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Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
21.5.2024 20:27

Wireless Radiation TV News


Which wireless radiation risks are covered most by TV news in the USA?

Since June 2014, television stations in the U.S have aired more than 300 news stories about the health risks from wireless radiation exposure. Almost half of these stories focus on radiation risks from cell phone use, including risks to children. About a third discussed cell tower radiation risks with four dozen stories focusing on cell towers (or Wi-Fi) on school campuses. Other technologies of concern include wireless smart meters and Wi-Fi-emitting devices.

Since 2018 more than a hundred news stories have reported on health concerns about the rollout of 5G, the fifth generation of cellular technology. Public concern about this issue has been covered by national network news and by local TV stations in more than 20 states and the District of Columbia.

CBS and its affiliates have provided the most news coverage about wireless radiation and health. Besides its national news coverage, all major CBS stations have run stories including stations in the following cities: Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Burlington, Charleston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Dallas, Denver, Des Moines, Detroit, Eugene, Houston, Kansas City (MO), Los Angeles, Las Vegas, Miami, Minneapolis, New York City, Oklahoma City, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Portland (OR), Raleigh, Sacramento, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, San Francisco, Spartanburg (NC), Spokane, Tampa Bay, and Washington, DC.

The above statistics are based upon Google searches for TV news stories about wireless radiation health risks where a video was posted online; thus, the overall amount of TV news coverage is under-estimated for this time period.

CBS's 60 Minutes has won every broadcast journalism award. In June, 2017, the show aired a story on smartphone addiction,"Hooked on Your Phone?", and in December, 2018, a story on the adverse effects of digital device use on children, "Phones, Tablets, and their Impact on Kids' Brains." However, 60 Minutes has never reported on the health risks from the wireless radiation produced by these devices. Do conflicts of interest prevent 60 Minutes from covering the story about why our government has not updated the obsolete wireless regulations that the FCC originally adopted in 1996 and reaffirmed in 2019 which fail to protect us from harmful levels of wireless radiation?

Links to more than 300 televised new stories with online videos appear below. The list is sorted by TV network.

Updated: May 21, 2024
CBS News

Butler County resident fighting to keep Verizon from installing cell phone tower near property
Meghan Schiller, CBS Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, PA), May 21, 2024
Breckenridge fire department reopens station after concerning cell tower upgradeSpencer Wilson, CBS Colorado (Denver, CO), Dec 6, 2023

Proposed 115-foot Verizon cell tower being built in Bradenton neighborhood upsets residents
Shannon Clowe, WTSP (St. Petersburg, FL), Oct 10, 2023
Wyandotte 5G antenna debacle continues, T-Mobile and 2018 board president speak at recent school board meetingTerell Bailey, CBS Detroit (Detroit, MI), Mar 22, 2023

Wyandotte school adds 5G cellphone tower, congressional member gets involvedTerell Bailey, CBS Detroit (Detroit, Mi), Mar 9, 2023

Proposed Clay County cell towers spark dispute among neighborsMarleah Campbell, KCTV (Kansas City, MO), Jul 20, 2022

St Petersburg homeowners concerned about proposed 5G cell towerChris Rogers, WTSP (Tampa Bay, FL), Jul 6, 2022
Proposed cell towers face stiff opposition in some Vermont townsMelissa Cooney, WCAX (Burlington, VT), Mar 7, 2022
Have you seen these beige metal boxes being installed in your neighborhood?

Melissa Correa, KHOU (Houston, TX), Jan 26-27, 2021

West County residents push back against proposed 5G cell tower
Kim St. Onge, KMOV (St. Louis County, MO), Sep 11, 2020

Palo Alto Retirement Home Residents Fight To Remove 4G, 5G Cell Towers
Len Kiese, KPIX (CBS San Francisco), Sep 2, 2020

Oklahoma City Residents Concerned Over New 5G Towers
Karl Torp, KWTV (Oklahoma City, OK), Mar 3, 2020

Lakeside parents want cell tower removed
Kelly Hessedel, KFMB (San Diego, CA), Feb 18, 2020

Petition aims to block roll-out of 5G in Spartanburg
Henry Coburn, WSPA (Spartanburg, NC), Feb 4, 2020

Hinsdale Neighbors Fight Plans To Install 5G Cell Service, Citing Health Worries
Jermont Terry, CBS Chicago, Jan 13, 2020

5G is coming, and so is its RF radiation
Matt Gephardt, KUTV (Salt Lake City, UT), Dec 5, 2019

As cell phone carrier eyes Walnut Hills for 5G expansion, residents want more information
WKRC (Cincinnati, OH), Dec 3, 2019

Encinitas City Council votes on 5G cell towers
Richard Allyn, CBS San Diego, Oct 30, 2019
Concerned Residents Dispute A Cell Phone Tower That Could Be Built Near Canonsburg Schools Lisa Washington, CBS Pittsburgh, Oct 16, 2019

KCCI Investigates: Lawsuit filed over cellphone radiation
Alex Schuman, KCCI (Des Moines, IA), Sep 24, 2019
Encinitas residents rail against 5G cell towers
Richard Allyn, KFMB (San Diego, CA), Sep 23, 2019

Test finds iPhone 7 emitted twice the amount of radiation reported to regulators
CBS This Morning, Aug 22, 2019
Costa Mesa Residents Air Concerns Over 5G Towers
Stacey Butler, CBS Los Angeles, Aug 14, 2019
Protest held over 5G zoning ordinance in San Diego
Steve Fiorina, CBS San Diego, Aug 7, 2019

Boulder Holds Study Session On 5G Coverage For Concerned Residents
Tori Mason, CBS Denver, Jul 23, 2019
5G coming to Chico Hayley Watts, KVNV (Chico, CA), Jul 3, 2019

CBS13 Investigates: Could A New Cell Tower Hurt You Financially?
A new cell tower could put a local preschool out of business.
Julie Watts, CBS Sacramento, Jun 28, 2019
CBS San Francisco, Jul 6-7, 2019

Lake Forest residents voice concerns over 5G cell towers CBS Los Angeles, Jun 19, 2019

A look at the arrival of 5G, and just how dangerous it could be Angelina Dixson, KVAL (Eugene, OR), May 22, 2019
5G cell tower critics post 'health warning' signs
Lisa Balick, KOIN (Portland, OR), May 21, 2019

5G cell tower protest in Ashland
KTVL (Ashland, OR), May 15, 2019


Plan For 5G Cell Phone Towers Raises Health Concerns In Moraga Susie Steimle, CBS San Francisco, Apr 10, 2019
After several childhood cancer cases at one school, parents question radiation from cell tower CBS This Morning (CBS Network news), Apr 4, 2019
VERIFY: No, scientists didn't say AirPods cause cancer. But they do have questions.
Jason Puckett & David Tregde, WUSA (Washington, DC), Mar 20, 2019

Brain trauma suffered by U.S. diplomats abroad could be work of hostile foreign government
Scott Pelley, 60 Minutes (CBS Network news), Mar 17, 2019

Could Using Wireless Earbuds Be Putting You At Risk For Cancer?
Dr. Maria Simbra, CBS Pittsburgh, Mar 13, 2019

Experts: Wireless Headphones Like AirPods Could Pose Cancer Risk
KDFW (Dallas, TX), Mar 13, 2019

Recent Articles That Say AirPods Can Cause Cancer Are Not Quite Right
Tahesha Moise, WFMY (Greensboro, NC), Mar 13, 2019
Parents Blame Elementary School's Cell Tower After 4th Student Diagnosed With Cancer Jennifer McGraw, CBS Sacramento, Mar 13, 2019
Some Iowa residents push back against new smart meters
Hannah Hilyard, KCCI (Des Moines, IA), Dec 5, 2018
New study suggests that use of cell phones may affect memory in teenagers Rose Beltz, KREM (Spokane, WA), Jul 27, 2018

New 5G network with ubiquitous antennas raises health concerns among some
Steve Sbraccia, WNCN (Raleigh, NC), Jun 5, 2018

Wireless Worries: 5G service is coming – and so are health concerns over the towers that support it
Tony Dokoupil, CBS This Morning (national), May 29, 2018


5G wireless service Is coming, and so are health concerns over the towers that support It
CBS New York, May 29, 2018

5G Service Is Coming – And So Are Health Concerns Over The Towers That Support It
CBS Boston, May 29, 2018

Questions Raised About 5G Health Risks Months Before Sacramento Launches Service
CBS Sacramento, May 29, 2018

Radiation Concerns Being Raised Over New 5G Wireless Service
CBS Philadelphia, May 29, 2018

Can Cellphones Cause Cancer? Experts Surprised By Latest Tests CBS Pittsburgh, Mar 29, 2018
Ashland residents protesting 5G tower installation Richie Garza, KTVL (Medford, OR), May 25, 2018
Findings of cancer in rodents exposed to cell-phone-like radiation draws crowd to RTP Robert Richardson, WNCN (Raleigh, NC), Mar 28, 2018

I-Team Report: Cell Phone Dangers
Colette Boyd, WNEW (Saginaw, MI), Feb 14, 2018

Do Cellphones Cause Cancer?
Heather Brown, CBS Minnesota, Feb 8, 2018

This Cell Phone Radiation Study Found More Questions Than Answers
CBS Miami, Feb 7, 2018

Cellphone Radiation Linked To Tumors In Male Rats, Government Study Says
Andrea Borba, CBS San Francisco, Feb 2, 2018

ConsumerWatch: 5G Cellphone Towers Signal Renewed Concerns over Impacts on Health
Julie Watts and Abigail Sterling, CBS San Francisco, Jan 25, 2018

California to set guidelines for limiting cellphone radiation exposure
CBS Evening News (network), Dec 15, 2017
California health officials release guidelines on cellphone radiation
Susie Steimle, CBS San Francisco, Dec 14, 2017
CBS (network) News. Dec 14, 2017
CBS Los Angeles, Dec 14, 2017

California Public Health Officials Issue Cellphone Radiation Warning CBS Sacramento, Dec 13, 2017
When Kids Get Their First Cell Phones Around The World
CNN, CBS San Francisco, Dec 11, 2017

East Bay Homeowners Challenge Proposed Cellphone Towers
Emily Turner, CBS San Francisco, Nov 15, 2017
Cellphone EMF-Blocking Products Put In A Real World Test
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Nov 14, 2017
Long Islanders Sue Over Health Concerns About New Cellphone Towers
Jennifer McLogan, CBS New York, Oct 19, 2017
Cities, Counties Line Up Against Bill Removing Limits On Cell Transmitters Lemor Abrams, CBS Sacramento, Jul 12, 2017
Plan To Install 50,000 Cell Towers In California Faces Opposition
Phil Matier, CBS San Francisco, June 28, 2017
Woodbury, L.I. Residents Furious Over Cellphone Repeaters On Their Block
Carolyn Gusoff, CBS New York, May 11, 2017

Cell towers could be built at dozens of Prince George's Co. schools
Scott Broom, WUSA (Washington, DC), May 11, 2017

Draft Fact Sheet From California Health Officials Links Cellphone Use, Cancer Risk
CBS Los Angeles, Mar 3, 2017

Consumer Watch: State Continues To Refuse To Release Records On Cell Phone Radiation
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Feb 26, 2017

