Exposure Safety Framework in the Frequency Range Above 6 GHz

Neufeld E, Samaras T, Kuster N. Discussion on Spatial and Time Averaging Restrictions Within the Electromagnetic Exposure Safety Framework in the Frequency Range Above 6 GHz for Pulsed and Localized Exposures. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Dec 30. doi: 10.1002/bem.22244.

Abstract
Both the current and newly proposed safety guidelines for local human exposure to millimeter-wave frequencies aim at restricting the maximum local temperature increase in the skin to prevent tissue damage. In this study, we show that the application of the current and proposed limits for pulsed fields can lead to a temperature increase of 10°C for short pulses and frequencies between 6 and 30 GHz. We also show that the proposed averaging area of 4 cm2 , that is greatly reduced compared with the current limits, does not prevent high-temperature increases in the case of narrow beams. A realistic Gaussian beam profile with a 1 mm radius can result in a temperature increase about 10 times higher than the 0.4°C increase the same averaged power density would produce for a plane wave. In the case of pulsed narrow beams, the values for the time and spatial-averaged power density allowed by the proposed new guidelines could result in extreme temperature increases.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31885092
Excerpts
.... In this letter, we look at limits, such as those currently proposed or recently approved for the revised ICNIRP guidelines and IEEE standard, and investigate whether such limits are consistent with the stated goals of the exposure safety frameworks of preventing excessive heating in the case of pulsed and/or localized radiation. In cases when they are not consistent, we discuss how consistency can be achieved. In line with the above mentioned safety standards and exposure guidelines, the presented analysis focuses exclusively on the magnitude of the tissue temperature increase as a risk factor and does not consider other aspects, such as the thermoelastic effect related to the rapidity of temperature increase.....
In conclusion, the results presented above demonstrate that, in the case of very short pulses, pulse‐duration‐independent limits imposed on transmitted energy density (fluence) alone cannot preclude the induction of high‐temperature increases in the skin. Pulse‐duration‐dependent limits should be applied also for pulses less than 1 s and possibly less than 30 GHz as well. Even though the amplifiers of the currently developed consumer devices will not allow the full exploitation of the limits of the guidelines, the guidelines should not implicitly rely on this, as they will be used to develop exposure assessment standards with the aim of ensuring safety of any future technology, e.g. IEC/IEEE 63195 [2018]. Accordingly, either assumption must be explicitly stated in the guidelines, or the limits should be adapted to be intrinsically safe. In the absence of limitations applied to the peak‐to‐average power ratio of pulses, it is possible to deliver to the body large amounts of energy within a very short time interval. For millimeter‐wave frequencies, where the absorption is superficial, this results in fast and dramatic temperature rises, as the step response function is proportional to the rapidly rising ... rather than the ... commonly encountered for deeper heating. As far as spatial averaging is concerned, it has been shown that an averaging area smaller than 4 cm2 should be introduced in order to avoid peak PDs in narrow beams [Neufeld and Kuster, 2018] that overheat the tissues. With increasing beam radius, e.g. at larger distances from the antenna(s), the tolerable averaging area increases rapidly, provided that there are no sharp exposure peaks. Duration‐independent limits on the fluence of pulses are not suitable. They should either be replaced by duration‐dependent fluence limits for pulses or by limits on the (temporal) peak exposure. In both cases, the limits should be set after taking narrow‐beam exposures into consideration. These limits will depend on the chosen spatial and temporal averaging schemes and the maximum temperature increase deemed acceptable. Forward‐looking knowledge about the technical needs and priorities of the industry could allow for selecting the balance between thresholds (averaging time and area, peak‐to‐average ratio, PD) to minimally impact the technological potential using the same limit‐setting framework.

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5G mobile networks rated as "high impact" risk for insurance industry
in new Emerging Risk report from Swiss Re

Swiss Re, one of the world's leading providers of insurance and reinsurance, rated 5G as a "high impact" risk for the insurance industry that may affect property and casualty claims in more than 3 years.
Off the leash – 5G mobile networks
"5G – short for fifth generation – is the latest standard for cellular mobile communications. Providing ultrafast broadband connection with higher capacity and lower latency, 5G is not only heaven for your smartphone. It will enable wireless connectivity in real time for any device of the Internet of things (IoT), whether that be autonomous cars or sensor-steered factory. In doing so, it will allow decentralised seamless interconnectivity between devices. To allow for a functional network coverage and increased capacity overall, more antennas will be needed, including acceptance of higher levels of electromagnetic radiation. In some jurisdictions, the rise of threshold values will require legal adaptation. Existing concerns regarding potential negative health effects from electromagnetic fields (EMF) are only likely to increase. An uptick in liability claims could be a potential long-term consequence.
Other concerns are focused on cyber exposures, which increase with the wider scope of 5G wireless attack surfaces. Traditionally IoT devices have poor security features. Moreover, hackers can also exploit 5G speed and volume, meaning that more data can be stolen much quicker. A large-scale breakthrough of autonomous cars and other IoT applications will mean that security features need to be enhanced at the same pace. Without, interruption and subversion of the 5G platform could trigger catastrophic, cumulative damage. With a change to more automation facilitated by new technology like 5G, we might see a further shift from motor to more general and product liability insurance. There are also worries about privacy issues (leading to increased litigation risks), security breaches and espionage. The focus is not only on hacking by third parties, but also potential breaches from built-in hard- or software "backdoors." In addition, the market for 5G infrastructure is currently focussed on a couple of firms, and that raises the spectre of concentration risk. Potential impacts:
· Cyber exposures are significantly increased with 5G, as attacks become faster and higher in volume. This increases the challenge of defence.
· Growing concerns of the health implications of 5G may lead to political friction and delay of implementation, and to liability claims. The introductions of 3G and 4G faced similar challenges.
· Information security and national sovereignty concerns might delay implementation of 5G further, increasing uncertainty for planning authorities, investors, tech companies and insurers.
· Heated international dispute over 5G contractors and potential for espionage or sabotage could affect international cooperation, and impact financial markets negatively.
· As the biological effects of EMF in general and 5G in particular are still being debated, potential claims for health impairments may come with a long latency."
Source: Swiss Re. SONAR – New emerging risk insights. Zurich, Switzerland: Sustainability, Emerging and Political Risk Management, Swiss Re Institute, Strategy Development & Performance Management. May 2019. page 29.
https://www.swissre.com/institute/research/sonar/sonar2019.html

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5G Deployment
Blackman C, Forge S. 5G Deployment: State of Play in Europe, USA, and Asia. Study for the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies, European Parliament, Luxembourg, 2019.
Download the report at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2019/631060/IPOL_IDA(2019)631060_EN.pdf

Excerpts

"It is becoming clear that 5G [fifth generation cellular technology] will cost much more to deploy than previous mobile technologies (perhaps three times as much) as it is more complex and requires a denser coverage of base stations to provide the expected capacity. The European Commission has estimated that it will cost €500 billion to meet its 2025 connectivity targets, which includes 5G coverage in all urban areas.
As 5G is driven by the telecoms supply industry, and its long tail of component manufacturers, a major campaign is under way to convince governments that the economy and jobs will be strongly stimulated by 5G deployment. However, we are yet to see significant "demand-pull" that could assure sales. These campaign efforts are also aimed at the MNOs [mobile network operators] but they have limited capacity to invest in the new technology and infrastructure as their returns from investment in 3G and 4G are still being recouped.
The notion of a "race" is part of the campaign but it is becoming clear that the technology will take much longer than earlier generations to perfect. China, for instance, sees 5G as at least a ten-year programme to become fully working and completely rolled out nationally. This is because the technologies involved with 5G are much more complex. One aspect, for example, that is not well understood today is the unpredictable propagation patterns that could result in unacceptable levels of human exposure to electromagnetic radiation."
"Although lower frequencies, many in the UHF [ultra high frequency] range, are being proposed for the first phase of 5G networks, much higher radio frequencies are also projected in bands traditionally used for radars and microwave links. Whether this will transpire is still open to question. These frequencies are being commercially tested by some (e.g. by AT&T in the USA at 28 GHz [gigahertz]). The new bands are well above the UHF ranges, being either in centimetric (3-30 GHz) or in millimetric bands (30-300 GHz) and popularly branded "mmWave", but present technical challenges that are expensive to solve."
"Although many 5G networks currently being piloted will use the much lower bands, those upper frequencies being proposed for the future may offer propagation ranges only in the order of hundreds or even tens of metres. Higher frequency signals are also subject to more interference from weather – rain, snow, fog – and obstacles - wet foliage or buildings and their walls. This means that, at higher frequencies, indoor use may be problematic if based on through-wall or window penetration. Consequently, re-use of the existing UHF bands and also those just above in the 3-10 GHz range ("mid-range") are emphasised today, to give 5G signals greater range with fewer technical challenges."
"With higher frequencies and shortened ranges, base stations will be more closely packed into a given area to give complete coverage that avoids "not-spots". Ranges of 20-150 metres may be typical, giving smaller coverage areas per "small cell". A cell radius of 20 metres would imply about 800 base stations per square kilometre (or small area wireless access points (SAWAPs), the term used in the European Electronic Communications Code (EECC)). That contrasts with 3G and 4G which use large or "macro" cells. Traditionally they offer ranges of 2-15 km or more and so can cover a larger area but with fewer simultaneous users as they have fewer individual channels."
5G Electromagnetic Radiation and Safety
"Significant concern is emerging over the possible impact on health and safety arising from potentially much higher exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation arising from 5G. Increased exposure may result not only from the use of much higher frequencies in 5G but also from the potential for the aggregation of different signals, their dynamic nature, and the complex interference effects that may result, especially in dense urban areas.
The 5G radio emission fields are quite different to those of previous generations because of their complex beamformed transmissions in both directions – from base station to handset and for the return. Although fields are highly focused by beams, they vary rapidly with time and movement and so are unpredictable, as the signal levels and patterns interact as a closed loop system. This has yet to be mapped reliably for real situations, outside the laboratory.
While the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) issues guidelines for limiting exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (EMF), and EU member states are subject to Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC which follows ICNIRP guidelines, the problem is that currently it is not possible to accurately simulate or measure 5G emissions in the real world."
USA
"The USA is moving towards some form of rollout of mobile broadband as 5G but not necessarily in a holistic, well-orchestrated operation. It is more a set of ad hoc commercial manoeuvres. Some of these are simply rebranding existing LTE, rather than delivering novel networks. Re-use of the LTE spectrum in the UHF ranges (300 MHz to 3 GHz) is significant. The latter decision is probably warranted by its geography of large rural spaces and high density urban centres situated more on the coasts. Thus, the insistence for 5G on high centimetric bands (25–30 GHz and higher) is probably less justified than for the dense conurbations of Asia and the EU.
A significant challenge concerns the administrative local barriers to small cell rollout. The need for many small cells implies long delays and high costs. Local regulations continue to prevail despite the FCC's mandate on a light-touch regime and minimal permit costs. This has led to a wide divide between local and central government on the principles of having to obtain permission for rollout and the charges for that. Local administrations, especially in the larger municipalities, are at loggerheads with the FCC (Zima, 2018). Several court challenges are being made to the FCC mandate of August 2018 that overrides local objections to a "one-touch" regime."
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How Harmful is 5G?