Judge Orders California To Release Papers Discussing Risk Of Cell Phone Use
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Feb 24, 2017


Cell phone explosion caught on camera
WGCL (Atlanta, GA), Jan 12, 2017

San Francisco Cellphone Service Shockingly Bad For Global Tech Capitol
Susie Steimle, CBS San Francisco, Jan 3, 2017
Parents upset over proposed cell tower
WUSA (Washington, DC), Sep 28, 2016

Berkeley's Cellphone Radiation Warning Law Disputed Before Appeals Court
CBS SF Bay Area, Sep 13, 2016
Apple Unveils iPhone 7 Without Headphone Jack Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Sep 7, 2016

Man Chains Electric Meter To Prevent Utility From Installing Smart Meter Jon Delano, CBS Pittsburgh, Sep 1, 2016
Mt. Tabor neighbors fight plans for cell towers
Chris Holmstrom, KOIN (Portland, OR), Aug 31, 2016

Addressing health concerns of new KUB smart meters
Heather Burian, WVLT (Knoxville, TN), May 31, 2016


Study reignites concern about cell phones and cancer
Paula Cohen, CBS News, May 27, 2016

WiFi in schools: Is it hurting your child?
Paul Joncich, KLAS (Las Vegas, NV), May 10, 2016

New Research Links Cell Phones To Health Issues In Children
Ami Yensi, CBS Baltimore, May 3, 2016

Cell tower proposed behind middle school causing controversy
WDRW (Columbia County, GA), May 3, 2016

Protester Claims Vice President Biden's Son Died from Cell Phone-Related Brain Cancer
CBS SF Bay Area, Feb 28, 2016

Could Your Cell Phone Be Harming You?
Tess Leonhardt, WDTV (Bridgeport, WV), Feb 21, 2016

Notre Dame researchers target cell phone radiation
Zach Crenshaw, WSBT (Mishiwaka, IN), Jan 27, 2016

Bay Area Residents Worried About Radiation Face Uphill Battle Fighting Cell Towers
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Jan 12, 2016

Scientists: Effects of cell phone radiation on kids is cause for concern
Ashley Daley, Live 5 News (Charleston, SC), Nov 6, 2015

SF Residents Battle Wireless Firms Over Super Bowl Building Boom In Neighborhood Cell Antenna Systems
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Oct 31, 2015

Montgomery County parents concerned about wireless routers in schools
Mola Lenghi, WUSA9 (Maryland), Oct 20, 2015

Will Berkeley Cell Phone Ordinance Harm Consumers?
CBS This Morning, Jul 27, 2015

Retired Electronics Professor Wants To Create Wi-Fi Free Refuge
Mark Ackerman, CBS Denver, Jul 9, 2015

Are Wi-Fi Signals Making You Sick?
Marissa Bailey, CBS Chicago, July 1, 2015

People Believe Wi-Fi Is Making Them Sick
Dr. Mallika Marshall, CBS Boston, Jun 8, 2015

Seen At 11: Is Wi-Fi Making You Sick?
CBS New York, May 20, 2015

Why I Declared Our Bedroom A Wireless-Free Zone
Julie Watts, CBS SF Bay Area, May 20, 2015

Special Report: Upgrade Outage
WMMT (Kalamazoo, MI), May 19, 2015

Berkeley Passes Nation's First Radiation Warning For New Cellphones
CBS SF Bay Area, May 13, 2015
Berkeley, California, to require cellphone health warnings
CBS News, May 13, 2015

Cellphone safety: Where do you keep your phone? (web article) Elizabeth Hinson, CBS National, May 12, 2015 (last updated May 14, 2015)
KMOV (St. Louis, MO)
KPAX (Missoula, MT)
WCTV (Tallahassee, FL)
WDTV (Weston, West Virginia)
WFMY (Greensboro, NC)
WIVB (Buffalo, NY)
WKBN (Youngstown, OH)
WREQ (Memphis,TN)
WTSP (Tampa Bay, FL)

Can you get radiation poisoning from your cellphone?
CBS News, May 12, 2015

Woman Cuts Family Off From WiFi Over Health Concerns
Gerri Constant, CBS Los Angeles, May 5, 2015


LA County Firefighters Address Lawmakers Over Cell Tower Concerns
CBS Los Angeles, Mar 24, 2015

Local parents concerned about WiFi radiation

Andrea McCarren, WUSA (Washington, DC), Mar 7, 2015

Planned Smart Electric Meters On Long Island Draw Fears About Privacy, Radiation
CBS New York, Mar 6, 2015

Woman believes cell phone radiation nearly killed her husband Samantha Cortese, KESQ (Palm Desert, CA), Feb 18, 2015 (also ABC affiliate)

In-depth investigation: Examining reports of a cancer cluster at La Quinta Middle School
Natalie Brunnell, KESQ (Palm Desert, CA), Feb 12, 2015 (also ABC affiliate)

Failure to follow cellular antenna regulations raises safety issues
CBS Atlanta, Nov 17, 2014 (updated Feb 10, 2015)

Some residents worried about health effects of smart meters
WMMT (Kalamazoo, MI), Dec 3, 2014

New smart meters installed in Spokane raise questions

KREM (Spokane, WA), Dec 2, 2014
CPS Energy's smart meters show random spikes in radiation output
KENS (San Antonio, TX), Nov 18, 2015

Cell phone towers raise new concerns about safety
Jason Barry, KPHO (Phoenix), Nov 10, 2015 (updated Nov. 25)

FPL, Foes Of Smart Meters Square Off
CBS Miami, Sep 30, 2014

Are Cell Phones Really Giving Us Cancer? CBS Pittsburgh, Sep 15, 2014

Brain Cancer Warning Stickers Proposed For Cellphones Sold In Berkeley
CBS SF Bay Area, Aug 22, 2014



NBC News
Jefferson Hills families pushing back on planned installation of cell phone towerJillian Hartmann, WPXI (Pittsburgh, PA), Mar 11, 2024
'These children are vulnerable': Parents concerned over Franklin cell towerDaniel Smithson, WSMV (Nashville, TN), Nov 15, 2023

School board to meet amid Wyandotte elementary school cell tower controversyShawn Ley & Dave Kelley, WDIV (Detroit, MI), Oct 9, 2023

Parents outraged over cell tower being built next to Florida elementary school
Kristina Watrobski, WPMI (Mobile, AL), Apr 20, 2023
Key meeting between parents, school board occurring over cell tower on Wyandotte elementary schoolShawn Ley & Brandon Carr, WDIV (Detroit, MI), Apr 5, 2023
Concerned parents look for answers on impact of 5G cell tower at Wyandotte elementary school
Jacqueline Francis & Brandon Carr, WDIV (Detroit, MI), Mar 31, 2023
Parents voice concerns about activation of 5G cell tower on top of elementary school in WyandotteVictor Williams & Brandon Carr, WDIV (Detroit, MI), Mar 14, 2023
5G Towers Suddenly Showed Up Across NYC — Here's Why Some Neighborhoods Want Them GoneGus Rosendale, NBC New York, Nov 8, 2022
Proposed AT&T cell tower causes concern among neighbors in Kansas CityEmma James, KSHB (Kansas City, MO), Jul 19, 2022

New 5G cell phone tower in neighborhood has residents concerned about possible health impactsSeth Kovar, KRIS (Corpus Christi, TX), Mar 8, 2022

Potential new cell tower worries Topeka neighborsMatthew Johnstone, KSNT (Topeka, KS), Feb 14, 2022

Fact Check: Smart MetersNikki Rudd, WHEC (Rochester, NY), Jul 1, 2021
5G rollout in Tucson met with oppositionChorus Nylander, KVOA (Tucson, AZ), Jun 14, 2021
5G towers popping up across Tucson, City sends letter to State lawmakersChorus Nylander, KVOA (Tucson, AZ), Feb 23, 2021

City of Tucson & residents have zero control over cell pole placement
Allie Potter, KVOA (Tucson, AZ), Sep 2, 2020
Group bands together against 5G technology
Lacey Lett, KFOR (Oklahoma City, OK), Mar 3, 2020

Parents Protest Cell Tower Across Street from Elementary School
Niala Charles, KNSD (San Diego, CA), Feb 28, 2020

5G Generation: Is Connecticut Ready for The New Technology?
Len Besthoff, WVIT (West Hartford, CT), Feb 21, 2020

Florida group wants restrictions on where 5G units are placed
Alexander Osiadacz, WTLV-WJXX (NBC & ABC) (Jacksonville, FL), Feb 20, 2020

New push for Germantown cell tower raises new concerns
Kelli Cook, WMC (Memphis, TN), Jan 22, 2020

Parents Want Cellphone Tower Taken Off Church Steeple in San Jose
Damian Trujillo, NBC Bay Area, Jan 17, 2020

Northwest neighborhood concerned about possible Verizon 5G tower
Amanda Henderson, WOAI (San Antonio, TX), Jan 15, 2020

Parents, neighbors concerned over possible cell tower in NE Bend
Max Goldwasser, KTVZ (Bend, OR), Jan 6, 2020

Concerns over 5G tech in Jacksonville as City approves new regulations
Alexander Osiadacz, WJXX and WTLV (Jacksonville, FL), Dec 11, 2019 (also ABC)
Parents furious over plans to build 5G cell antenna just feet away from elementary school
WXPI (Pittsburgh, PA), Oct 23, 2019
Elk Meadow parents press councilors over cell tower
Jacob Larsen, KTVZ (Bend, OR), Oct 3, 2019

5G Whiz
Staff, Full Measure (NBC Network), Sep 15, 2019

Chicago Tribune: FCC investigating phone radiation findings
Ali Velshi, MSNBC, Aug 23, 2019 (interview w/ Sam Roe)

Neighbors fight losing battle against 5G tower right next to Denver home
Nelson Garcia, KUSA (Denver, CO), Aug 9, 2019
Concern grows over electromagnetic frequency radiation as cell phones turn to 5G Annaliese Garcia, WBBH (Fort Myers, FL), Aug 6, 2019
Cell tower causes some concern for Catalina residents
Eric Fink, KVOA (Tucson, AZ), Jun 6, 2019

Germantown withdraws plan for cell phone tower near elementary school
WMC (Memphis, TN), Jun 5, 2019

Cell phone radiation: Just how dangerous is it for you?
Angelina Dixson, KMTR (Eugene, OR), May 22, 2019

Locals plan rally against 5G rollout
KOBI (Medford, OR), May 15, 2019

Is 5G technology safe? The debate intensifies
Jennifer Lewke, WHEC (Rochester, NY), May 2, 2019

VERIFY: Does 5G cause health problems?
Gordon Severson, KARE (Minneapolis, MN), Apr 22, 2019

5G fears: Homeowners worry about mini towers in street
John Matarese, WTMJ (Milwaukee, WI), Feb 8, 2019

Testicular cancer: Why it's difficult to talk about, and why it's rising
Chris Hrapsky, KARE (Minneapolis, MN), Nov 21, 2018

People concerned about 5G as FCC approves installation
Allie Potter, KVOA (Tucson, AZ), Nov 16, 2018
Poor cell phone reception could increase your radiation exposure by 10,000x Bob Segall, WTHR (Indianapolis, IN), Oct 5, 2018
Protecting yourself from cellular radiation
Denelle Confair, KVOA (Tucson, AZ), Sep 23, 2018

Protestors rally against Pacific Power's smart meters
Rayvan Vares, KOBI (Medford, OR), Sep 22, 2018

Not in my backyard: Are cell towers coming to your neighborhood?
Nate Morabito, WCNC (Charlotte, NC), Jul 27, 2018

Pacific Power Installing Smart Meters in Jackson County
Elizabeth Ruiz, KOBI (Medford, OR), Jul 2, 2018

Palo Alto City Leaders Approve Verizon Cell Towers
Ian Cull, NBC Bay Area, May 22, 2018

Construction halted on cell tower near elementary school playground
Laura Wilson, KOAA (Colorado Springs, CO), Apr 25, 2018

City Council denies cell phone tower being built on church property
Natassia Paloma, KTSM (El Paso, TX), Apr 17, 2018

New Study Links Cancer to Cell Phone Use
Bianca Castro, KXAS (Dallas, TX), Mar 28, 2018
KOBF (Albuquerque, NM), Apr 3, 2018
WCMH (Columbus, OH), Apr 3, 2018
WBBH (Fort Myers, FL), Apr 3, 2018
WTHR (Indianapolis, IN), Apr 3, 2018
KPRC (Houston, TX), Apr 4, 2018

Verify: Are electromagnetic fields harmful to your health?
Tami Tremblay, KTVB (Boise, ID), Feb 8, 2018

New study reigniting cell phone, cancer debate
Rob Hughes, WCNC (Charlotte, NC), Feb 6, 2018


Study of rats reveals cellphone radiation risk is low
Erika Edwards, NBC Connecticut (West Hartford, CT), Feb 5, 2018
NBC Southern California, Feb 5, 2018

Aiken County Planning Commission recommends denying request for new cell phone tower
Ben Billmyer & Lia Fernandez, WRDW (Aiken County, SC), Jan 18, 2018


New guidance issued for avoiding cell phone radiation
Bob Segall, WTHR (Indianapolis, IN), Dec 26, 2017

How worried do we need to be about cell phone radiation?
Sean Franklin, WBIR (Knoxville, TN), Dec 22, 2017

Health officials release guidelines on dangerous cellphone radiation
Madeline Cuddihy, WXIA (Atlanta, GA), Dec 19, 2017

Debate over Cell Towers in Hillsborough
NBC Bay Area, Dec 18, 2017

Proposed bill would cover potential injuries from microwaves, cellphones
Elisha Machado, WWLP (Springfield, MA), Nov 28, 2017

New cellphone tower has some residents concerned
Kaylie Spotts, WNWO (Whitehouse, OH), Sep 4, 2017

Controversial T-Mobile cell phone tower back on Roswell's agenda
Christopher Hopper, WXIA (Atlanta, GA), Jul 11, 2017

Texas teen electrocuted after cell phone incident in bathtub
Presley Fowler, KCBD (Lubbock, Tx), Jul 11, 2017

2 students get cancer; Ripon parents want cell towers removed from schools
Natalie Brunell, KCRA (Sacramento, CA), Jun 20, 2017

Government Study Links Cellphone Radiation to Cancer
NBC Nightly News with Lester Holt, May 27, 2017

Greenbelt Residents Worried About Health Effects of Cellphone Tower
Darcy Spencer, NBC Washington (DC), Apr 25, 2017

Cellphone safety tips to limit radiation exposure
Natalie Brunell, KCRA (Sacramento, CA), Apr 9, 2017

Sign puts Berkeley in center of cellphone debate
Natalie Brunell, KCRA (Sacramento, CA), Apr 9, 2017

How to reduce electromagnetic fields created by electricity
Meredyth Censullo, KFLA (Tampa, FL), Mar 31, 2017

Cell Phone Cancer Debate Heats up With Document Release
Scott Budman, NBC Bay Area, Mar 3, 2017

NBC Southern California, Mar 3, 2017
State health officials accused of keeping cell phone dangers secret
Vicki Gonzalez, KCRA (NBC Sacramento), Mar 3, 2017

Cell phones safe? Flap in California revives debate Jeff Gillan, KSNV (NBC Las Vegas), Mar 3, 2017
Researchers: Long-term cell phone use may increase your risk for a brain tumor
Bob Segall, WTHR (Indianapolis, IN), Feb 21, 2017


Special Report: The Facts about Smart Meters
Joy Wang, WILX (Lansing, MI), Feb 12, 2017

Board denies proposed Greendale cell tower
Rebecca Klopf, WTMJ (Milwaukee, WI), Feb 7, 2017

Radiation-blocking underwear and five other crazy CES gadgets
Matt Granite, WGRZ (Buffalo, NY), Jan 7, 2016
Rat Study Launches New Debate over Cell Phone Radiation and Cancer
Rachel Polansky, WBBH (Fort Myers, FL), Dec 19, 2016

13 Investigates cellphones and cancer: Is the risk real?
Bob Segall, WTHR (Indianapolis, IN), Nov 14, 2016

Are Kids at Risk? Scores of Chicago-Area Schools Allow Cell Towers on their Buildings, Grounds
Phil Rogers, Katy Smyser, NBC Chicago, Oct 3, 2016

Parents Fight Plans for Cell Tower at Virginia Elementary School
David Culver, NBC Washington (DC), Sep 21, 2016

Berkeley Cellphone Ordinance Challenged in Appeals Court
Mark Matthews & Stephen Ellison, NBC Bay Area (San Jose, CA), Sep 13, 2016
Montgomery County Residents Shocked by Proposal to Build Cell Towers in Front of Homes Jackie Bensen, NBC Washington (DC), Sep 2, 2016

Government study links cell phone radiation to cancer
Maggie Fox, NBC News, May 27, 2016

Piper Glenn residents cite eagles in cell tower fight
Bill McGinty, WCNC (Charlotte, NC), Apr 7, 2016

Berkeley's 'Right to Know' Cell Phone Radiation Warning Ordinance Now in Effect
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area (San Jose, CA), Mar 21, 2016

BGE makes case for another rate hike
George Lettis, WBAL (Baltimore, MD), Mar 18, 2016

North Kingstown teacher says she's being fired because she believes WiFi is health hazard
Brian Crandall, WJAR (Providence, RI), Feb 23, 2016

Kids Face Potential Radiation Danger Using Cell Phones
Shanay Campbell, WSAV (Savannah, GA), Nov 6, 2015

Scientists: Effects of cell phone radiation on kids is cause for concern
Ashley Daley, WMBF (Myrtle Beach, SC), Nov 6, 2015

Pediatricians express concern over growing cellphone use, radiation exposure for children
Meghan McRoberts, WPTV (West Palm Beach, FL), Nov 6, 2015

Potential radiation danger to kids using cell phones

Shannon Wolfson, KXAN (Austin, TX), Nov 5, 2015

Pediatricians' new warning: Limit children's exposure to cellphones
Danielle Dellorto, NBC Today Show, Nov 5, 2015


Report Examines Cell Phone Radiation
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area, Sep 24, 2015

Group wants cell towers gone
Barry Sims, WBAL (Anne Arundel County, MD), Sep 22, 2015

Neighborhood fights possible new cell tower on church property
Forrest Sanders, WSMV (Nashville, TN), Jul 30, 2015

Residents protest cell tower installation citing health concerns
Sophia Kunthara and Melissa Etezadi, NBC Southern California, Jul 20, 2015


Wireless companies sue Berkeley over cellphone radiation warning ordinance
Tamara Palmer, NBC Bay Area (San Jose, CA), Jun 8, 2015

Berkeley approves "Right to Know" cell phone radiation warning ordinance
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area
(San Jose, CA), May 12, 2015

West Seattle residents protest new cell phone antennas
Alex Rozier, KING (Seattle, WA), May 7, 2015

Bay Area documentary "Mobilize" examines cell phone dangers
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area
(San Jose, CA), Mar 28, 2015


ABC News
Proposal would require new cell towers to be at least 1,500 feet away from schools in Williamson County
Kendall Ashman, WKRN (Nashville, TN), Jan 30, 2024
TN parents call for removal of cell tower near elementary school
Kendall Ashman, WKRN (Nashville, TN), Nov 14, 2023
Parents outraged over cell tower being built next to Florida elementary schoolKristina Watrobski, KATV (Little Rock, AR), Apr 20, 2023
Pasco County parents fighting to stop cell phone tower from being built next to elementary schoolEric Waxler, WFTS (Tampa Bay, FL), Apr 18, 2023
Detroit parents call for tests to determine radiation exposure from cell antennas on schoolsKim Russell & Johnny Sartin, WXYZ (Detroit, MI), Apr 6, 2023
Is the cellphone tower on top of a Wyandotte school harmful? Here's what an expert saysKim Russell, WXYZ (Detroit, MI), Mar 29, 2023

T-Mobile addresses concerned parents about the cell tower in WyandottePeter Maxwell, WXYZ (Detroit, MI), Mar 22, 2023
Wyandotte superintendent: It would cost 'millions' to break cell tower contract
WXYZ (Detroit, MI), Mar 21, 2023
Wyandotte parents sound off over 5G cell tower at elementary schoolBrett Kast, WXYZ (Detroit, MI), Mar 14, 2023
Cellphone tower being built on elementary school roof concerns parents in Wyandotte
Kim Russell, WXYZ (Detroit, MI), Mar 1, 2023
Englewood neighborhood outraged by city's plan to build 5G tower in front of home
Bayan Wang, KCDO (Denver, CO), Jul 7, 2022
Neighbors concerned about 5G cell tower in GilbertAshley Paradez, KNXT (Phoenix, Az), Aug 11, 2021
Verizon cell tower in limbo after Madison County board takes no action
Caitlyn Penter, WLOS (Asheville, NC), June 7, 2021


Houston homeowners upset over not being notified of 5G box placement
Nick Natario, KTRK (Houston, TX), Jan 27, 2021

More 5G woes: Poles installed feet away from Pensacola resident's front door
Rebekah Castor, WEAR (Pensacola, FL), Jan 21, 2021
Residents outraged as more 5G antennas are approved in Pensacola
Rebekah Castor, WEAR (Pensacola, FL), May 10, 2020

5G technology brings potential and tension
Kylie McGivern, WFTS (Tampa Bay, FL), Mar 30, 2020

Cell tower near elementary school sparks concern
Lindsay Pena, Zac Self, KGTV (San Diego, CA), Feb 27, 2020

Concerns over health lead to cellphone tower protest in Camas
Joe English, KATU (Portland, OR), Feb 5, 2020

Concerns over 5G tech in Jacksonville as City approves new regulations Alexander Osiadacz, WJXX and WTLV (Jacksonville, FL), Dec 11, 2019 (also NBC)

Montgomery Co. considers 5G, but health concerns have residents protesting
Jay Korff, WJLA (Washington, DC), Nov 19, 2019

Carmel homeowners raise concerns over 5G small cell towers
Kara Kenney, WRTV (Indianapolis, IN), Oct 4, 2019

Can 5G cell phone antennas impact your pacemaker?
Jennifer Munoz, WEAR (Pensacola, FL), Sep 27, 2019

Small Cell tower and 5G concerns and benefits
Andrew Donley, WBMA (Birmingham, AL), Sep 23, 2019