Harald Schumann and Elisa Simantke. How harmful is 5G really? Der Tagesspiegel, Jan 15, 2019. (In German. For English translation email me at jmm@berkeley.edu.)
"5G should transfer huge amounts of data quickly. But it could also harm your health. Europe's governments ignore the danger."
Investigate Europe reports on the current state of the science and exposes the harmful roles that the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the World Health Organization's International EMF Project, and the EU Commission's Scientific Committee on New Health Risks (SCENIHR) have played in paving the way for the deployment of 5G without regard to health consequences.
Investigate Europe is a pan-European journalist team that researches topics of European relevance and publishes the results across Europe. The project is supported by several foundations, the Open Society Initiative for Europe, and readers' donations. Among the media partners for the report on 5G include "Newsweek Polska", "Diario de Noticias", "Il Fatto Quotidiano", "De Groene Amsterdamer", "Efimerida ton Syntakton", "Aftenbladet" and the "Falter". In addition to the authors, Crina Boros, Wojciech Ciesla, Ingeborg Eliassen, Juliet Ferguson, Nikolas Leontopoulos, Maria Maggiore, Leila Minano, Paulo Pena and Jef Poortmans contributed to this.

More about the project: https://www.investigate-europe.eu/publications/the-5g-mass-experiment/
https://www.tagesspiegel.de/gesellschaft/mobilfunk-wie-gesundheitsschaedlich-ist-5g-wirklich/23852384.html
Literature Reviews
5G Wireless Communication and Health Effects-A Pragmatic Review Based on Available Studies Regarding 6 to 100 GHz
Simkó M, Mattsson MO. 5G wireless communication and health effects-A pragmatic review based on available studies regarding 6 to 100 GHz. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Sep 13;16(18). pii: E3406. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16183406.

Abstract


The introduction of the fifth generation (5G) of wireless communication will increase the number of high-frequency-powered base stations and other devices. The question is if such higher frequencies (in this review, 6-100 GHz, millimeter waves, MMW) can have a health impact. This review analyzed 94 relevant publications performing in vivo or in vitro investigations. Each study was characterized for: study type (in vivo, in vitro), biological material (species, cell type, etc.), biological endpoint, exposure (frequency, exposure duration, power density), results, and certain quality criteria. Eighty percent of the in vivo studies showed responses to exposure, while 58% of the in vitro studies demonstrated effects. The responses affected all biological endpoints studied. There was no consistent relationship between power density, exposure duration, or frequency, and exposure effects. The available studies do not provide adequate and sufficient information for a meaningful safety assessment, or for the question about non-thermal effects. There is a need for research regarding local heat developments on small surfaces, e.g., skin or the eye, and on any environmental impact. Our quality analysis shows that for future studies to be useful for safety assessment, design and implementation need to be significantly improved.

Conclusions
Since the ranges up to 30 GHz and over 90 GHz are sparingly represented, this review mainly covers studies done in the frequency range from 30.1 to 65 GHz.In summary, the majority of studies with MMW exposures show biological responses. From this observation, however, no in-depth conclusions can be drawn regarding the biological and health effects of MMW exposures in the 6–100 GHz frequency range. The studies are very different and the total number of studies is surprisingly low. The reactions occur both in vivo and in vitro and affect all biological endpoints studied.There does not seem to be a consistent relationship between intensity (power density), exposure time, or frequency, and the effects of exposure. On the contrary, and strikingly, higher power densities do not cause more frequent responses, since the percentage of responses in most frequency groups is already at 70%. Some authors refer to their study results as having "non-thermal" causes, but few have applied appropriate temperature controls. The question therefore remains whether warming is the main cause of any observed MMW effects?
In order to evaluate and summarize the 6–100 GHz data in this review, we draw the following conclusions:
  • Regarding the health effects of MMW in the 6–100 GHz frequency range at power densities not exceeding the exposure guidelines the studies provide no clear evidence, due to contradictory information from the in vivo and in vitro investigations.
  • Regarding the possibility of "non-thermal" effects, the available studies provide no clear explanation of any mode of action of observed effects.
  • Regarding the quality of the presented studies, too few studies fulfill the minimal quality criteria to allow any further conclusions.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/18/3406
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EMF safety guidelines are fraudulent: The consequences for microwave frequency exposures and 5G
Pall M. Eight repeatedly documented findings each show that EMF safety guidelines do not predict biological effects and are, therefore fraudulent: The consequences for both microwave frequency exposures and also 5G. Second Edition, May 23, 2019.

Abstract

ICNIRP, US FCC, EU and other EMF safety guidelines are all based on the assumption that
average EMF intensities and average SAR can be used to predict biological effects and therefore safety. Eight different types of quantitative or qualitative data are analyzed here to determine whether these safety guidelines predict biological effects. In each case the safety guidelines fail and in most of these, fail massively. Effects occur at approximately 100,000 times below allowable levels and the basic structure of the safety guidelines is shown to be deeply flawed. The safety guidelines ignore demonstrated biological heterogeneity and established biological mechanisms. Even the physics underlying the safety guidelines is shown to be flawed. Pulsed EMFs are in most cases much more biologically active than are non-pulsed EMFs of the same average intensity, but pulsations are ignored in the safety guidelines despite the fact that almost all of our current exposures are highly pulsed. There are exposure windows such that maximum effects are produced in certain intensity windows and also in certain frequency windows but the consequent very complex dose-response curves are ignored by the safety guidelines. Several additional flaws in the safety guidelines are shown through studies of both individual and paired nanosecond pulses. The properties of 5G predict that guidelines will be even more flawed in predicting 5G effects than the already stunning flaws that the safety guidelines have in predicting our other EMF exposures. The consequences of these findings is that "safety guidelines" should always be expressed in quotation marks; they do not predict biological effects and therefore do not predict safety. Because of that we have a multi-trillion dollar set of companies, the telecommunication industry, where all assurances of safety are fraudulent because they are based on these "safety guidelines."

Open access paper: https://bit.ly/RFguidelinesPall190523

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5G Wireless Telecommunications Expansion: Public Health & Environmental Implications
Russell CL. 5G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications. Environmental Research. 2018 Aug;165:484-495. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.016.
Abstract

The popularity, widespread use and increasing dependency on wireless technologies has spawned a telecommunications industrial revolution with increasing public exposure to broader and higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data through a variety of devices and infrastructure. On the horizon, a new generation of even shorter high frequency 5G wavelengths is being proposed to power the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT promises us convenient and easy lifestyles with a massive 5G interconnected telecommunications network, however, the expansion of broadband with shorter wavelength radiofrequency radiation highlights the concern that health and safety issues remain unknown. Controversy continues with regards to harm from current 2G, 3G and 4G wireless technologies. 5G technologies are far less studied for human or environmental effects.
It is argued that the addition of this added high frequency 5G radiation to an already complex mix of lower frequencies, will contribute to a negative public health outcome both from both physical and mental health perspectives.
Radiofrequency radiation (RF) is increasingly being recognized as a new form of environmental pollution. Like other common toxic exposures, the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR) will be problematic if not impossible to sort out epidemiologically as there no longer remains an unexposed control group. This is especially important considering these effects are likely magnified by synergistic toxic exposures and other common health risk behaviors. Effects can also be non-linear. Because this is the first generation to have cradle-to-grave lifespan exposure to this level of man-made microwave (RF EMR) radiofrequencies, it will be years or decades before the true health consequences are known. Precaution in the roll out of this new technology is strongly indicated.
This article will review relevant electromagnetic frequencies, exposure standards and current scientific literature on the health implications of 2G, 3G, 4G exposure, including some of the available literature on 5G frequencies. The question of what constitutes a public health issue will be raised, as well as the need for a precautionary approach in advancing new wireless technologies.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29655646

Conclusion
Although 5G technology may have many unimagined uses and benefits, it is also increasingly clear that significant negative consequences to human health and ecosystems could occur if it is widely adopted. Current radiofrequency radiation wavelengths we are exposed to appear to act as a toxin to biological systems. A moratorium on the deployment of 5G is warranted, along with development of independent health and environmental advisory boards that include independent scientists who research biological effects and exposure levels of radiofrequency radiation. Sound regulatory policy regarding current and future telecommunications initiative will require more careful assessment of risks to human health, environmental health, public safety, privacy, security and social consequences. Public health regulations need to be updated to match appropriate independent science with the adoption of biologically based exposure standards prior to further deployment of 4G or 5G technology.
Considering the current science, lack of relevant exposure standards based on known biological effects and data gaps in research, we need to reduce our exposure to RF EMR where ever technically feasible. Laws or policies which restrict the full integrity of science and the scientific community with regards to health and environmental effects of wireless technologies or other toxic exposures should be changed to enable unbiased, objective and precautionary science to drive necessary public policies and regulation. Climate change, fracking, toxic emissions and microwave radiation from wireless devices all have something in common with smoking. There is much denial and confusion about health and environmental risks, along with industry insistence for absolute proof before regulatory action occurs (Frentzel-Beyme, 1994; Michaels 2008). There are many lessons we have not learned with the introduction of novel substances, which later became precarious environmental pollutants by not heeding warning signs from scientists (Gee, 2009). The threats of these common pollutants continue to weigh heavily on the health and well being of our nation. We now accept them as the price of progress. If we do not take precautions but wait for unquestioned proof of harm will it be too late at that point for some or all of us?
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935118300161

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Towards 5G Communication Systems: Are there Health Implications?
Di Ciaula A. Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications? Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Apr;221(3):367-375. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.01.011.
Highlights
• RF-EMF exposure is rising and health effects of are still under investigation. • Both oncologic and non-cancerous chronic effects have been suggested. • 5G networks could have health effects and will use MMW, still scarcely explored. • Adequate knowledge of RF-EMF biological effects is also needed in clinical practice. • Underrating the problem could lead to a further rise in noncommunicable diseases.
Abstract

The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance.


In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW).

Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics.

Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402696


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Effects of Millimeter Waves Radiation on Cell Membrane - A Brief Review
Ramundo-Orlando A. Effects of millimeter waves radiation on cell membrane - A brief review. J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves. 2010; 30 (12): 1400-1411.
Abstract
The millimeter waves (MMW) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, extending from 30 to 300 GHz in terms of frequency (corresponding to wavelengths from 10 mm to 1 mm), is officially used in non-invasive complementary medicine in many Eastern European countries against a variety of diseases such gastro duodenal ulcers, cardiovascular disorders, traumatism and tumor. On the other hand, besides technological applications in traffic and military systems, in the near future MMW will also find applications in high resolution and high-speed wireless communication technology. This has led to restoring interest in research on MMW induced biological effects. In this review emphasis has been given to the MMW-induced effects on cell membranes that are considered the major target for the interaction between MMW and biological systems.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10762-010-9731-z
Excerpts
"Several studies on the effects induced by millimeter radiation on biological systems have been reported in the literature. Diverse effects have been observed on cell free systems, cultured cells, isolated organs of animals and humans. The subject has been extensively reviewed by Motzkin [17] and more recently by Pakhomov [3]. At the cellular level these effects are mainly on the membrane process and ion channels, molecular complexes, excitable and other structures. Many of these effects are quite unexpected from a radiation penetrating less than 1 mm into biological tissues [3, 18, 19]. However none of the findings described in the above reviews has been replicated in an independent laboratory, thus they cannot be considered as established biological effects."
"…a large number of cellular studies have indicated that MMW may alter structural and functional properties of membranes (Table 2)."
Conclusion
"In this review emphasis has been given to the low-level MMW effects on cell membranes. Above all, it should be mentioned that the reported effects are of a non-thermal character, that is, the action of radiation does not produce essential heating of the biological system or destroy its structure. In this context it appears that no permanent structural change of lipid bilayer could arise under low level (less than 10 mW/cm2) millimeter waves irradiation.
On the other hand, MMW radiation may affect intracellular calcium activities, and, as a consequence, several cellular and molecular processes controlled by Ca2+ dynamics themselves. The effects of MMW radiation on ion transport may be the consequence of a direct effect on membrane proteins as well as on phospholipid domain organization. Water molecules seem to play an important role in these biological effects of MMW radiation. Unfortunately, detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating physiological responses to MMW exposure remain largely unknown.
Usually the search at a molecular level is simpler if we can reduce the complexity of our biological samples. This is the case for cell membranes by using model systems. They can be formed by a simple lipid bilayer without interfering components and they give independence from biological activity that can create complication in searching for electromagnetic fields bioeffects. The emphasis is on the search for molecular mechanisms of the membrane effect induced by MMW with different frequencies and power density. Furthermore, replication studies are needed including good temperature control and appropriate internal control samples. It is also advantageous if the future studies are multidisciplinary, invoking an integration of high quality exposure and effects methodologies.
Clearly a significant amount of accurate experimental work is still required in order to fully understand the interactions between MMW radiation and cell membrane."

Research Papers (updated 1/10/2021)
Sven Kuehn, Serge Pfeifer, Beyhan Kochali, Niels Kuster. Modelling of Total Exposure in Hypothetical 5G Mobile Networks for Varied Topologies and User Scenarios. Final Report of Project CRR-816. A report on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). IT'IS Foundation, Zurich. 24 June 2019.
Executive Summary

In January 2019, the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) mandated the IT'IS Foundation to evaluate the total human exposure in hypothetical 5G mobile networks for varied topologies and user scenarios to identify factors that would minimize the total exposure of the population. In this study, total exposure is defined as the combined exposure from network base stations, the user's own device, as well as bystanders' mobile devices.

The influence of various factors on total exposure in mobile communication networks (as defined above) was modeled and analyzed with the help of the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Total exposure is described as the local peak specific absorption rate (SAR) spatially averaged over any 10 g of tissue mass (psaSAR10g) averaged over a period of 6 minutes. The unit psaSAR10g was chosen because it defines the governing basic restriction for wireless exposure as the whole-body average SAR limits (wbaSAR) are intrinsically met if the limits of local exposure are satisfied. The averaging duration of 6 minutes constitutes the internationally accepted averaging time to prevent thermal hazards at frequencies below 6 GHz as instant values have little justification. However, it should be noted that some regulators define shorter averaging time periods, e.g., the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of 100 s.

In a first step, we analyzed the tissue-specific exposure as a function of frequency. The preliminary dosimetric study showed that exposure of the human brain to the 3.6 GHz band, that has been recently added to the Swiss mobile communication frequencies, is reduced by a factor of >6 for the tissue averaged SAR when compared to mobile network operation at <1 GHz. This reduction is due to the smaller penetration depth at higher frequencies. This conclusion, however, does not apply to exposed tissues close to the surface or skin (eyes, testicles, etc.) when the peak SAR in this tissue is evaluated. The peak SAR in the grey matter remains in approximately the same order of magnitude ( 3 dB) over all frequencies but the area of high exposure is reduced at 3.6 GHz.

In a second step, we used data measured in 4G systems and analyzed the latest mobile network standards to extrapolate the exposures for various 5G network scenarios. These measured data were also used to extrapolate the exposure to the future development of data usage in 5G networks.

Specifically, we analyzed the effect on the total exposure of (i) the network topology by varying the cell size and amount of indoor coverage in the network, as well as the usage of (ii) an individual's own device, and (iii) devices of close bystanders.

The results – based on simulations of more than 200 different exposure scenarios – reveal that, for all user types, except for non-users (including passive mobile phone users and users dominantly using downlink data traffic, e.g., video streaming), total exposure is dominated by the person's own mobile device. Compared to non-users, the exposure is increased (i) for light users (with 100 MByte uplink data per day) by 6 – 10 dB (or a factor of 4 to 10), (ii) for moderate users (with 1 GByte uplink data per day) by 13 – 25 dB (or a factor of 20 to >300), and (iii) for heavy users by 15 – 40 dB (or a factor of 30 to >10000). Further, the results show that peak exposure of non-users is not defined by exposure to base stations but by exposure to mobile devices of close bystanders in urban areas resulting in 6 dB (or a factor of 4) higher exposure than from a nearby base station antenna.

While a reduction of the mobile cell size leads to a reduction in total exposure by a factor of 2 to10 for people actively using their mobile devices, this might also lead to a small increase by a factor of 1.6 in total exposure of non-users due the generally increased incident signal levels from the surrounding base stations.

Similarly, the exposure of active users can be reduced by a factor of 4 to 600 by increasing the indoor network coverage. Yet, in line with the results for the mobile cell sizes, increased indoor coverage will also lead to increased exposure of non-users by a factor of 2 to 10. This increase, however, starts at a level 1000 times lower than the typical total exposure of active users.

The results of this study show that the personal mobile device is the dominant exposure source for active mobile network users. Besides a person's own usage behavior, total exposure is also closely linked to the network infrastructure. Generally speaking, a network with a lower path loss, i.e., smaller cells and additional indoor coverage, helps to reduce total exposure. The exposure per transmitted bit is reduced by a factor of <3 by the increased spectral efficiency of the 5G technology, and the reduced penetration depth associated with the new bands at 3.5 – 3.8 GHz.

The results presented above are limited due to the network data that has been used and the definition of total exposure as stated in this report. Furthermore, it only considers time-averaged (6 min) and not instant exposures. This study does not consider (i) the effect of upcoming massive MIMO systems in 5G networks, (ii) alternative data transmission links, for instance the use of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), and (iii) millimeter wave frequencies in 5G mobile networks.
Conclusions
The results of this study show that the absorption of energy by the human brain, resulting from exposure to the 3.6 GHz band newly added to the Swiss mobile communication frequencies, isreduced by a factor >6 for the tissue averaged SAR when compared to mobile networks operating at <1 GHz, and by a factor of >2 when compared to the frequency bands at 1.8 – 2GHz. For deep brain regions, the reduction is much larger.
The reduced exposure for these regions is due to lower penetration depths at higher frequencies. Close to the surface (eyes, testicles, etc.) the exposure can be higher. At the most exposed surface of the grey matter, the values remain approximately 3 dB over all frequencies whereas the area of high exposure is reduced.
More than 200 Monte Carlo simulated exposure scenarios have been analyzed to evaluate total human exposure in 5G Networks for different topologies and user scenarios. The results show that for all users (except non-users), the total exposure is dominated by a person's own mobile device. Compared to a non-user, the exposure is increased for a light user (with 100 MByte uplink data per day) by 6 – 10 dB (or by a factor 4 to 10), for a moderate user (with 1 GByte uplink data per day) by 13 – 25 dB (or by a factor of 20 to >300), and for a heavy user by 25 – 40 dB (or a factor of 300 to >10000). The peak exposure of non-users is further not defined by exposure to surrounding base stations but by mobile devices of close bystanders in urban areas,resulting in 6 dB (or a factor of 4) higher exposure than from a nearby base station antenna.

Reducing the diameter of the mobile cell leads to a decreased overall exposure by a factor of 2 to 10 for people who actively use their mobile devices. At the same time, the reduction in cell size might lead to a small increase by a factor <2 in exposure for non-users. The exposure of active users can be reduced by factors ranging from 4 to 600 by increasing indoor network coverage which, in turn, will be linked to increased exposure of non-users by a factor of 2 to 10. However, such an increase is by a factor 1000 lower than the typical exposure of active users. The results of this study are limited due to the network data that has been used and the definition of total exposure as stated earlier in this report. This study does not consider (i) the effect of upcoming massive MIMO and multi-user MIMO systems in 5G networks, (ii) alternative data transmission links – for instance the use of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and (iii)millimeter wave frequencies in 5G mobile networks.

In summary, the results of this study show that the user's own mobile device is the dominant source of exposure for the population of active mobile network users. Besides personal usage patterns, totl exposure is also closely linked to the network infrastructure. Generally speaking, a network that decreases the path loss by means of smaller cells and additional indoor coverage will help to reduce the total exposure of the population.

https://www.bafu.admin.ch/dam/bafu/en/dokumente/elektrosmog/externe-studien-berichte/modelling-of-total-exposure-in-hypothetical-5g-mobile-networks-for-varied-topologies-and-user-scenarios.pdf.download.pdf/Modelling%20of%20Total%20Exposure%20in%20Hypothetical%205G%20Networks%20-%20Schlussbericht.pdf
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El-Hajj AM, Naous T. Radiation Analysis in a Gradual 5G Network Deployment Strategy. 2020 IEEE 3rd 5G World Forum (5GWF), Bangalore, India IEEE, 2020: 448-453, ISBN 9781728173009. (Austin, TX simulation)

Abstract

In a world where many overlapping 2G, 3G, and 4G electromagnetic radiation sources already exist, concerns regarding the potential increase in these radiation levels following the roll-out of 5G networks are growing. The deployment of 5G is expected to increase power density levels drastically, given the limitations of mmWave communications that impose a notably higher number of base stations to cover a given area of interest. In this paper, we propose a gradual deployment strategy of a 5G network for a small area in downtown Austin, Texas, using the already existing 4G LTE sites of the area. The radiated power density of the proposed 5G network is then analyzed according to several electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure limits and compared to the radiation levels of the same area where only the LTE network is present. Simulation results for the selected area demonstrate the significant increase in radiation levels resulting from the addition of 5G cell towers.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9221314
For the frequency range of 2 to 300 GHz, the IEEE C95.1-2019 standard [18] specifies a limit power density value of 10 W/m2 in restricted environment and 50 W/m2 in unrestricted environments. These correspond to an averaging time of 30 minutes. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) 2020 guidelines for limiting exposure to electromagnetic fields [19] specify the general public exposure limit at 10 W/m2 for frequencies between 2 and 300 GHz with the averaging time being 30 minutes. Similar limits are specified by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in [20] where a restriction of 10 W/m2 for the general public has been set. In contrast, the institute for building biology and sustainability (IBN) in Germany have specified the exposure limit to be less than 0.1 W/m2 in their 2015 Standard of Building Biology Measurement Technique (SBM-2015) [21], which is a million-fold lower than what is specified by the aforementioned guidelines. This suggests that negative health effects can occur at levels much lower than 10
W/m2. Finally, the Chinese ministry of health [22] have set the power density exposure limit to 0.1 W/m2.This paper presented an analysis of the radiation levels in a deployed 5G network in an urban outdoor environment. Under the constraints of exposure limits, several challenges face the design and planning of such radiation aware 5G networks. Cell ranges need to be reduced to comply with the maximum allowed radiated power, requiring the densification of small cells in small areas and making it more costly to deploy these radiation-aware 5G networks. Although in this work we considered the maximum allowed EIRP prior to network deployment, results showed power density levels that do not satisfy all the exposure limits set by several sources. In this regard, a positive impact can be imposed by radiationaware 5G networks on several levels. On a governmental level, the exposure limits for the power density need to be revised using today's data and approaches to bridge the gap between the thresholds specified by the different institutes and commissions. On a technological and scientific level, the radiation exposure constraint can open the door for innovative 5G solutions targeted to limit the health risks and economic barriers associated with this problem. This work can be extended by developing an analytical framework to efficiently rank and rate different cell allocation alternatives to minimize the potential radiations given a carefully chosen list of key performance indicators.