Mystery towers going up all over Cincinnati area: Homeowners worry about possible health effects
John Matarese, WCPO (Cincinnati, OH), Sep 20, 2019

5G could come with health risks, critics say
Sharyl Attkisson, WBFF (Baltimore, MD), Sep 15, 2019

Concern, opposition grows to 5G in Colorado Springs
Scott Harrison, KRDO (Colorado Springs, CO), Aug 28, 2019

Los Altos man leads effort to keep AT&T wireless nodes away from daughter's bedroom, neighborhood
Amanda del Castillo, KGO (San Francisco, CA), Jul 11, 2019
Protesters in WDSM for new Verizon 5G installations Adam Cron, KCWI (Des Moines, IA), Jun 14, 2019
Denver Public Schools faces backlash from parents about placement of cell towers on schools
Russell Haythorn, KMGH (Denver, CO), Jun 7, 2019


West Boca tower proposal meets resistance at zoning meeting
Ron Burke, WPBF (Boca Raton, FL), Jun 7, 2019


Albany residents debate safety of 5G
WNYT (Albany, NY), May 17, 2019

Protesters rally against 5G in San Diego
KGTV (San Diego, CA), May 15, 2019

Local group rallies in Asheville as part of national protest over 5G technology
WLOS (Asheville, NC), May 15, 2019

Group rallies against 5G roll out
KDRV (Medford, OR), May 15, 2019


'On Your Side' West Jacksonville community opposed to cell phone tower
Kenneth Amaro, WTLV (Jacksonville, FL), Mar 29, 2019
5G speeds: National City seeks public input for Small Cells Installation
Rina Nakano, KGTV (San Diego, CA), Mar 12, 2019
5G wireless technology comes with big promises, but city of Portland has big concerns
Keaton Thomas, KATU (Portland, OR), Mar 11, 2019

5G fears: Homeowners worry about mini towers in street
John Matarese, WCPO (Cincinnati, OH), Feb 8, 2019
Local group protests 5G cell tower in Eugene
Madison Glassman, KEZI (Eugene, OR), Jan 26, 2019

5G Fight: Greendale residents don't want cell towers in their yards
Caroline Reinwald, WISN (Milwaukee, WI), Jan 4, 2019
Some Duke Energy customers claim smart meters are making them sick
Tonya Simpson & Diane Wilson, WTVD (Raleigh, NC), Oct 1, 2018
The health effects with 'smart' utility meters
Jennifer Emert, WLOS (Asheville, NC), Sep 27, 2018
Smart meter workshop met with protesters
KDRV (Medford, OR), Sep 22, 2018

Some San Mateo residents upset over planned installation of Verizon antennas on utility poles
Vic Lee, KGO (San Mateo, CA), Sep 20, 2018
Concerned Talent citizens say new smart meters are unhealthy KDRV (Medford, OR), May 31, 2018

Verify: Do diode stickers protect you from cellphone radiation?
WVEC (Norfolk, VA), Apr 18, 2018

Are mini-cell phone towers a health risk in your neighborhood?
WJLA (Washington, DC), Apr 6, 2018
New study on link between cancer and cell phones Tiffany Neely, KAIT (Jonesboro, AR), Apr 3, 2018
Does cell phone radiation cause cancer? Scientists gather at RTP to discuss
WTVD (Raleigh, NC), Mar 28, 2018

The potential health risks of cell phones, explained
Sam Benson Smith & Zak Dalheimer, KESQ (Thousand Palms, CA), Feb 15, 2018

New warning links cell phones to health risks
Good Morning America / ABC Network News, Dec 18, 2017

Ask Dr. Nandi: California sets guidelines to limit cell phone radiation exposure
WXYZ-TV (Detroit, MI), Dec 18, 2017

Hillsborough homeowners fight proposed cell towers
Katie Marzullo, KGO (San Francisco, CA), Dec 9, 2017

Can mobile phone use lead to health problems?
Abigail Elise, WISN (Milwaukee, WI), May 14, 2017

Long Island Residents Outraged by Cellphone Towers in Front of Homes
N.J. Burkett, WABC (New York, NY), May 11, 2017

Cell phones and cancer, is there a connection?
Kerri O'Brien, WRIC (Richmond, VA), Mar 20, 2017

CA Health Dept. Releases Report Saying Cellphone Use May Cause Cancer
Lyanne Melendez, KGO (San Franciscom CA), Mar 3, 2017


Parents fight plan to put cell tower near playground at Virginia elementary school
Richard Reeve, Jay Goldberg, WJLA (Washington, DC), Sep 28, 2016

San Jose residents fight cellphone tower proposal over radiation concerns
Lisa Amin Gulezian, KGO (San Francisco, CA), Aug 13, 2016

Alpine residents outraged over EMF levels from Sunrise Powerlink
Ariel Wesler, KGTV (San Diego, CA), Feb 24, 2016


Notre Dame researchers making a faster and safer phone
Brandon Pope, WBND (South Bend, IN), Feb 5, 2016

New concerns over kids and electronics
Shannon Murray, KVUE (Austin, TX), Dec 3, 2015

Parents upset over cell tower possibly being installed near Weho school
Mayde Gomez, KABC (Los Angeles, CA), Dec 1, 2015

City leaders, neighbors raise concerns about cell towers
Kayla Moody, WHAS (Louisville, KY), Oct 28, 2015

Cell phone industry sues city of Berkeley
Lyanne Melendez, KGO (San Francisco, CA), Aug 20, 2015

Alki Beach residents protest plan for cell antennas near school
Theron Zahn, KOMO (Seattle, WA), May 7, 2015

Lake Ronkonkomo residents speak out against proposed cell tower in neighborhood
Kristin Thorne, WABC (New York, NY), Apr 29, 2015

Workers say cell tower sites putting them at risk
Cristin Severance, KGTV (San Diego, CA), Mar 19, 2015 (updated Mar 24, 2015)

Ann Arbor family has power shut off by DTE in dispute over installing new SMART meter on their home
Dave LewAllen, WXYZ (Detroit, MI), Mar 18, 2015

Smart meters' slammed at House committee hearing WZZM (Lansing, MI), Dec 2, 2014

Man claims OUC's smart meter made him sick, files federal lawsuit WFTV (Orlando, FL), Dec 2, 2014

Alamo Heights residents voice concerns over smart readers KSAT (San Antonio), Sep 22, 2014 (updated Sep 23, 2014

3 Reasons Not to Sleep With Your Phone in the Bed
Camille Chatterjee, ABC News, Aug 5, 2014

City pushes for cancer warning stickers on cell phones
WCVB (Boston), Jul 15, 2014

Berkeley City Council proposes ordinance to get warning labels on cellphones
Tiffany Wilson, KGO (San Francisco), Jul 15, 2014


Fox News

EMF & EMR – Invisible Electromagnetic Radiation Lurking in Most of Our Homes

Fox 24 (Charleston, SC), Oct 6, 2023

Detroit-area superintendent resigns over 5G antenna protests
Fox News Channel (Associated Press), Apr 6, 2023
Director of scientific nonprofit calls for law changes amid controversy over 5G tower on Wyandotte schoolBrandon Hudson & Amber Ainsworth, Fox 2 Detroit (Detroit, MI), Apr 5, 2023

Scientist says T-Mobile cell equipment on top of Wyandotte school is a health danger
Brandon Hudson & David Komer, Fox 2 Detroit (Detroit, MI), Mar 24, 2023

Residents protest cell towers in Montgomery County
Sierra Fox, Fox 5 DC (Washington, DC), Oct 11, 2022
Cell phones and cancer: New UC Berkeley study suggests cell phones sharply increase tumor risk
Marla Tellez, KTTV (Los Angeles, CA), July 7, 2021
Hold your cell phone away from your body: Research links cell phones to tumors
André Senior, KTVU (Oakland, CA), July 8, 2021


San Jose neighbors oppose 5G cell equipment installed feet from homes
Brooks Jarosz, KTVU (Oakland, CA), Apr 21, 2021

Hoosiers fight against 5G towers near homesKayla Sullivan, WXIN (Indianapolis, IN), Dec 28, 2020
5G internet antennas being installed in East GR, not everyone happy about it
Michael Martin, WXMI (East Grand Rapids, MI), Aug 31, 2020

Edmond group to voice concerns about 5G towers
KOKH (Oklahoma City, OK), Feb 25, 2020

Group plans to share 5G tower concerns with Edmond city council
William Maetzold, KOKH (Oklahoma City, OK), Feb 19, 2020

Tech companies begin installing 5G poles in New Orleans
Rilwan Balogun, WVUE (New Orleans, LA), Jan 23, 2020

Parents concerned over potential cell tower at local elementary
Jeremy Pierre, WHBQ (Memphis, TN), Jan 14, 2020

Verizon launches 5G service in Boston, but what are the potential drawbacks?
Jim Morelli, WFXT (Boston, MA), Nov 19, 2019

La Mesa residents raise concerns over 5G towers
Justina Myers, KFWB (San Diego, CA), Oct 22, 2019

5G warning posters placed around Downtown Orlando
Matthew Trezza, WOFL (Orlando, FL), Jun 14, 2019

San Francisco is resisting 5G, calling it 'ugly' and 'dangerous'
Brooke Crothers, Fox News network, Jun 1, 2019

Locals plan rally against 5G rollout
KMVU (Medford, OR), May 15, 2019

Parents upset about possible cell tower near Germantown elementary school
Jacque Masse, WHBQ (Memphis, TN), Mar 18, 2019


Are Apple AirPods putting you at risk for cancer?
Dr. Marc Siegel, Tucker Carlson Tonight / Fox News Network, Mar 13, 2019
STL Moms: Kids cellphone safety KTVI, (St. Louis, Mo), Mar 8, 2019

Town of Union Residents "Devastated" Over Possibility of Cell Tower in Neighborhood
Amanda Pitts, WICZ (Binghamton, NY), Jun 4, 2018

Parents worry cellphone tower could expose children to radiation
Keagan Harsha, KDVR (Denver, CO), Apr 23, 2018


Montgomery County residents fighting rezoning to allow new 5G cell towers
WTTG (Washington, D.C.), April 4, 2018

Could your cell phone be endangering your health?
Jeff Abell, WBFF (Baltimore, MD), Feb 20, 2018

Opposition to cell towers in Hillsborough
Tom Vacar, KTVU (Oakland, CA), Dec 19, 2017

Health officials warn sleeping near cell phone could cause cancer and infertility
Darren Sweeney, WJW (Cleveland, OH), Dec 18, 2017
Family chooses to live with no power rather than a DTE Smart Meter
Hilary Golston, WJBK (Detroit, MI), Nov 9, 2017

Ashland residents meet to discuss potential health risks of wireless radiation
Ted Daniel, WFXT (Boston, MA), Jun 20, 2017

Parents of Cancer Survivors Still Waiting for School District's Response Regarding Cell Phone Tower
Eric Rucker, KTXL (Sacramento, CA), Jun 19, 2017

After 2 Ripon Children Diagnosed with Cancer, Kids and Parents Protest Cell Tower on School Grounds
Kay Recede, KTXL (Sacramento, CA), May 31, 2017
More than 400 MTEMC customers reject company's request to install smart meters
Jeremy Finley, WBRC (Birmingham, AL), May 23, 2016

Controversy surrounding EMF exposure: Do wireless devices pose dangers?
Danielle Miller, KSAZ (Phoenix, AZ), Feb 22, 2016

Cell phones and fertility
Dr. Devi Nampiaparampil, WNYW (New York City, NY), Feb 21, 2016

Health concerns over Wi-Fi technology exposures in schools
Laura Evans, WTTG (Washington, DC), Feb 15, 2016

Cell Phone Dangers?
Stacey Delikat, WNYW (New York City, NY), Jan 16, 2016

High Point neighbors speak out against cell tower project
Jasmine Spencer, WGHP (High Point, NC), Dec 8, 2015

More than 400 MTEMC customers reject company's request to install smart meters
Jeremy Finley, WBRC (Franklin, TN), Nov 23, 2015

Pediatricians express concern over growing cellphone use, radiation exposure for children
WFLX (West Palm Beach, FL), Nov 6, 2015

Scientists: Effects of cell phone radiation on kids is cause for concern
Ashley Daley, Fox Carolina News (Greenville, SC), Nov 6, 2015
Mount Tabor neighbors fight cell phone tower proposal
KPTV (Beaverton, OR), Jun 4, 2015 (updated Jul 2, 2015)

Berkeley passes cell phone safety ordinance
Amber Lee, KTVU (Oakland, CA), May 12, 2015

How to spot potential radiation hiding in your home

Fox News (national), Feb 1, 2015

Experts: Why wearable tech could pose health risks
Brooke Crothers, Fox News (national), Oct 20, 2014


CNN

Cell phone radiation study finds more questions than answers
Jacqueline Howard, CNN, Feb 7, 2018
Electrosensitivity, Vital Signs with Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Oct 24, 2017 (also CNN International)
Part 1: Welcome to the National Quiet Zone Part 2: Wireless Exposure Part 3: Living in the National Quiet Zone
Cell phone radiation increases cancers in rats, but should we worry? Carina Storrs, CNN, May 27, 2016

Half of teens think they're addicted to their smartphones Kelly Wallace, CNN, May 3, 2016


Other TV News


Carmel (NJ) residents win legal battle against cellphone tower constructionStaff, News 12 (Edison, NJ), Jul 25, 2022
5G Battle: midtown residents host block parties, rallies and bake sales to stop towers from going upHanna Tiede, KOLD (Tucson, AZ), Jun 21, 2021
Neighborhood residents say Pittsfield cell tower causing health concernsMatt Ristaino, Spectrum News 1 (Worcester, MA), May 13, 2021
Neighborhood residents say Pittsfield cell tower causing health concernsNeighborhood residents say Pittsfield cell tower causing health concernsNeighborhood residents say Pittsfield cell tower causing health concernsCouple fights to prevent installation of cell tower outside their Long Beach homeKacey Montoya, KTLA (Los Angeles, CA), May 8, 2021

North Shore residents raise concerns about proposed military missile radar Nicky Schenfeld, KHON (Kahuku, HI), Apr 10, 2021
Some residents of Jacksonville townhomes concerned over 5G towerCorley Peel, WJXT (Jacksonville, FL), Jan 21, 2021
Mahopac residents concerned with proposed cellphone tower project
News 12 (Westchester, NY), Aug 12, 2020

White Plains residents make petition against 5G antennas near homes, schools
News 12 (Westchester, NY), Jul 19, 2020

Activists protest against 5G towers
WDVM (Hagerstown, MD), May 15, 2019


Germantown residents protest cell phone tower installation near elementary school WMC (Memphis, TN), Mar 18, 2019

Cell Phone Safety for Kids
Tonya Harris, WISH (Indianapolis, IN), Mar 5, 2019

Is 5G Technology Dangerous?
Stephanie Whitfield, KHOU (Houston, TX), Feb 11, 2019

Local Neighborhood Concerned for Possible AT&T Tower
Dan Garrett, KSNT (Topeka, KS), Feb 4, 2019

U.S. Sen. Blumenthal briefing on concerns with possible health risks posed by 5G wireless technology
Congressional news briefing, Connecticut Network (Hartford, CT), Dec 3, 2018
Senator Blumenthal pushes to investigate link between 5G wireless tech and cancer Hector Ramirez, WTNH (New Haven, CT), Dec 3, 2018
Controversy in Ozark over where a cell phone tower will be built Brandon Berg, KY3 (Springfield, MO), Nov 16, 2018
5G wireless will provide faster cellular service. But how safe is it? Sara Girard, WINK (Fort Myers, FL), Nov 7, 2018
Debate continues over 5G wireless towers placed in residential areas Shennikia Grimshaw, WDVM (Montgomery County, MD), Sep 25, 2018
Concern grows over cellphone towers on Crown Heights building
News 12 Brooklyn (Brooklyn, NY), Sep 24, 2018

Some Danville residents express radiation concerns over building of small cell towers
Gabe Slate, KRON, (San Francisco, CA), Apr 17, 2018

Homeowners file lawsuit over potential wireless transmitter health risks
Shari Einhorn, News 12 Long Island, NY, Oct 19, 2017
Allergic to Wi-Fi: Woman helps locals suffering from electromagnetic radiation sensitivity WGN (Chicago, IL), Jun 6, 2017
WQAD (Moline, IL), Jun 6, 2017

Can Wireless Technology Make You Sick?
Azia Celestino, Channel One News, May 18, 2017

Cell Phone Radiation Warning Law Causes Controversy
Azia Celestino, Channel One News, May 17, 2017

No Wi-Fi or cellphones allowed in the 'Quietest Town in America'
Julie Unruh, WGN (Chicago, IL), May 15, 2017
The secret inside your cellphone
CBC Marketplace, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Mar 24, 2017

Berkeley's Cellphone Crusade
The National, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Mar 23, 2017

California Department of Public Health releases draft of document warning against cellphone radiation
Gabe Slate, KRON (San Francisco, CA), Mar 3, 2017

Smart meter opt out fees could be nixed in legislative session

Emily Ikeda, WHAG (Montgomery County, MD), Feb 2, 2017

City Light takes feedback on opt-out for smart meters
Joel Moreno, KOMO (Seattle, WA), Aug 12, 2016

Special Report: The facts about smart meters
Joy Wang, WILX (Lansing, MI), Feb 12, 2016

Very easy changes could limit your exposure to cell phone radiation
Jenny Day, San Diego 6 News, Nov 6, 2015

Cell phones believed to cause sleep problems
KXII (Denison, TX), Jun 26, 2014
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
21.5.2024 19:12

Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality


Gautam R, Arora T. Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Radiation (RF-EMR) Emitted from Mobile Phone and its Impact on Male Reproductive Health. EIACP: Diversity and Impact on the Environment. 28(3):8-11. 2023.


Diagram representing various sources of RF EMF exposure effect on brain and testicular organ and deleterious outcomes (Kesari, Agarwal & Henkel, 2018)
Review Papers

Detrimental impact of cell phone radiation on sperm DNA integrity

Koohestanidehaghi Y, Khalili MA, Dehghanpour F, Seify M. Detrimental impact of cell phone radiation on sperm DNA integrity. Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2024 Jan 24. doi: 10.5653/cerm.2023.06121.

Abstract

Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) from various sources may impact health due to the generation of frequency bands. Broad pulses emitted within frequency bands can be absorbed by cells, influencing their function. Numerous laboratory studies have demonstrated that mobile phones-generally the most widely used devices-can have harmful effects on sex cells, such as sperm and oocytes, by producing RF-EMR. Moreover, some research has indicated that RF-EMR generated by mobile phones can influence sperm parameters, including motility, morphology, viability, and (most critically) DNA structure. Consequently, RF-EMR can disrupt both sperm function and fertilization. However, other studies have reported that exposure of spermatozoa to RF-EMR does not affect the functional parameters or genetic structure of sperm. These conflicting results likely stem from differences among studies in the duration and exposure distance, as well as the species of animal used. This report was undertaken to review the existing research discussing the effects of RF-EMR on the DNA integrity of mammalian spermatozoa.

EMW can induce oxidative stress, which subsequently leads to disorders such as reduced mobility, morphological changes, acrosome disturbances, and ultimately, damage to the nucleus and genetic material. This oxidative damage to DNA can result in the breakdown of both single-stranded and double-stranded DNA structures, culminating in fragmentation. If the DNA is not repaired and the damage accumulates, the sperm may undergo apoptosis. Damage to the sperm genome can ultimately impact fertility, potentially leading to infertility. Therefore, it is advisable to limit daily exposure to these sources to prevent irreversible damage caused by EMWs. Many men carry their cell phones in their trouser pockets or clipped to their belts, and the use of Bluetooth can increase their susceptibility to RF-EMR exposure. This exposure can induce changes in sperm quality through oxidative stress, potentially leading to infertility. Agarwal et al. [11] suggested that carrying a cell phone in a pocket could lead to a decline in sperm quality. However, it is important to note that the phone and male reproductive organs are separated by multiple tissue layers. Therefore, extrapolating these in vitro effects to real-life conditions requires further studies [11].


In July 2021, the European Parliament commissioned a research report titled "Health impact of 5G." The report concluded that the commonly used RF-EMFs are likely carcinogenic to humans and have a definitive impact on male fertility. It also suggested potential adverse effects on the development of embryos, fetuses, and newborns. To mitigate these adverse effects, the organization proposed several strategies. These include favoring non-wireless connections, increasing distance from the source of RF-EMFs, switching off devices when not in use, and practicing safe phone usage [55].

Open access paper: https://ecerm.org/journal/view.php?doi=10.5653/cerm.2023.06121

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Genotoxic Risks to Male Reproductive Health from Radiofrequency Radiation

Kaur P, Rai U, Singh R. Genotoxic Risks to Male Reproductive Health from Radiofrequency Radiation. Cells. 2023; 12(4):594. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells12040594.