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Absorption of 5G radiation in brain tissue as a function of frequency, power and time
David H. Gultekin, Peter H. Siegel. Absorption of 5G radiation in brain tissue as a function of frequency, power and time. IEEE Access. Published online June 12, 2020. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3002183.
Abstract
The rapid release of 5G wireless communications networks has spurred renewed concerns regarding the interactions of higher radiofrequency (RF) radiation with living species. We examine RF exposure and absorption in ex vivo bovine brain tissue and a brain simulating gel at three frequencies: 1.9 GHz, 4 GHz and 39 GHz that are relevant to current (4G), and upcoming (5G) spectra. We introduce a highly sensitive thermal method for the assessment of radiation exposure, and derive experimentally, accurate relations between the temperature rise (ΔT), specific absorption rate (SAR) and the incident power density (F), and tabulate the coefficients, ΔT/ΔF and Δ(SAR)/ΔF, as a function of frequency, depth and time. This new method provides both ΔT and SAR applicable to the frequency range below and above 6 GHz as shown at 1.9, 4 and 39 GHz, and demonstrates the most sensitive experimental assessment of brain tissue exposure to millimeter-wave radiation to date, with a detection limit of 1 mW. We examine the beam penetration, absorption and thermal diffusion at representative 4G and 5G frequencies and show that the RF heating increases rapidly with frequency due to decreasing RF source wavelength and increasing power density with the same incident power and exposure time. We also show the temperature effects of continuous wave, rapid pulse sequences and single pulses with varying pulse duration, and we employ electromagnetic modeling to map the field distributions in the tissue. Finally, using this new methodology, we measure the thermal diffusivity of ex vivo bovine brain tissue experimentally.
Summary
In this paper, we present for the first time, a simple, highly accurate test system for measuring the temperature rise and the specific absorption rate in tissue samples and liquid or gel simulants as a function of frequency, RF exposure power and time – pulsed and CW. We use this set up to make, and compare, carefully calibrated measurements of bovine brain tissue and a gel simulant, Triton X and water, at both 4G (1.9 GHz) and newly allocated 5G frequency bands (4 GHz - 39 GHz). We show the effects of beam concentration, focusing, absorption and heat diffusion at all three frequencies and delineate a linear range over which we can derive highly accurate coefficients (ΔT/ΔF and Δ(SAR)/ΔF) that can be used to predict the temperature rise and the specific absorption rate at prescribed depths and exposure times within the tissue or gel at power levels that go down to detectable limits (<1 mW). This method may be used to evaluate a wide range of RF radiation sources, tissues and simulants.
We also note that the impact of relatively modest incident RF power (1 W) and short exposure times (6 minutes CW and 30 second pulsed) at 39 GHz using a single mode waveguide source for the exposure, results in extremely large power density (16.5 kW/m2) and temperature rise (> 60°C for CW, > 35°C for 30 s pulse) in both bovine brain tissue and gel. This same temperature rise can be expected on skin (which has very similar dielectric properties) when such large surface power densities are present in very close proximity to the RF source or antenna, perhaps emanating from millimeter-wave base stations, handsets, or wireless-enabled appliances or kiosks. Although, current safety limits of 28.76 and 143.8 W/m2 for power density in unrestricted (public) and restricted (occupational) environments, respectively should prevent such exposures, the resulting limits on RF power generation of only 1.7 to 8.5 mW from a directional RF source, such as our waveguide at 39 GHz, in the vicinity, will greatly limit the application potential for any such communications system.
In the USA, the FCC and FDA are overseeing the implementation of millimeter wave technology in the public realm and more studies are needed to help guide the science, technology and policy. Our experimental method can provide threshold temperature and SAR values for both occupational and public exposures to millimeter waves with surface power densities from 16.5 W/m2 to 16.5 kW/m2 and exposure times from 1 second to 30 minutes.
Finally, we use our new data and this RF method to derive a thermal diffusivity coefficient for the ex vivo bovine brain tissue that is consistent with our prior measurements using an MRI. This is the first time that the thermal diffusivity of ex vivo bovine brain tissue has been directly measured by this thermal RF method [47, 50, 51, 70].
Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9115853
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A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on the Measurement of the Electromagnetic Field Level Radiated by 5G Base Stations

Adda S, Aureli T, D'elia S, Franci D, Grillo E, Migliore MD, Pavoncello S, Schettino F, Suman R. A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on the Measurement of the Electromagnetic Field Level Radiated by 5G Base Stations. IEEE Access 2020. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2998448.
Abstract
This paper presents some theoretical considerations and experimental results regarding the problem of maximum power extrapolation for the assessment of the exposure to electromagnetic fields radiated by 5G base stations. In particular the results of an extensive experimental campaign using an extrapolation procedure recently proposed for 5G signal is discussed and experimentally checked on a SU-MIMO signal. The results confirm the effectiveness of the extrapolation technique. Starting from an analysis (that represents a further novel contribution of this paper) on the impact of Spatial Division Multiple Access techniques used in 5G on the measurement of EMF level, some indications of possible extension of the technique to the highly complex MU-MIMO case are also given.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9103530
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Adverse Impacts of 5G Downlinks on Human Body
Nasim I, Kim S. Adverse Impacts of 5G Downlinks on Human Body. 2019 SoutheastCon. Huntsville, AL. 11-14 April 2019. DOI: 10.1109/SoutheastCon42311.2019.9020454
Abstract

The increasing demand for higher data rates and uninterrupted reliable service have made the frequency spectrum above 6 GHz a very promising candidate for future wireless communications because of its massive amount of raw bandwidth and extremely high data transfer capabilities. However, increasing concerns of communications at high frequencies on human health have gained international alarm that suggests more research before it is deployed successfully. In this context, this paper aims to investigate the human electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from fifth-generation (5G) downlink communications and compare its impacts with the present cellular technologies considering the features that the 5G systems will likely adopt. Our simulation results suggest that while the impacts from 5G beamforming communications cross the regulatory borders at downlinks for a very short range between base stations (BSs) and user equipment (UE), the exposure level remains on a high throughout the entire network compared to the present systems. Also, this paper urges for more research on the exposure level from future communications to determine any possible threats below the existing guidelines. This paper also highlights the significance of considering SAR for the measurement of exposure compliance in downlinks.
Excerpt
... this paper urges the regulatory authorities to set SAR guidelines for 5G systems at far-field exposure also for frequencies above 6 GHz. Also, the minimum AP-UE [access point - user equipment] distance should be maintained at least 6 m [meters] for 5G and further space should be left for a conservative operation regarding human safety.
Conclusions
This paper has highlighted the significance of the human EMF exposure issue in the downlink of a cellular communications system. This paper measured the exposure level in terms of PD and SAR and compared them to those calculated in the 3.9G and 4G specifications. Distinguished from the prior art that studied uplinks only, this paper has found that the downlinks of a 5G can also yield a higher level of emissions in terms of SAR compared to concurrent cellular systems. Our results emphasized that this increase stems from more highly concentrated EMF energy per downlink RF beam due to the use of larger phased arrays within small cells of a 5G network. However, only skin effects are being taken into consideration for simplicity. This paper has also suggested the minimum AP-UE distance for human safety in cellular communications at high frequencies such as 28 GHz. To this end, this paper urges to investigate any possible threats at the exposure level shown in this work for future 5G systems before it is finally globalized.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9020454
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A Survey on Electromagnetic Risk Assessment and Evaluation Mechanism for Future Wireless Communication Systems
Jamshed MA, Heliot F, Brown T. A Survey on Electromagnetic Risk Assessment and Evaluation Mechanism for Future Wireless Communication Systems. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology. May 20, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/JERM.2019.2917766

Abstract

The accurate measurement of electromagnetic exposure and its application is expected to become more and more important in future wireless communication systems, given the explosion in both the number of wireless devices and equipments radiating electromagnetic-fields (EMF) and the growing concerns in the general public linked to it. Indeed, the next generation of wireless systems aims at providing a higher data rate,better quality of service (QoS), and lower latency to users by increasing the number of access points, i.e. densification, which in turn will increase EMF exposure. Similarly, the multiplication of future connected devices,e.g. internet of things (IoT) devices, will also contribute to an increase in EMF exposure. This paper provides a detailed survey relating to the potential health hazards linked with EMF exposure and the different metrics that are currently used for evaluating,limiting and mitigating the effects of this type of exposure on the general public. This paper also reviews the possible impacts of new wireless technologies on EMF exposure and proposes some novel research directions for updating the EMF exposure evaluation framework and addressing these impacts in future wireless communication systems. For instance, the impact of mmWave or massive-MIMO/beamforming on EMF exposure has yet to be fully understood and included in the exposure evaluation framework.