Abstract
During modern era, mobile phones, televisions, microwaves, radio, and wireless devices, etc., have become an integral part of our daily lifestyle. All these technologies employ radiofrequency (RF) waves and everyone is exposed to them, since they are widespread in the environment. The increasing risk of male infertility is a growing concern to the human population. Excessive and long-term exposure to non-ionizing radiation may cause genetic health effects on the male reproductive system which could be a primitive factor to induce cancer risk. With respect to the concerned aspect, many possible RFR induced genotoxic studies have been reported; however, reports are very contradictory and showed the possible effect on humans and animals. Thus, the present review is focusing on the genomic impact of the radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) underlying the male infertility issue. In this review, both in vitro and in vivo studies have been incorporated explaining the role of RFR on the male reproductive system. It includes RFR induced-DNA damage, micronuclei formation, chromosomal aberrations, SCE generation, etc. In addition, attention has also been paid to the ROS generation after radiofrequency radiation exposure showing a rise in oxidative stress, base adduct formation, sperm head DNA damage, or cross-linking problems between DNA & protein.
Conclusions
The present review reveals a better understanding of the genotoxic effects of radiofrequency radiation on male reproductive health emitted from mobile phones, laptops, microwaves, wireless networks, etc. The study focused on different endpoints such as DNA damage, micronuclei formation and genomic instability, SCE & chromosomal aberrations covering both in vitro and in vivo parameters. The available information following in vitro and in vivo exposure shows that all the yielded data has both positive and negative results. In this review, studies reported DNA fragmentation, apoptosis, and elevated protein expression in both human and animal spermatozoa, concluding a decrease in viability, mitochondrial genomic destruction and DNA strand breaks. Further micronuclei formation, SCE and chromosomal aberrations are also found to cause abnormalities, leading to the accumulation of mutations and hence causing cancer risk. While controversial investigation, on the other hand, supported with no effect on cellular apoptosis or DNA integrity. Our present study reviewed that RFR has insufficient energy production to generate genomic damage. Yet, such effects were probably found to be responsible for male infertility due to the indirect mechanism of oxidative stress via ROS generation in the exposed system. Few studies also suggested that the damage due to the cumulative effect of repeated exposure varies with physical parameters such as distance from the radiation source, short-term or long-term exposure duration, penetration depth, and frequency of exposure. Therefore, considering all data together, the present review supports the capability of radiofrequency radiation to induce genotoxicity underlying male infertility keeping some limitations in mind, since the report is a conclusion of narrative study and limited literature were found explaining the actual mechanism of micronuclei formation, sister chromatid exchange, chromosomal aberration and genomic instability. Hence, more studies are needed to elucidate the DNA damage mechanism with more robust study designs favoring potential genotoxic effects of RFR on male reproductive health.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/12/4/594

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Pusan National University scientists reveal links between sperm quality and cell phone use

The findings of their updated meta-analysis hint at the potential dangers of modern electronic gadgets

Pusan National University, News Release

An infographic depicting the key findings of the new meta-analysis

image: After examining a series of studies from 2012 to 2021, researchers have performed an updated meta-analysis that clearly indicates the connection between cell phone and decreased sperm quality. view more

Credit: Pusan National University

Cell phones have succeeded in bringing the world closer, making life tolerable during a very trying time. But cellphones also have their downsides. They can have negative effects on health. This is because cell phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMWs), which are absorbed by the body. According to a meta-analysis from 2011, data from previous studies indicate that RF-EMWs emitted by cell phones degrade sperm quality by reducing their motility, viability, and concentration. However, this meta-analysis had a few limitations, as it had low amounts of in vivo data and considered cell phone models that are now outdated.

In an effort to bring more up-to-date results to the table, a team of researchers led by Assistant Professor Yun Hak Kim from Pusan National University, Korea, conducted a new meta-analysis on the potential effects of cell phones on sperm quality. They screened 435 studies and records published between 2012 and 2021 and found 18—covering a total of 4280 samples—that were suitable for the statistical analyses. Their paper was made available online on July 30, 2021 and was published in Volume 202 of Environmental Research in November, 2021.

Overall, the results indicate that cell phone use is indeed associated with reduced sperm motility, viability, and concentration. These findings are more refined than those from the previous meta-analysis thanks to a better subgroup analysis of the data. Another important aspect that the researchers looked into was if higher exposure time to cell phones was correlated to lower sperm quality. However, they found out that the decrease in sperm quality was not significantly related to exposure time—just to exposure to mobile phones itself. Considering the results were consistent across both in vivo and in vitro (cultured sperm) data, Dr. Kim warns that "Male cell-phone users should strive to reduce mobile phone use to protect their sperm quality."

Knowing that the number of cell phone users is most likely going to increase in the future, it's high time we start considering exposure to RF-EMW as one of the underlying factors causing a reduction in sperm quality among the male population. Moreover, seeing how technologies evolve so quickly, Dr. Kim remarks that "additional studies will be needed to determine the effect of exposure to EMWs emitted from new mobile phone models in the present digital environment." The bottom line is, if you're worried about your fertility (and potentially other aspects of your health), it may be a good idea to limit your daily cell phone use.

https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/941005

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Effects of mobile phone usage on sperm quality – No time-dependent relationship on usage: A systematic review and updated meta-analysis

Sungjoon Kim, Donghyun Han, Jiwoo Ryu, Kihun Kim, Yun Hak Kim. Effects of mobile phone usage on sperm quality – No time-dependent relationship on usage: A systematic review and updated meta-analysis. Environmental Research. 202:111784, 2021. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2021.111784.
Abstract

Background Mobile phones emit radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic waves (EMWs), a low-level RF that can be absorbed by the human body and exert potential adverse effects on the brain, heart, endocrine system, and reproductive function. Owing to the novel findings of numerous studies published since 2012 regarding the effect of mobile phone use on sperm quality, we conducted a systematic review and updated meta-analysis to determine whether the exposure to RF-EMWs affects human sperm quality.

Methods This study was conducted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The outcome measures depicting sperm quality were motility, viability, and concentration, which are the most frequently used parameters in clinical settings to assess fertility.
Results We evaluated 18 studies that included 4280 samples. Exposure to mobile phones is associated with reduced sperm motility, viability, and concentration. The decrease in sperm quality after RF-EMW exposure was not significant, even when the mobile phone usage increased. This finding was consistent across experimental in vitro and observational in vivo studies.

Discussion Accumulated data from in vivo studies show that mobile phone usage is harmful to sperm quality. Additional studies are needed to determine the effect of the exposure to EMWs from new mobile phone models used in the present digital environment.
Excerpts
"... 18 studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis (Table 1 and Fig. 1) (Agarwal et al., 2008, 2009; Ahmad and Baig, 2011; Al-Bayyari, 2017b; De Iuliis et al., 2009; Ding et al., 2018a; Dkhil et al., 2011; Erogul et al., 2006; Falzone et al., 2008; Fejes et al., 2005; Kaya et al., 2020; Malini, 2017b; Rago et al., 2013; Sajeda and Al-Watter, 2011; Veerachari and Vasan, 2012; Wdowiak et al., 2018; Yildirim et al., 2015; Zalata et al., 2015). Nine studies from a previous meta-analysis and nine new studies that included 4280 samples were used for analysis. One conference paper included in the previous study was excluded. The sperm quality parameters established in each paper varied and were subjected to a meta-analysis; 16 papers provided data on sperm motility, 6 provided data on sperm viability, and 12 provided data on sperm concentration. All in vitro studies were experimental, whereas all in vivo studies were observational. We identified the MD values of the entire 4280 samples and analyzed the MD values of each group after classifying them according to four criteria: control group setting (non-exposure vs. less exposure), study design (in vivo and in vitro), participant group (fertility clinic and population), and storage location (trousers or not)."
Conclusion

"Mobile phone use decreased the overall sperm quality by affecting the motility, viability, and concentration. It was further reduced in the group with high mobile phone usage. In particular, the decrease was remarkable in in vivo studies with stronger clinical significance in subgroup analysis. Therefore, long-term cell phone use is a factor that must be considered as a cause of sperm quality reduction. Additional studies are needed to determine the effect of the exposure to EMWs emitted from new mobile phone models in the present digital environment."
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935121010781
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Romualdo Sciorio, Luca Tramontano, Sandro C Esteves. Effects of mobile phone radiofrequency radiation on sperm quality. Zygote. 2021 Aug 13;1-10. doi: 10.1017/S096719942100037X
Abstract

In the last decades, the universal use of mobile phones has contributed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation environmental pollution. The steady growth in mobile phone usage has raised concerns about the effects of phone radiation on male reproductive health. Epidemiological studies report a sharp decline in sperm counts in developing countries, and worldwide with c. 14% of couples having difficulties to conceive, many of which are attributed to a male infertility factor. Environment and lifestyle factors are known to contribute to male infertility. Exposure to heat, radiation, or radioactivity might induce damage to biological tissue organs, including the testis. Given the ubiquitous use of mobile phones, the potential adverse effects of the resulting environmental radiation needs to be elucidated further. It seems to be an apparent relationship between the increased exposure to mobile phone radiofrequency and sperm quality decline, but the evidence is not conclusive. Our review summarizes the evidence concerning the possible adverse effects of cell phone radiation on the male reproductive system, with a focus on sperm quality. Also, we critically analyze the effects of elevated testicular temperature and oxidative stress on male fertility and how these factors could interfere with the physiological activities of the testis.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34384508/
Future perspectives and conclusions

The rapid technological advances in personal computers and communication devices might pose a risk for human health. Cell phone devices emit radiofrequency electromagnetic waves that seem to affect male reproductive health and other body functions (McClelland 3rd and Jaboin, 2018; Sage and Burgio, 2018; Wall et al., 2019). Although the current data are not unequivocal, it seems sound to speculate that mobile phone exposure might be contributing to subfertility. However, the existing evidence primarily relates to adverse effects on sperm motility and morphology, which are limited endpoints for evaluating the male fertility potential.

The exact mechanisms of how RF-EMR might affect the testis, epididymis, and sperm have not yet been fully understood. Additional studies are warranted, particularly prospective studies assessing sperm functional markers, such as sperm DNA integrity and OS, in fertile and subfertile men. Equally important will be to analyze whether the decreased sperm quality associated with mobile phone exposure translates into impaired pregnancy chances. The effects of short-term and long-term exposure and energy intensity should be also investigated in more detail, taking into account relevant confounders. Only then will scientific societies and regulatory bodies be able to provide users with transparent information concerning the risks and guidance for proper use.
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Gang Yu, Zhiming Bai, Song Chao, Qing Cheng, Gang Wang, Zeping Tang, Sixing Yang. Current progress on the effect of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of human and animal studies. Environmental Pollution. Published online: 30 March 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116952.
Highlights

• Mobile phone use was related to sperm quality decline of men in some areas.
• Mobile phone RF-EMR directly impaired mature sperm of men in vitro.
• Mobile phone RF-EMR affected some parameters of sperm quality in experiment animals.
• Experiment conditions affected pooled results of animal experiments.
• More studies should be conducted to investigate this issue in new era.