Conclusions

A thorough survey on exposure risk assessment, evaluation, limitation and mitigation for current and future wireless devices and equipments has been provided in this paper. From the human health point of view, it seems that the possibility of brain tumor is still the main cause of concerns related to the extensive use of wireless devices, even though the effects of EMF exposure is now being investigated in new parts of the body (e.g. eyes). Meanwhile, with the advent of 5G, more efforts are now been made to understand the thermal and non-thermal effects of mmWave exposure on the human body. When it comes to the evaluation of EMF exposure, we have presented the most common evaluation frameworks and metrics that are utilized in wireless communications to measure the exposure. We have also explained how new more generic metrics have been defined by combining existing metrics to better reflect the exposure of large geographical areas and have argued that a generic metric for measuring the individual exposure would also be of interest. We have also reviewed the existing exposure guidelines and have explained how they can be updated for better reflecting the true nature of EMF exposure, i.e. by better taking into account the duration of exposure. Finally, we have provided some views on how key 5G enabling technologies such as densification, massive MIMO and mmWave will impact the EMF exposure in the near future; for instance, the dense deployment of small cells and IoT devices is very likely to increase the overall ambient exposure. We also believe that there could be some technical opportunities in 5G to increase the exposure awareness of wireless system users and to let them decide if they want to reduce it at the cost of, for instance, a lower QoS.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8718293
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Assessment of Maximally Allowable Power-Density Averaging Area for EMF Exposure above 6 GHz
Neufeld E, Carrasco E, Murbach M, Balzano Q, Christ A, Kuster N. Theoretical and numerical assessment of maximally allowable power-density averaging area for conservative electromagnetic exposure assessment above 6 GHz. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Dec;39(8):617-630. doi: 10.1002/bem.22147.
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to determine a maximum averaging area for power density (PD) that limits the maximum temperature increase to a given threshold for frequencies above 6 GHz. This maximum area should be conservative for any transmitter at any distance >2 mm from the primary transmitting antennas or secondary field-generating sources. To derive a generically valid maximum averaging area, an analytical approximation for the peak temperature increase caused by localized exposure was derived. The results for a threshold value of 1 K temperature rise were validated against simulations of a series of sources composed of electrical and magnetic elements (dipoles, slots, patches, and arrays) that represented the spectrum of relevant transmitters. The validation was successful for frequencies in which the power deposition occurred superficially (i.e., >10 GHz). In conclusion, the averaging area for a PD limit of 10 W/m2 that conservatively limits the temperature increase in the skin to less than 1 K at any distance >2 mm from the transmitters is frequency dependent, increases with distance, and ranges from 3 cm2 at <10 GHz to 1.9 cm2 at 100 GHz. In the far-field, the area depends additionally on distance and the antenna array aperture. The correlation was found to be worse at lower frequencies (<10 GHz) and very close to the source, the systematic evaluation of which is part of another study to investigate the effect of different coupling mechanisms in the reactive near-field on the ratio of temperature increase to incident power density. The presented model can be directly applied to any other PD and temperature thresholds.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30383885
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The Human Skin as a Sub-THz Receiver - Does 5G Pose a Danger to It or Not?

Betzalel N, Ben Ishai P, Feldman Y. The human skin as a sub-THz receiver - Does 5G pose a danger to it or not? Environ Res. 2018 May;163:208-216.
Highlights

• The sweat duct is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band, reflectance depends on perspiration.
• We outline the background for non-thermal effects based on the structure of sweat ducts.
• We have introduced a realistic skin EM model and found the expected SAR for the 5G standard.


Abstract

In the interaction of microwave radiation and human beings, the skin is traditionally considered as just an absorbing sponge stratum filled with water. In previous works, we showed that this view is flawed when we demonstrated that the coiled portion of the sweat duct in upper skin layer is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band.

Experimentally we showed that the reflectance of the human skin in the sub-THz region depends on the intensity of perspiration, i.e. sweat duct's conductivity, and correlates with levels of human stress (physical, mental and emotional). Later on, we detected circular dichroism in the reflectance from the skin, a signature of the axial mode of a helical antenna. The full ramifications of what these findings represent in the human condition are still unclear. We also revealed correlation of electrocardiography (ECG) parameters to the sub-THz reflection coefficient of human skin. In a recent work, we developed a unique simulation tool of human skin, taking into account the skin multi-layer structure together with the helical segment of the sweat duct embedded in it. The presence of the sweat duct led to a high specific absorption rate (SAR) of the skin in extremely high frequency band.
In this paper, we summarize the physical evidence for this phenomenon and consider its implication for the future exploitation of the electromagnetic spectrum by wireless communication. Starting from July 2016 the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has adopted new rules for wireless broadband operations above 24 GHz (5 G). This trend of exploitation is predicted to expand to higher frequencies in the sub-THz region. One must consider the implications of human immersion in the electromagnetic noise, caused by devices working at the very same frequencies as those, to which the sweat duct (as a helical antenna) is most attuned.
We are raising a warning flag against the unrestricted use of sub-THz technologies for communication, before the possible consequences for public health are explored.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29459303

Excerpt

The need for high data transmission rates, coupled with advances in semiconductor technology, is pushing the communications industry towards the sub-THz frequency spectrum. While the promises of a glorious future, resplendent with semi-infinite data streaming, may be attractive, there is a price to pay for such luxury. We shall find our cities, workspace and homes awash with 5 G base stations and we shall live though an unprecedented EM smog. The benefits to our society of becoming so wired cannot ignore possible health concerns, as yet unexplored. There is enough evidence to suggest that the combination of the helical sweat duct and wavelengths approaching the dimensions of skin layers could lead to non-thermal biological effects. Such fears should be investigated and these concerns should also effect the definition of standards for the application of 5G communications.


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On Measuring Electromagnetic Fields in 5G Technology
Pawlak R, Krawiec P, Żurek J. On measuring electromagnetic fields in 5G technology. IEEE Access. 7: 29826-29835. March 5, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2902481

Abstract

At the awakening of the new 5G network as the network of services, issues related to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) will become one of the key aspects for the cost-effective establishment of the 5G infrastructure. The new 5G services will meet the rigorous demand for bandwidth through the implementation of a large number of densely located base stations operating in the millimeter-wave range. Introduction of new emission sources, working in parallel with already existing 2G/3G/4G mobile technologies, raises concerns about exceeding the admissible EMF exposure limits. This paper analyzes issues and challenges related to EMF measurements in 5G technology, which are crucial for the assessment of EMF compliance with regulatory limits. We point out that the existing methodologies, dedicated to EMF measurements in 2G, 3G, and 4G networks, are not suitable for 5G. The reason is the use of new techniques, such as massive MIMO and precise beamforming together with higher frequency bands so that the existing measurement methods can lead to significantly overestimated results when they will be applied to 5G networks. Such results, in conjunction with the restrictive legislation on the EMF limits that apply in some countries, may have the negative impact on 5G network deployment, making it difficult to achieve the intended 5G network capabilities. We also propose an alternative method of EMF exposure assessment that is based on calculations and simulations and allows obtaining an accurate estimation of the EMF distribution in the 5G environment.

Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8660395


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Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Assessment for Future 5G Networks
Persia S, Carciofi C, Barbiroli M, Volta C, Bontempelli D, Anania G. Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure assessment for future 5G networks. IEEE 29th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2018. IEEE, 2018. doi:10.1109/PIMRC.2018.8580919

Abstract

The fifth generation of mobile network (5G) will relay not only on the expansion of existing fourth (4G) Long Term Evolution (LTE) network, but thanks to the introduction of new radio access in the millimetre wave bands will allow to meet new requirements in terms of connectivity and capacity. Specifically, 5G network will be characterized by the use of new spectrum at higher frequencies with a very large number of antenna elements deployment. As a consequence, the RF EMF (Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field) compliance assessments with the regulatory requirements for human exposure for the installation permission needs to be revised accordingly. In this work, a Country case (Italy), where a more restrictive regulatory framework than the ICNIRP Guidelines is applied, has been analysed to investigate the impact of the restrictive approach on the future 5G mobile networks roll-out.

Conclusions

The EMF evaluations of existing cellular networks has been analysed in this work in order to highlight how restrictive regulatory framework than International Guidelines can affect 5G and future network deployment. Italy case study is considered as an example, due to its restrictive regulation to verify if it can permit an efficient 5G roll-out. This consideration has been confirmed by evaluations of the trend of saturated sites from 2010 to 2017 in Italy. Simulations demonstrate that in Italy the strong development expected for the evolution of 4G networks and, in the perspective of 5G systems, can be threatened with the stringent constraints imposed by the current regulatory framework for exposure to electromagnetic fields.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8580919


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Derivation of Safety Limits for 5G RF Exposure Based on Analytical Models & Thermal Dose
Neufeld E, Kuster N. Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose. Health Phys. 2018 Sep 21. 705-711. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000930.

Abstract

Extreme broadband wireless devices operating above 10 GHz may transmit data in bursts of a few milliseconds to seconds. Even though the time- and area-averaged power density values remain within the acceptable safety limits for continuous exposure, these bursts may lead to short temperature spikes in the skin of exposed people. In this paper, a novel analytical approach to pulsed heating is developed and applied to assess the peak-to-average temperature ratio as a function of the pulse fraction α (relative to the averaging time T; it corresponds to the inverse of the peak-to-average ratio). This has been analyzed for two different perfusion-related thermal time constants (τ1 = 100 s and 500 s) corresponding to plane-wave and localized exposures. To allow for peak temperatures that considerably exceed the 1 K increase, the CEM43 tissue damage model, with an experimental-data-based damage threshold for human skin of 600 min, is used to allow large temperature oscillations that remain below the level at which tissue damage occurs. To stay consistent with the current safety guidelines, safety factors of 10 for occupational exposure and 50 for the general public were applied. The model assumptions and limitations (e.g., employed thermal and tissue damage models, homogeneous skin, consideration of localized exposure by a modified time constant) are discussed in detail.

The results demonstrate that the maximum averaging time, based on the assumption of a thermal time constant of 100 s, is 240 s if the maximum local temperature increase for continuous-wave exposure is limited to 1 K and α ≥ 0.1. For a very low peak-to-average ratio of 100 (α ≥ 0.01), it decreases to only 30 s. The results also show that the peak-to-average ratio of 1,000 tolerated by the International Council on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30247338


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Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink
Nasim I, Kim S. Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink. Submitted on 10 Nov 2017 to IEEE International Communications Conference. arXiv:1711.03683v1.

Abstract
While cellular communications in millimeter wave (mmW) bands have been attracting significant research interest, their potential harmful impacts on human health are not as significantly studied. Prior research on human exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields in a cellular communications system has been focused on uplink only due to the closer physical contact of a transmitter to a human body. However, this paper claims the necessity of thorough investigation on human exposure to downlink RF fields, as cellular systems deployed in mmW bands will entail (i) deployment of more transmitters due to smaller cell size and (ii) higher concentration of RF energy using a highly directional antenna. In this paper, we present human RF exposure levels in downlink of a Fifth Generation Wireless Systems (5G). Our results show that 5G downlink RF fields generate significantly higher power density (PD) and specific absorption rate (SAR) than a current cellular system. This paper also shows that SAR should also be taken into account for determining human RF exposure in the mmW downlink.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1711.03683


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Implications of EMF exposure limits on output power levels for 5G devices above 6 GHz

Colombi D, Thors B, Törnevik C. Implications of EMF exposure limits on output power levels for 5G devices above 6 GHz. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters. 14:1247-1249. 04 February 2015. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2015.2400331.
Abstract
Spectrum is a scarce resource, and the interest for utilizing frequency bands above 6 GHz for future radio communication systems is increasing. The possible use of higher frequency bands implies new challenges in terms of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure assessments since the fundamental exposure metric (basic restriction) is changing from specific absorption rate (SAR) to power density. In this study, the implication of this change is investigated in terms of the maximum possible radiated power (P max ) from a device used in close proximity to the human body. The results show that the existing exposure limits will lead to a non-physical discontinuity of several dB in P max as the transition is made from SAR to power density based basic restrictions. As a consequence, to be compliant with applicable exposure limits at frequencies above 6 GHz, P max might have to be several dB below the power levels used for current cellular technologies. Since the available power in uplink has a direct impact on the system capacity and coverage, such an inconsistency, if not resolved, might have a large effect on the development of the next generation cellular networks (5G).
Conclusion
Above 6 GHz for FCC and 10 GHz for ICNIRP, EMF exposure limits are defined in terms of free-space power density rather than SAR. It was shown that at the transition frequency where the exposure metric changes, the maximum radiated power to meet compliance with ICNIRP and FCC EMF limits, for a device used in close proximity of the body, presents a strong discontinuity (in the order of 6 dB for the investigated case). This discrepancy has no scientific basis and is due to inconsistencies in the exposure limits. As a consequence, the estimated maximum output power in uplink for devices operating at frequencies above 6-10 GHz is about 18 dBm and 15 dBm for ICNIRP and FCC, respectively. These figures were obtained by numerical simulations of a canonical dipole at frequencies up to 70 GHz. It was shown that for more directive antennas, the maximum available power can be substantially lower. For the IEEE limits, the incongruity at the transition frequency is less evident. This is because the IEEE PD limits make use of a larger averaging area than the ICNIRP and FCC limits. The IEEE limits, however, have not yet been adopted in any national regulations.
With a growing interest for utilizing frequency bands above 6 GHz for mobile communications, it is important that the inconsistencies at the transition frequency from SAR to PD based basic restrictions are timely solved. If not, the observed discrepancy might have a large impact on the development of future mobile communication networks. We therefore encourage the relevant standardization organizations and regulatory authorities responsible for defining EMF exposure limits to address this issue.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7031364

Expert Opinions

May 20, 2019

5G: The Unreported Global Threat

Devra Davis, PhD, Medium, May 18, 2019

https://medium.com/@devradavis/5g-the-unreported-global-threat-717c98c9c37d

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Aug 18, 2017 (Updated Sep 27, 2017)
Scientists and Physicians Oppose
"Small Cell" Antenna Bill (Calif. SB 649)

I have been hearing from scientists around the world who are deeply concerned about the deployment of fifth generation (5G) wireless technology without adequate research on the health effects of exposure to this type of radio frequency radiation.

Following is a sample of letters sent to California Governor Brown asking him to veto SB 659, a "small cell" antenna bill written by the cellular industry that paves the way for deployment of 5G wireless technology across the state.

Professor Beatrice Golomb, MD, PhD, a professor of medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Golomb's letter begins with the following warning:
"I urge in the strongest terms that you vigorously oppose California SB 649.
If this bill passes, many people will suffer greatly, and needlessly, as a direct result.
This sounds like hyperbole. It is not.
My research group at UC San Diego alone has received hundreds of communications from people who have developed serious health problems from electromagnetic radiation, following introduction of new technologies. Others with whom I am in communication, have independently received hundreds of similar reports. Most likely these are a tip of an iceberg of tens or perhaps hundreds of thousands of affected person. As each new technology leading to further exposure to electromagnetic radiation is introduced – and particularly introduced in a fashion that prevents vulnerable individuals from avoiding it – a new group become sensitized to health effects. This is particularly true for pulsed signals in the radiowave and microwave portion of the spectrum, the type for which the proposed bill SB 640 will bypass local control."
In the letter, Dr. Golomb summarizes the research on the effects of exposure to radio frequency radiation and advocates for "safer, wired and well shielded technology – not more wireless."
Appended to the letter are 360 references to the scientific literature.
The letter can be downloaded at: https://bit.ly/SB649Golomb822.

Professor Martin Pall, PhD, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences at Washington State University, explains in his letter to the Governor his peer-reviewed research which has documented ...
"exquisite sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the voltage sensors in each cell, such that the force impacting our cells at the voltage sensor has massive impact on the biology in the cells of our bodies."
"This new understanding [1-7] means we can debunk the claims of the wireless industry that there cannot be a mechanism for effects produced by these weak EMFs. The 20 years plus of industry propaganda claims are false. Rather the thousands of studies showing diverse health impacts of these EMFs can be explained. We now have a mechanism, one that is supported by both the biology and the physics, both of which are pointing in exactly the same direction."
"5G will be much more active in activating the VGCCs and producinghealth impacts because of its rapid absorption by materials in the body, because of its very rapid pulsations and because of the huge number antennae they are planning to put up, at least 200 times the number of antennae from all current cell phone towers. What this means is that the impacts on the outer one to two inches of our bodies will be massive."

His letter discusses the potential health impacts on humans and on agriculture with exposure to 5G radiation.

The letter can be downloaded at: https://bit.ly/SB649Pall


Dr. Michael Lipsett, MD, JD, a retired public health physician with extensive experience in environmental health, mentions in his letter the recent demand for a 5G moratorium by more than 180 scientists and physicians and the study of cell phone radiation conducted by the National Toxicology Program.

He points out that while individuals can take precautions to reduce their exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted by wireless devices, this is not feasible with exposure from cell antennas. He notes that ...
"laboratory and human health investigations designed and conducted by independent researchers have reported associations linking exposure to radiation from cell phones or similar devices with multiple adverse effects (e.g., headaches, impacts on brain function, memory, learning and sleep; decreased sperm counts and quality) as well as with DNA damage and tumors of the brain and nervous system."
"Potential health impacts of wireless communication have been ignored or obscured for decades by the telecommunications industry, which has implied that cell phones and other devices are safe because they comply with federal safety standards. However, these standards were established more than 20 years ago and were based on assumptions that have since been called into question by health research studies. The push to establish a 5G network, exemplified by SB 649, is based on a similarly unproven assumption: i.e., that round-the-clock exposure to 5G frequencies will not affect human health or the environment.
Establishment of a 5G network will be irreversible, as will the pattern of near-universal exposure of California residents to high-frequency, as-yet-untested 5G electromagnetic radiation."
The letter can be downloaded at: https://bit.ly/LipsettSB649.

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June 23, 2017


EMF Scientist Appeal Advisors Call for Moratorium on Policies
for 5G "Small Cell" Antennas

The advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal submitted a letter to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in opposition to a proposed change in FCC rules that would allow rapid deployment of 5th generation (5G) wireless infrastructure throughout the nation. A copy of the Appeal was appended to the letter.
5G involves transmission of millimeter waves which operate at much higher frequencies than currently used for cellular transmission (30 to 300 gigahertz). Because the range of these signals is limited (i.e., less than a football field), hundreds of thousands of new "small cell" antennas will be required in the U.S. The wireless industry wants to install these not-so-small cellular antennas on existing public utility poles.
The FCC intends to streamline the approval of these antennas which would further undermine the regulatory authority of cities and states over cell towers.
Meanwhile the wireless industry is lobbying for legislationin many states across the country that would limit local authority over cell antenna deployment.
Due to the concern that the FCC's new rules will result in increased exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), the Appeal's advisors oppose the new rules and call for a "public health review of the growing body of scientific evidence that includes reports of increasing rates of cancer and neurological diseases that may be caused by exposure to EMF from wireless sources."
The Appeal reflects the concerns of 225 EMF expertsfrom 41 nations about the impact of EMF exposure on public health. All of the experts who signed this appeal have published research in peer-reviewed scientific journals about the biologic or health effects of EMF.
According to the Appeal's signatories, current national and international EMF exposure guidelines are obsolete and inadequate to protect human health and the environment. The FCC's radio frequency guidelines were adopted in 1996.
The letter (dated June 9, 2017) is signed by the five advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal: Drs. Martin Blank, Magda Havas, Henry Lai, and Joel Moskowitz, and Elizabeth Kelley.
For more information:
FCC filing detail (June 9, 2017)
FCC letter submitted by Advisors to International EMF Scientist Appeal
FCC submission: International EMF Scientist Appeal

International EMF Scientist Appeal Official Website
International EMF Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields and Wireless Technology
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May 8, 2017

A 5G Wireless Future: Will it give us a smart nation or contribute to an unhealthy one?
Dr. Cindy Russell, The (SCCMA) Bulletin, Jan/Feb 2017
Safety testing for 5G is the same as other wireless devices. It is based on heat. This is an obsolete standard and not considering current science showing cellular and organism harm from non-thermal effects. There is a large gap in safety data for 5G biological effects that has been demonstrated in older studies including military.
Recommendations
1. Do not proceed to roll out 5G technologies pending pre-market studies on health effects.
2. Reevaluate safety standards based on long term as well as short term studies on biological effects.
3. Rescind a portion of Section 704 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 which preempts state and local government regulation for the placement, construction, and modification of personal wireless service facilities on the basis of the environmental effects so that health and environmental issues can be addressed.
4. Rescind portions of The Spectrum Act which was passed in 2012 as part of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act, which strips the ability city officials and local governments to regulate cellular communications equipment, provides no public notification or opportunity for public input and may potentially result in environmental impacts.
5. Create an independent multidisciplinary scientific agency tasked with developing appropriate safety regulations, pre-market testing and research needs in a transparent environment with public input.
6. Label pertinent EMF information on devices along with appropriate precautionary warnings.
Dr. Russell provides a brief review of the research on millimeter wave bioeffects in this article: https://bit.ly/5GRussell.

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Aug 17, 2016 (Updated Aug 19)

5G cellular technology will employ much higher frequency microwaves than current cell phone technologies: 2G, 3G, and 4G. These microwaves, known as millimeter waves, won't penetrate building materials like the current technology which is why industry may need one cell antenna base station for every 12 homes.
But millimeter waves can affect your eyes and penetrate your skin.

When the Los Angeles Times reporter contacted me for the story below, I did a quick search and found several recently published articles examining biological effects of millimeter waves (see references below). This form of microwave radiation is most likely to affect our skin and neuronal cells in the upper dermis.

Moreover, widespread adoption of 5G cellular technology in the U.S. may have profound effects on our ecosystem by altering bacteria, possibly creating harmful bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics.

History has proved that we cannot trust the FCC and the FDAto protect our health from microwave radiation exposure.


I submitted an open letter to the FCC in July calling for "an independent review of the biologic and health research to determine whether the RF standards should be modified before allowing additional spectrum to be used for new commercial applications."

Moreover, the FCC has ignored the 800-plus submissionsthat call upon the agency to adopt rigorous radio frequency standards to protect the public's health. Instead the agency maintains its 20-year old exposure guidelinesthat control only for heating or thermal risks. The FDA has ignored the thousands of studies that find nonthermal biologic effects, and the human studies that find a wide range of health effects including increased cancer risk and reproductive harm from exposure to low intensity microwaves.
In my opinion, precaution is warranted before unleashing 5G technology on the world. I suspect most of the 221 scientists who signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal (referenced in the article below), would support this assertion.