Abstract
Potential suppression of fertility due to mobile phone radiation remains a focus of researchers. We conducted meta-analyses on the effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality using recent evidence and propose some perspectives on this issue. Using the MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, WOS, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases, we retrieved and screened studies published before December 2020 on the effects of mobile phone use/mobile phone RF-EMR on sperm quality.
Thirty-nine studies were included. Data quality and general information of the studies were evaluated and recorded. Sperm quality data (density, motility, viability, morphology, and DFI) were compiled for further analyses, and we conducted subgroup, sensitivity, and publication bias analyses.
The pooled results of human cross-sectional studies did not support an association of mobile phone use and a decline in sperm quality. Different study areas contributed to the heterogeneity of the studies. In East Europe and West Asia, mobile phone use was correlated with a decline in sperm density and motility. Mobile phone RF-EMR exposure could decrease the motility and viability of mature human sperm in vitro.
The pooled results of animal studies showed that mobile phone RF-EMR exposure could suppress sperm motility and viability. Furthermore, it reduced sperm density in mice, in rats older than 10 weeks, and in rats restrained during exposure. Differences regarding age, modeling method, exposure device, and exposure time contributed to the heterogeneity of animal studies. Previous studies have extensively investigated and demonstrated the adverse effects of mobile phone radiation on sperm.
In the future, new standardized criteria should be applied to evaluate potential effects of mobile phone RF-EMR dosages. Further sperm-related parameters at the functional and molecular levels as well as changes in biological characteristics of germ cells should be evaluated. Moreover, the impact of mobile phone RF-EMR on individual organs should also be examined.
Conclusion

The results of our meta-analysis indicated that in East Europe and West Asia, mobile phone use is associated with a decline in human sperm density and motility. Mobile phone RF-EMR can reduce motility and viability of mature human sperm in vitro, and it can also reduce sperm motility and viability in male animals and decrease sperm density of sexually mature restrained rats. Some important factors that affect the results of animal experiments are study setup and radiation device as well as age and exposure time. Our study is an extension of previous studies and has scientific value for future studies on effects of mobile phone RF-EMR associated with sperm quality.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0269749121005340
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Pooja Negi, Rajeev Singh. Association between reproductive health and nonionizing radiation exposure. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Published online: 20 Jan 2021. DOI: 10.1080/15368378.2021.1874973.
Abstract

Recently, a decreasing rate of fertility has to be credited to an array of factors such as environmental, health and lifestyle. Male infertility is likely to be affected by the strong exposure to heat and radiations. The most common sources of nonionizing radiations are cell phones, laptops, Wi-Fi and microwave ovens, which may participate to the cause of male infertility. One of the major sources of daily exposure to non-ionizing radiation is mobile phones. A mobile phone is now basically dominating our daily life through better services such as connectivity, smartphone devices. However, the health consequences are linked with their usage are frequently ignored. Constant exposure to non-ionizing radiations produced from a cell phone is one of the possible reasons for growing male infertility. Recently, several studies have shown that cell phone users have altered sperm parameters causing declining reproductive health. Cell phone radiation harms male fertility by affecting the different parameters like sperm motility, sperm count, sperm morphology, semen concentration, morphometric abnormalities, increased oxidative stress along with some hormonal changes. This review is focusing on the prevailing literature from in vitro and in vivo studies suggesting that non-ionizing exposure negatively affects human male infertility.


Negi & Singh, 2021

Conclusion

Generally, the outcome of the studies has indicated that mobile phone usage changes different sperm parameters in both ways in-vitro (human) and in-vivo (animals). Several studies disclose that the exposure to cell phones produces harmful effects on the testes, which may affect sperm motility, sperm number, sperm concentration, and morphology and an increased DNA damage, causing micronuclei formation and reactive oxygen species within the cell. So many evidences showed that exposure from cell phones results in elevated oxidative stress with disintegrated DNA and it is directly and indirectly dependent on the time of cell phone use. Further researches are required to provide strong evidence that the use of mobile phones may disturb sperm and testicular activity. Several evidences suggest that the irregularities reported due to RF-EMF-exposure depend on physical parameters such as utilized RF wavelength, penetration range into the object, and transmission length of the radiation. Unfortunately, existing studies are not able to suggest a true mechanism between the harmful effects of RF-EMF radiation and the male reproductive system. To conclude all of the above, government bodies and agencies should form strong guidelines against cell phone exposure and take preventive actions such as in the usage of mobile phones, preventing chatting, reducing the overall contact time, and holding the gadget away from the groin may be of significant help to people pursuing fertility. Moreover, very limited studies are available on protective actions so far so a large-scale analysis is also required to determine the reproductive parameters.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15368378.2021.1874973?src=&journalCode=iebm20

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Chidiebere Emmanuel Okechukwu. Does the Use of Mobile Phone Affect Male Fertility? A Mini-Review. J Hum Reprod Sci. Jul-Sep 2020;13(3):174-183. doi: 10.4103/jhrs.JHRS_126_19.
Abstract

Presently, there is a rise in the use of mobile phones, laptops, and wireless internet technologies such as Wi-Fi and 5G routers/modems across the globe; these devices emit a considerable amount of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) which could interact with the male reproductive system either by thermal or nonthermal mechanisms. The aim of this review was to examine the effects of mobile phone use on male fertility. Related studies that reported on the effects of EMR from mobile phones on male fertility from 2003 to 2020 were evaluated. PubMed database was used. The Medical Subject Heading system was used to extract relevant research studies from PubMed. Based on the outcomes of both human and animal studies analyzed in this review, animal and human spermatozoa exposed to EMR emitted by mobile phones had reduced motility, structural anomalies, and increased oxidative stress due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Scrotal hyperthermia and increased oxidative stress might be the key mechanisms through which EMR affects male fertility. However, these negative effects appear to be associated with the duration of mobile phone use.

Conclusion

Based on the outcomes of both human and animal studies examined in this review, animal and human spermatozoa exposed to EMR emitted by mobile phones had reduced motility, structural anomalies, and increased oxidative stress due to the production of ROS. Scrotal hyperthermia and increased oxidative stress might be the key mechanisms by which EMR affects male fertility. However, these negative effects appear to be associated with the duration of mobile phone use.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727890/

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Jaffar FHF, Osman K, Ismail NH, Chin KY, Ibrahim SF. Adverse Effects of Wi-Fi Radiation on Male Reproductive System: A Systematic Review. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2019;248(3): 169-179. doi: 10.1620/tjem.248.169. (Note: Smartphones emit Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and various types of cellular radiation.)

Abstract

Extensive use of Wi-Fi has contributed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) pollution in environment. Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter on male reproduction health. However, there are conflicting findings between studies. Thus, this review aims to elucidate the possible effects of 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi exposure on both animal and human male reproductive system. A computerized database search performed through MEDLINE via Ovid and PUBMED with the following set of keywords: 'Wi-Fi or WiFi or wireless fidelity or Wi-Fi router or WiFi router or electromagnetic or radiofrequency radiation' AND 'sperm or spermatozoa or spermatogenesis or semen or seminal plasma or testes or testis or testosterone or male reproduction' had returned 526 articles. Only 17 studies conformed to pre-set inclusion criterion. Additional records identified through Google Scholar and reviewed article further revealed six eligible articles. A total of 23 articles were used for data extraction, including 15 studies on rats, three studies on mice, and five studies on human health. Sperm count, motility and DNA integrity were the most affected parameters when exposed to RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter. Unfortunately, sperm viability and morphology were inconclusive. Structural and/or physiological analyses of the testes showed degenerative changes, reduced testosterone level, increased apoptotic cells, and DNA damage. These effects were mainly due to the elevation of testicular temperature and oxidative stress activity. In conclusion, exposure towards 2.45 GHz RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter is hazardous on the male reproductive system.

Open access paper: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/tjem/248/3/248_169/_article

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Kesari KK, Agarwal A, Henkel R. Radiation and male fertility. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018 Dec 9;16(1):118. doi: 10.1186/s12958-018-0431-1.

Abstract During recent years, an increasing percentage of male infertility has to be attributed to an array of environmental, health and lifestyle factors. Male infertility is likely to be affected by the intense exposure to heat and extreme exposure to pesticides, radiation, radioactivity and other hazardous substances. We are surrounded by several types of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and both have recognized causative effects on spermatogenesis. Since it is impossible to cover all types of radiation sources and their biological effects under a single title, this review is focusing on radiation deriving from cell phones, laptops, Wi-Fi and microwave ovens, as these are the most common sources of non-ionizing radiation, which may contribute to the cause of infertility by exploring the effect of exposure to radiofrequency radiation on the male fertility pattern. From currently available studies it is clear that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have deleterious effects on sperm parameters (like sperm count, morphology, motility), affects the role of kinases in cellular metabolism and the endocrine system, and produces genotoxicity, genomic instability and oxidative stress. This is followed with protective measures for these radiations and future recommendations. The study concludes that the RF-EMF may induce oxidative stress with an increased level of reactive oxygen species, which may lead to infertility. This has been concluded based on available evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies suggesting that RF-EMF exposure negatively affects sperm quality. Open access paper: https://rbej.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12958-018-0431-1

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Ford-Glanton BS, Melendez DA. Male reproductive toxicants: Electromagnetic radiation and heat. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 2018.
Abstract

Human population in today's world lives surrounded by radiofrequency fields (RF) and electromagnetic radiation (EM) fields, transmitting almost all forms of electronic communication and data that humans produce every second. Mobile devices and laptop computers are EMR-emitting devices. The effect of mobile phone emitted radiation and heat on fertility is the subject of recent interest and investigations. Many studies have found a decrease in semen quality which has increased the focus on male reproductive health. Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples of reproductive age, and nearly half of these cases are linked to male fertility (Sharlip et al., 2002). Different harmful environmental influences have led to changes in semen analysis standards by reducing the lower limits of normal ranges, which were declared by the World Health Organization (2010). The possible negative impact of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality has been well established. While no certain conclusions can be drawn from current evidence, a growing number of studies indicate a decrease in male fertility associated with increased cellular phone usage (Agarwal et al., 2011) and laptop computers using Wi-Fi (Avendaño et al., 2012a). Here we review the current evidence regarding the effects of electromagnetic radiation and heat in male fertility.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128012383645361

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Yahyazadeh A, Deniz OG, Kaplan AA, Altun G, Yurt KK, Davis D. The genomic effects of cell phone exposure on the reproductive system. Environ Res. 2018 Nov;167:684-693. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.017.


Abstract

Humans are exposed to increasing levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at various frequencies as technology advances. In this context, improving understanding of the biological effects of EMF remains an important, high priority issue. Although a number of studies in this issue and elsewhere have focused on the mechanisms of the oxidative stress caused by EMF, the precise understanding of the processes involved remains to be elucidated. Due to unclear results among the studies, the issue of EMF exposure in the literature should be evaluated at the genomic level on the reproductive system. Based on this requirement, a detail review of recently published studies is necessary. The main objectives of this study are to show differences between negative and positive effect of EMF on the reproductive system of animal and human. Extensive review of literature has been made based on well known data bases like Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus. This paper reviews the current literature and is intended to contribute to a better understanding of the genotoxic effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones and wireless systems on the human reproductive system, especially on fertility. The current literature reveals that mobile phones can affect cellular functions via non-thermal effects. Although the cellular targets of global system for mobile communications (GSM)-modulated EMF are associated with the cell membrane, the subject is still controversial. Studies regarding the genotoxic effects of EMF have generally focused on DNA damage. Possible mechanisms are related to ROS formation due to oxidative stress. EMF increases ROS production by enhancing the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase in the cell membrane. Further detailed studies are needed to elucidate DNA damage mechanisms and apoptotic pathways during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in germ cells exposed to EMF.

Conclusion

This paper reviews the current literature and is intended to contribute to a better understanding of the genotoxic effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones and wireless systems on the human reproductive system, especially on fertility. The current literature reveals that mobile phones can affect cellular functions via non-thermal effects (Diem et al., 2005; Hanci et al., 2013 ; Odaci et al., 2016a). Although the cellular targets of GSM-modulated EMF are associated with the cell membrane, the subject is still controversial (Eberhardt et al., 2008). Studies regarding the genotoxic effects of EMF have generally focused on DNA damage (Mortelmans and Rupa, 2004; Young, 2002; Zeiger, 2004; Panagopoulos, 2012 ; Turedi et al., 2016). Possible mechanisms are related to ROS formation due to oxidative stress (Moustafa et al., 2004; Hanukoglu et al., 2006). EMF increases ROS production by enhancing the activity of NADH oxidase in the cell membrane (Friedman et al., 2007b). In this context, EMF affected spermatozoa may have a high degree rate of infertilization. It seems that previous genomic studies do not show definitive evidence regarding EMF affected cells in the fertilization. Although we evaluated broadly the genomic effects of cell phone exposure on the reproductive system using both animal and human studies, one of the weaknesses of this work is insufficient review of human studies. This may come from limited number of EMF based human studies in the literature. Further detailed studies are needed to elucidate DNA damage mechanisms and apoptotic pathways during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in germ cells that are exposed to EMF.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29884549


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Altun G, Deniz OG, Yurt KK, Davis D, Kaplan S. Effects of mobile phone exposure on metabolomics in the male and female reproductive systems. Environ Res. 2018 Nov;167:700-707. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.02.031.
Highlights


• Long-term exposure to EMF decreases sperm motility and fertilization. • Effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones are related to protein synthesis.
• Oxidative stress based EMF exposure modulates nitric oxide level in the germ cells.
• Oxidative stress based EMF exposure inhibits antioxidant mechanisms in the germ cells.