However, more research is also needed as specific characteristics of the millimeter waves (e.g., pulsing, modulation) to be employed in 5G cellular technology may be more important than the frequency or intensity of the waves in terms of biologic and health effects. The research funding must be independent of industry as conflicts of interest have been found to undermine the science in this field.
For an unbiased summary of the partial findings of the National Toxicology Program study of cancer risk from 2G cell phone radiation, see https://www.saferemr.com/2016/05/national-toxicology-progam-finds-cell.html.
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Low-intensity millimeter waves used for pain therapy have side effects
The Russians have pioneered millimeter wave therapy (MWT) using low intensity millimeter waves to reduce pain including headaches, joint pain, and postoperative pain.

Although the following review paper documents some positive effects from short-term exposure to MWT, the authors note that there are side effects including fatigue, sleepiness, and paresthesia (an abnormal sensation, tingling or pricking ["pins and needles"] caused by pressure on or damage to peripheral nerves).
"We conclude that there is promising data from pilot case series and small-scale randomized controlled trials for analgesic/hypoalgesic effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves in frequency range 30–70 GHz. Large-scale randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of this non-invasive therapeutic technique are necessary."
"In the studies reviewed the authors did not report any health-related side effects of MWT. Slight paresthesias, previously mentioned in several case reports and non-controlled case series (10,11), appeared in almost 50% of patients in studies where the effects of MWT were carefully described (21,27,28,31). The paresthesias were of short duration and reported as pleasant ('warmth') or neutral. General fatigue and sleepiness during the treatment sessions in almost 80% of the patients was a rather desirable side effect of MWT, as also described in previous reviews on biomedical effects of MWT (10,11,21,27,28)."
From: Usichenko TI, Edinger H, Gizhko VV, Lehmann C, Wendt M, Feyerherd F. Low-intensity electromagnetic millimeter waves for pain therapy. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Jun;3(2):201-7. URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1475937/
Little research is available on long-term exposure to millimeter waves (see below). Most of the studies referred to in this review paper did not modulate or pulse the carrier waves which will be required for information-carrying millimeter waves employed in 5G technologies. Prior research suggests that such waves will be more biologically active than pure sine waves.

Additional Resources (Updated 3/13/2022)
D. B. Deaconescu, A. M. Buda, D. Vatamanu, S. Miclaus. The Dynamics of the Radiated Field Near a Mobile Phone Connected to a 4G or 5G Network. Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res. 12(1):8101–8106, Feb. 2022.
ANFR (France). Study of the 5G contribution to exposure of the general public to electromagnetic waves: Preliminary Report. Dec 2021.

Sally Beare. How green is 5G? Envirotec Magazine, Nov 2021.
Sam Aerts, Kenneth Deprez, Davide Colombi, Matthias Van den Bossche, Leen Verloock, Luc Martens, Christer Törnevik, Wout Joseph. In Situ Assessment of 5G NR Massive MIMO Base Station Exposure in a Commercial Network in Bern, Switzerland. Appl. Sci. 11(8): 3592. 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083592.
Kyuri Kim, Young Seung Lee, Nam Kim, Hyung-Do Choi, Dong-Jun Kang, Hak Rim Kim, Kyung-Min Lim. Effects of Electromagnetic Waves with LTE and 5G Bandwidth on the Skin Pigmentation In Vitro. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 26;22(1):E170. doi: 10.3390/ijms22010170.
El-Hajj AM, Naous T. Radiation analysis in a gradual 5G network deployment strategy. 2020 IEEE 3rd 5G World Forum (5GWF), Bangalore, India IEEE, 2020: 448-453, ISBN 9781728173009. (Austin, TX simulation)
Koh TH, Choi JW, Seo M, Choi H-D, Kim KH. Factors affecting risk perception of electromagnetic waves from 5G network base stations. Bioelectromagnetics. 31 August 2020. Open access paper.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety. 5G Research from the EMF-Portal Archive: 133 papers and presentations. Apr 1, 2020.
Lin JC. Telecommunications health and safety: US FCC affirms its current safety limits for RF radiation and 5G wireless. Radio Science Bulletin 2019; 2019 (371): 87-89.
Lin JC. Health Safety Guidelines and 5G Wireless Radiation [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine. 23(1):10-17. Jan. 2022, doi: 10.1109/MMM.2021.3117307.
Pujol F, Manero C, Ropert S, Enjalbal A, Lavender T, Jervis V, Rudd R, Marcus JS. Study on using millimetre waves bands for the deployment of the 5G ecosystem in the Union: Final Report. A study prepared for the European Commission. doi: 10.2759/703052. 2019.

Mehdizadeh AR, Mortazavi SMJ. Editorial. 5G technology: Why should we expect a shift from RF-induced brain cancers to skin cancers? J Biomed Phys Eng. 2019.
"In summary, although 5G technology brings new risks, it should be noted that regarding mobile phone use and cancer, the level of exposure is a factor that really matters."

The essential 5G glossary of key terms and phrases
Michaela Goss, Tech Target, Aug 12, 2019

Senator Blumenthal Raises Concerns on 5G Wireless Technology Health Risks at Senate Hearing
U.S. Senate Commerce Committee Hearing, Feb 6, 2019 (5 minute video)
"We're kind of flying blind here so far as health and safety is concerned."

Is 5G Harmful for Humans and the Environment?Kashyap Vyas, Interesting Engineering, Jan 27, 2019
U.S. Senator Blumenthal briefing on possible health risks posed by 5G wireless technologyCongressional news briefing, Connecticut Network, Dec 3, 2018 (22 minute video)

Congressional letter to FCC Commissioner requesting evidence for safety of 5G
Richard Blumenthal, Anna G. Eshoo, Dec 3, 2018

Resistance to 5G: Roadblock to a High Tech Future or Warning of a Serious Health Risk? Conan Milner, Epoch Times, November 9, 2018
The roll out of 5G wireless service is 'a massive health experiment,' public health expert warns as cell companies install 800,000 towers across the US
Natalie Rahhal, Daily Mail, May 29, 2018

The 5G telecommunication technology--emitted millimeter waves: Lack of research on bioeffects
Dariusz Leszczynski, PhD, Presentation at 5th Asian & Oceanic IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection, Melbourne, Australia, May 22, 2018

NEPA rollback now official for small wireless projects
Sobczyk N, GreenWire, May 3, 2018

5G: Great risk for EU, U.S. and International Health! Compelling Evidence for
Eight Distinct Types of Great Harm Caused by Electromagnetic Exposures and the Mechanism that Causes Them
Martin L. Pall, PhD, undated

5G and Internet of Things: A Trojan Horse
Paul Héroux, PhD, The Green Gazette, Mar 27, 2018

Residents worried about small cell safety have been waiting years for federal guidance
Ryan Barwick, Center for Public Integrity, Mar 2, 2018
5G Cell Service Is Coming. Who Decides Where It Goes?
Allan Holmes, New York Times, Mar 2, 2018


'Tsunami of data' could consume one fifth of global electricity by 2025
The Guardian, Dec 11, 2017

California: Bill to ease permits for cellular antennas could impact health
Tracy Seipel. Mercury News (San Jose, CA), Aug 31, 2017
Is 5G technology dangerous? Early data shows a slight increase of tumors in male rats exposed to cellphone radiationJim Puzzanghera, Los Angeles Times, Aug 8, 2016
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
3.8.2022 19:48

AirPods: Are Apple’s New Wireless Earbuds Safe?


Third-Generation AirPods

The third generation of Apple's AirPods (aka AirPods 3) was introduced in 2021.

The Specific Absorption Rate (or SAR) for the right AirPod is 0.626 watts per kilogram (assessed via the flat phantom & averaged over 1 gram of tissue) (1). The SAR for the left AirPod is 0.614 watts per kilogram (2).
(1)
https://fccid.io/BCG-A2565/RF-Exposure-Info/13685813-S2V2-FCC-Report-SAR-5480054
(2) https://fccid.io/BCG-A2564/RF-Exposure-Info/13685813-S1V2-FCC-Report-SAR-5479999


April 2, 2019

Second-Generation AirPods

The newly-released second generation of Apple's AirPods (aka AirPods 2) emits Bluetooth microwave radiation in the 2.402 – 2.480 GHz frequency range to communicate with a smart phone or other wireless device.

The Specific Absorption Rate (or SAR) for the right AirPod is 0.581 watts per kilogram (averaged over 1 gram). (1) The SAR for the left AirPod is 0.501 watts per kilogram. (2)

News about the potential health risks from use of wireless headsets first went viral in 2016 (see posts below). This story has gone viral again at this time for the following reasons:
  • Apple announced that it is taking orders for a new version of its wireless headset, AirPods (aka AirPods 2).
  • In the past year, two major studies found conclusive evidence that microwave radiation caused cancer in rats. These studies conducted by the National Toxicology Program in the U.S. and the Ramazzini Institute in Italy received worldwide media coverage.
  • The proliferation of new cell towers and antennas in preparation for the deployment of 5G,fifth generation cellular technology, has stimulated many people to seek out information about the health effects from exposure to the radiation these antennas emit on a 24-7 basis in their neighborhoods.
  • More people now realize we cannot trust governments to protect us from environmental toxins. Industry has too much influence over government regulatory agencies, and governments have conflicts of interest because the telecom industry pays governments substantial taxes and fees.
For some Bluetooth devices like Apple's AirPods, the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), a measure of the body's maximum exposure to microwave radiation, exceeds that of many smart phones. Moreover, the cumulative exposure to radiation from wireless headsets may be substantial since many users keep these devices on their head for hours at a time and use them to listen to music or podcasts.
I have found only two small studies that examined the short-term effects on hearing from exposure to Bluetooth, the communications standard use in AirPods and other wireless headsets (see below). The health effects from long-term exposure to this type of microwave radiation have not been studied.
The FCC minimum exposure levels were adopted in 1996 based largely upon recommendations from industry-funded scientists and engineers. The guidelines were designed only to protect us from short-term heating risks. We now have hundreds of studies that show harmful biologic and health effects from long-term exposure to low levels of microwave radiation that do not involve heating. The guidelines need to be updated to protect us from these effects.
Although there is no consensus regarding a safe level of exposure to microwave radiation, most scientists who have published research on the effects of this radiation agree that the current exposure limits are much too permissive. In fact, more than 240 scientists from 42 nations who have published peer-reviewed research on electromagnetic fields and biology or health totaling over 2,000 papers in professional journals have signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal which calls for stronger exposure limits and health warnings.
Most wireless safety tips recommend the use of wired headsets or hands-free use of smart phones and other electronic devices instead of wireless headsets.
News Stories

Are AirPods and Other Bluetooth Headphones Safe?
Markham Heid, Medium, March 7, 2019
https://medium.com/s/the-nuance/are-airpods-and-other-bluetooth-headphones-safe-214a0449e13a

Are wireless earbuds dangerous? Experts warn that Apple's AirPods could send an electromagnetic field through your brainNatalie Rahhal, Daily Mail, March 11, 2019 Revised March 12https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-6796679/Are-AirPods-dangerous-250-scientists-warn-be.html
Scientists warn wireless, Bluetooth devices may carry cancer risk

Healio: Hematology/Oncology Today, March 13, 2019
https://bit.ly/BTHealio

Earpods for Cell Phones — Are There Health Risks?

Roxanne Nelson, RN, BSN, Medscape Medical News, March 15, 2019
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/910453

Are Bluetooth Headphones Dangerous? Here's What Experts ThinkJulia Ries, Healthline, March 24, 2019 https://bit.ly/BTHealthline
Controversy surrounding safety of wireless earphones: News Focus 2 with Prof. Joel MoskowitzThis Morning, tbs eFM (Seoul, Korea), March 25, 2019 (10 minute audio)https://file-ex.ssenhosting.com/data1/tbsadm/tm20190325002.mp3
Did 250 Scientists Warn that Apple Airpods Pose a Cancer Risk?
Bethania Palma, Snopes, March 28, 2019
https://www.snopes.com/news/2019/03/29/apple-airpods-pose-cancer-risk/


References
(1) UL Verification Services, Inc. SAR Evaluation Report for Bluetooth Earbud. FCC ID: BCG-A2032. Model Name: A2032. Report Number: 12458150-S2V1. Issue Date: 3/15/2019. Fremont, CA. https://fccid.io/BCG-A2032/RF-Exposure-Info/12458150-S2V1-FCC-Report-SAR-4204549

(2) UL Verification Services, Inc. SAR Evaluation Report for Bluetooth Earbud. FCC ID: BCG-A2031. Model Name: A2031. Report Number: 12458150-S1V1. Issue Date: 3/15/2019. Fremont, CA. https://fccid.io/BCG-A2031/RF-Exposure-Info/12458150-S1V1-FCC-Report-SAR-4204479


December 13, 2016

Apple announced today that AirPods can be ordered online and will be available in stores next week. The wireless earbuds will be available in limited quantities in more than 100 countries and territories.

Apple originally planned to ship AirPods in October and has not explained the reason for the delay. The Wall Street Journal reported that the delay was due to problems with the Bluetooth wireless technology employed by this device.

https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2016/12/apple-airpods-are-now-available.html

https://www.wsj.com/articles/apples-airpod-shipping-delay-causes-holiday-disappointment-1481299202

September 12, 2016
Apple's new AirPods are wireless earbuds that employ Bluetooth technology to communicate with your smart phone, laptop, or smart watch.

According to Apple, "After a simple one-tap setup, AirPods are automatically on and always connected."

The Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for the AirPods

The right AirPod emits Bluetooth microwave radiation in the 2.402 – 2.480 GHz frequency range to communicate with a smart phone or other wireless device. The Specific Absorption Rate (or SAR) for the right AirPod is 0.466 watts per kilogram (averaged over 1 gram). (1) The SAR for the left AirPod is 0.510 watts per kilogram. (2)

For more information about the SAR see my post on the iPhone 7.

If one uses the AirPods many hours a day, the cumulative exposure to the brain from this microwave radiation could be substantial.

According to EE Times, the left AirPod communicates with the right AirPod using a different technology, "near field magnetic induction (NFMI)."

Although there is a substantial research literature on the health risks of exposure to magnetic fields, I am not aware of any biologic research that examines NFMI. Hence, this post focuses on the risks to the brain from exposure to Bluetooth radiation.

Is Bluetooth safe?

The wireless industry argues that devices that use Bluetooth are safe because the microwave radiation emitted by such devices is low compared to FCC guidelines. The FCC requires the SAR to be 1.6 watts per kilogram or less.

More than 240 scientists who have published research on electromagnetic radiation safety believe that current national and international guidelines for exposure to radio frequency radiation are inadequate to protect human health (see the International EMF Scientist Appeal).

I could find only two peer-reviewed studies that have examined the effects of exposure to Bluetooth radiation. The studies which employed small samples evaluated the effects of brief exposure to Bluetooth radiation on the auditory system. (2) Given the study limitations, the absence of significant effects is not surprising. These studies do not provide the basis to argue that long-term exposure to Bluetooth radiation is safe.

Low-intensity microwave radiation can open the blood-brain barrier

In 1975, Allan Frey published a paper in the Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences which reported that exposure to low intensity microwave radiation could open the blood-brain barrier in rats. Moreover, pulsed radio frequency waves (like Bluetooth) were more likely to produce this effect than continuous waves. (3)

The blood-brain barrier is a special layer of cells in the brain that prevents chemical toxins in the blood system from reaching the brain. Breaching this barrier could potentially lead to neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases and brain cancer.
More than a dozen peer-reviewed studies have replicated Frey's findingsexposure to low intensity microwave radiation can open the blood-brain barrier (see links below). (3)

The effect of microwave radiation on the blood-brain barrier is nonlinear—it occurs with low intensity exposures but not at higher intensity exposures.

Although other published studies have failed to find the blood-brain barrier effect, these studies tended to use higher intensity exposures or employed small samples.

Recommendations

We may not be certain of the long-term risks of using Bluetooth devices, but why would anyone insert microwave-emitting devices in their ears near their brain when there are safer ways to use a cell phone?

I recommend the use of corded headsets or hands-free use of cell phones, not wireless earbuds. Moreover, one should never keep a cell phone next to your body, especially during a phone call, but also whenever the phone is powered on. For additional tips on how to reduce your exposure to wireless radiation see https://www.saferemr.com/2015/10/tips-to-reduce-your-wireless-radiation.html.
%%%News coverage

In the past few days, numerous news stories have appeared citing industry-affiliated scientists who claim that AirPods are safe. Nonetheless, a few news reports have addressed the potential health risks from using AirPods:

· CBS San Francisco: "Apple Unveils iPhone 7 Without Headphone Jack"· CNN: "Apple eliminates headphone jack from iPhone 7: Harmful to your health?"· Daily Mail: "Could wireless headphones harm your health?"

Since the stories in the Daily Mail and CNN were posted on September 8, over two dozen online news stories have appeared that discuss the potential health risks from the microwave radiation emitted by AirPods.
References
(1) UL Verification Services, Inc. SAR Evaluation Report for Wireless Headset. FCC ID: BCG-A1523. Model Name: A1523. Report Number: 16U23784-S6V1. Issue Date: 8/30/2016. Fremont, CA. https://fccid.io/document.php?id=3118442
(2) UL Verification Services, Inc. SAR Evaluation Report for Wireless Headset. FCC ID: BCG-A1722. Model Name: A1722. Report Number: 16U23784-S1V1. Issue Date: 8/30/2016. Fremont, CA. https://fccid.io/BCG-A1722/RF-Exposure-Info/16U23784-S1V1-FCC-SAR-Report-3118428.pdf

(3) Peer-reviewed studies which reported on the effects of brief exposure to Bluetooth radiation:

Mandalà M, Colletti V, Sacchetto L, Manganotti P, Ramat S, Marcocci A, Colletti L. Effect of Bluetooth headset and mobile phone electromagnetic fields on the human auditory nerve. Laryngoscope. 2014 Jan;124(1):255-9.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23619813

Balachandran R, Prepageran N, Rahmat O, Zulkiflee AB, Hufaida KS. Effects of Bluetooth device electromagnetic field on hearing: pilot study. J Laryngol Otol. 2012 Apr;126(4):345-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22310164

(4) Peer-reviewed studies which reported opening of the blood-brain barrier from exposure to low-intensity microwave radiation:

Sırav B, Seyhan N. Effects of GSM modulated radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation on permeability of blood-brain barrier in male & female rats. J Chem Neuroanat. 2016 Sep;75(Pt B):123-7 23. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26723545
Tang J, Zhang Y, Yang L, Chen Q, Tan L, Zuo S, Feng H, Chen Z, Zhu G. Exposure to 900MHz electromagnetic fields activates the mkp-1/ERK pathway and causes blood-brain barrier damage and cognitive impairment in rats. Brain Res. 2015 Jan 15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25598203
Sirav B, Seyhan N. Effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on blood-brain barrier permeability in male and female rats. Electromagn Biol Med. 2011 Dec;30(4):253-60. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22047463

Sirav B, Seyhan N. Blood-brain barrier disruption by continuous-wave radio frequency radiation. Electromagn Biol Med. 2009;28(2):215-22. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19811403
Nittby H, Brun A, Eberhardt J, Malmgren L, Persson BR, Salford LG. Increased blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone. Pathophysiology. 2009 Aug;16(2-3):103-12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19345073
Söderqvist F, Carlberg M, Hansson Mild K, Hardell L. Exposure to an 890-MHz mobile phone-like signal and serum levels of S100B and transthyretin in volunteers. Toxicol Lett. 2009 Aug 25;189(1):63-6. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19427372
Eberhardt JL, Persson BR, Brun AE, Salford LG, Malmgren LO. Blood-brain barrier permeability and nerve cell damage in rat brain 14 and 28 days after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Electromagn Biol Med. 2008;27(3):215-29. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18821198

Belyaev IY, Koch CB, Terenius O, Roxström-Lindquist K, Malmgren LO, H Sommer W, Salford LG, Persson BR. Exposure of rat brain to 915 MHz GSM microwaves induces changes in gene expression but not double stranded DNA breaks or effects on chromatin conformation. Bioelectromagnetics. 2006 May;27(4):295-306. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16511873

Salford LG, Brun AE, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Persson BR. Nerve cell damage in mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jun;111(7):881-3; discussion A408. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12782486

Leszczynski D, Joenväärä S, Reivinen J, Kuokka R. Non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway by mobile phone radiation in human endothelial cells: molecular mechanism for cancer- and blood-brain barrier-related effects. Differentiation. 2002 May;70(2-3):120-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12076339

Schirmacher A, Winters S, Fischer S, Goeke J, Galla HJ, Kullnick U, Ringelstein EB, Stögbauer F. Electromagnetic fields (1.8 GHz) increase the permeability to sucrose of the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics. 2000 Jul;21(5):338-45. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10899769

Fritze K, Sommer C, Schmitz B, Mies G, Hossmann KA, Kiessling M, Wiessner C. Effect of global system for mobile communication (GSM) microwave exposure on blood-brain barrier permeability in rat. Acta Neuropathol. 1997 Nov;94(5):465-70. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9386779

Salford LG, Brun A, Sturesson K, Eberhardt JL, Persson BR. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier induced by 915 MHz electromagnetic radiation, continuous wave and modulated at 8, 16, 50, and 200 Hz. Microsc Res Tech. 1994 Apr 15;27(6):535-42. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8012056

Persson BR, Salford LG, Brun A, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L. Increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier induced by magnetic and electromagnetic fields. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1992 Mar 31;649:356-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1580510
Frey AH, Feld SR, Frey B. Neural function and behavior: Defining the relationship. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 247: 433–439. 1975.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/46734

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