Abstract
With current advances in technology, a number of epidemiological and experimental studies have reported a broad range of adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health. Multiple cellular mechanisms have been proposed as direct causes or contributors to these biological effects. EMF-induced alterations in cellular levels can activate voltage-gated calcium channels and lead to the formation of free radicals, protein misfolding and DNA damage. Because rapidly dividing germ cells go through meiosis and mitosis, they are more sensitive to EMF in contrast to other slower-growing cell types. In this review, possible mechanistic pathways of the effects of EMF exposure on fertilization, oogenesis and spermatogenesis are discussed. In addition, the present review also evaluates metabolomic effects of GSM-modulated EMFs on the male and female reproductive systems in recent human and animal studies. In this context, experimental and epidemiological studies which examine the impact of mobile phone radiation on the processes of oogenesis and spermatogenesis are examined in line with current approaches.

Conclusion

EMF emitted by mobile phones has a number of well-documented adverse metabolomic effects on the male and female reproductive systems and can lead to infertility by increasing ROS production and reducing GSH and other antioxidants. The primary target of the EMF emitted by mobile phones may be the cell membrane (Pall in press, this volume). This then results in accelerated activity of membrane NADH oxidase and, consequently, greater rates of ROS formation that cannot be easily conjugated or detoxified. Although many studies have reported morphological and functional deteriorations in testis and ovary following EMF exposures, as well both structural and functional deficits in reproductive health, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. To assist in further clarification of these processes and mechanisms, Table 1 summarizes key studies on the metabolomic effects of EMF on reproductive systems. Future studies will benefit greatly from standardized exposure protocols and evaluations of key metabolomic indicators.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29884548
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Sepehrimanesh, M. & Davis, D.L. Proteomic impacts of electromagnetic fields on the male reproductive system. Comp Clin Pathol. 26(2):309-313. 2017. doi:10.1007/s00580-016-2342-x.

Abstract
The use of mobile phones and other wireless transmitting devices is increasing dramatically in developing and developed countries, as is the rate of infertility. A number of respected infertility clinics in Australia, India, USA, and Iran are reporting that those who regularly use mobile phones tend to have reduced sperm quantity and quality. Some experimental studies have found that human sperm exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF), either simulated or from mobile phones, developed biomarkers of impaired structure and function, as well as reduced quantity. These encompass pathological, endocrine, and proteomic changes. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, and the proteome is the entire array of proteins—the ultimate biomolecules in the pathways of DNA transcription to translation. Proteomics is the art and science of studying all proteins in cells, using different techniques. This paper reviews proteomic experimental and clinical evidence that EMF acts as a male-mediated teratogen and contributor to infertility.
Conclusions

As among the most rapidly proliferating human cells, spermatogenesis and associated activities offer an important endpoint for evaluation. More than 60 different compounds or industrial processes have been identified as increasing defects in human sperm or testicular tissue and possibly increasing the risk to offspring from male-mediated exposures. In this study, we reviewed structural and functional proteomic changes related to EMF exposure. Reported changes are categorized based on main affected tissue and also the most important adverse effects. Overall, these results demonstrate significant effects of radio frequency-modulated EMF exposure on the proteome, including both structural and functional impacts such as a decrease in the diameter and weight of the seminiferous tubules and the mean height of the germinal epithelium (Ozguner et al. 2005) and/or pathological and physiological changes in key biochemical components of the testicular tissues (Luo et al. 2013). These structural and functional changes may account for the pathological impact of EMF on the male reproductive system reported in the experimental work that we and others have conducted. While EMF is currently being used for a number of therapeutic applications (REF), the work we have reviewed here clearly indicates a range of harmful effects, especially on genital systems.

https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00580-016-2342-x

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Houston B, Nixon B, King BV, De Iuliis G, Aitken RJ. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function. Reproduction. 2016 Dec;152(6):R263-R276.

Abstract

Mobile phone usage has become an integral part of our lives. However, the effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted by these devices on biological systems and specifically the reproductive systems are currently under active debate. A fundamental hindrance to the current debate is that there is no clear mechanism of how such non-ionising radiation influences biological systems. Therefore, we explored the documented impacts of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system and considered any common observations that could provide insights on a potential mechanism.

Among a total of 27 studies investigating the effects of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, negative consequences of exposure were reported in 21. Within these 21 studies, 11 of the 15 that investigated sperm motility reported significant declines, 7 of 7 that measured the production of reactive oxygen species documented elevated levels and 4 of 5 studies that probed for DNA damage highlighted increased damage, due to RF-EMR exposure. Associated with this, RF-EMR treatment reduced antioxidant levels in 6 of 6 studies that studied this phenomenon, while consequences of RF-EMR were successfully ameliorated with the supplementation of antioxidants in all 3 studies that carried out these experiments.
In light of this, we envisage a two-step mechanism whereby RF-EMR is able to induce mitochondrial dysfunction leading to elevated ROS production.
A continued focus on research which aims to shed light on the biological effects of RF-EMR will allow us to test and assess this proposed mechanism in a variety of cell types.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27601711

Conclusion
To date, contradictory studies surrounding the impacts of RF-EMR on biological systems maintain controversy over this subject. Nevertheless, research into the biological responses stimulated by RF-EMR is particularly important given our ever-increasing use of mobile phone technology. While clinical studies are identifying possible detrimental effects of RF-EMR, it is imperative that mechanistic studies are conducted that elucidate the manner in which RF-EMR perturbs biological function, thus supplying a rational cause. A focus on the male reproductive system may experience as consequences of the personal storage of mobile devices, the unique vulnerability of the highly specialised sperm cell, and the future health burden that may be created if conception proceeds with defective, DNA-damaged spermatozoa. While this subject remains a topic of active debate, this review has considered the growing body of evidence suggesting a possible role for RF-EMR induced damage of the male germ line. In a majority of studies, this damage has been characterized by loss of sperm motility and viability as well as the induction of ROS generation and DNA damage. We have therefore given consideration to the potential mechanisms through which RF-EMR may elicit these effects on spermatozoa, which we utilized as a sensitive model system. We propose a mechanistic model in which RF-EMR exposure leads to defective mitochondrial function associated with elevated levels of ROS production and culminates in a state of oxidative stress that would account the varying phenotypes observed in response to RF-EMR exposure. With further complementary data, this model will provide new impetus to the field and stimulate research that will allow us to confidently assess the reproductive hazards of mobile phone usage.
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Adams JA, Galloway TS, Mondal D, Esteves SC, Mathews F. Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Int. 2014 Sep;70:106-12. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.015.

Summary

Mobile phones are owned by most of the adult population worldwide. Radio-frequency radiation (RFR) from these devices could affect sperm development and function. Around 14% of couples in high- and middle-income countries have difficulty conceiving. Male infertility is involved approximately 40% of the time. Several countries have reported unexplained declines in semen quality. Animal research has found that RFR can affect the cell cycle of sperm, increase sperm cell death and produce histological changes in the testes. Research on humans has found that prolonged mobile phone use is associated with decreased motility, sperm concentration, morphology and viability suggesting a likely impact on fertility.
The authors of this peer-reviewed study conducted a systematic review of the research and a quantitative analysis to determine whether exposure to mobile phone radiation affects human sperm quality. Participants were from fertility clinics and research centers.
The study examined the sperm quality outcome measures most frequently used to assess fertility in clinical settings: motility (the ability to move properly through the female reproductive tract), viability (the ability to fertilize the egg), and concentration (the number of sperm in a milliliter of ejaculate).
Ten studies were examined including 1,492 human sperm samples. Exposure to mobile phones was found to be associated with a significant eight per cent average reduction in sperm motility and a significant nine per cent average reduction in sperm viability. The effects on sperm concentration were more equivocal. The results were consistent across experimental laboratory studies and correlational observational studies.

The authors concluded that the overall results suggest that mobile phone exposure negatively affects sperm quality in humans. The clinical importance of these effects in this study may be limited to subfertile men and to men at the lower-end of the normal spectrum. Open access paper: https://bit.ly/cellphonespermdamage.

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Liu K, Li Y, Zhang G, Liu J, Cao J, Ao L, Zhang S.
Association between mobile phone use and semen quality: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Andrology. 2014 Jul;2(4):491-501.

Abstract

Possible hazardous health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations emitted from mobile phone on the reproductive system have raised public concern in recent years. This systemic review and meta-analysis was prepared following standard procedures of the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and checklist. Relevant studies published up to May 2013 were identified from five major international and Chinese literature databases: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, the VIP database and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane Library. Eighteen studies with 3947 men and 186 rats were included in the systemic review, of which 12 studies (four human studies, four in vitro studies and four animal studies) with 1533 men and 97 rats were used in the meta-analyses. Systemic review showed that results of most of the human studies and in vitro laboratory studies indicated mobile phone use or radiofrequency exposure had negative effects on the various semen parameters studied. However, meta-analysis indicated that mobile phone use had no adverse effects on semen parameters in human studies. In the in vitro studies, meta-analysis indicated that radiofrequency radiation had detrimental effect on sperm motility and viability in vitro [pooled mean difference (MDs) (95% CI): -4.11 (-8.08, -0.13), -3.82 (-7.00, -0.65) for sperm motility and viability respectively]. As for animal studies, radiofrequency exposure had harmful effects on sperm concentration and motility [pooled MDs (95% CI): -8.75 (-17.37, -0.12), -17.72 (-32.79, -2.65) for sperm concentration and motility respectively]. Evidence from current studies suggests potential harmful effects of mobile phone use on semen parameters. A further multicentred and standardized study is needed to assess the risk of mobile phone use on the reproductive system.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24700791

60 Recent Studies (Updated: 5/21/2024)
Abeer M. Hagras, Eman A. Toraih, Manal S. Fawzy. Mobile phones electromagnetic radiation and NAD+-dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase as a mitochondrial marker in Asthenozoospermia. Biochimie Open. Available online July 25, 2016. https://bit.ly/2b69gh9

Adams JA, Galloway TS, Mondal D, Esteves SC, Mathews F. Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environment International. 70:106-112. September 2014. https://bit.ly/cellphonespermdamage

Agarwal A, Deepinder F, Sharma RK, Ranga G, Li J. Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study. Fertil Steril. 2008 Jan;89(1):124-8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17482179

Agarwal A, Desai NR, Makker K, Varghese A, Mouradi R, Sabanegh E, Sharma R. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril. 2009;92(4):1318-25. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18804757

Agarwal A, Singh A, Hamada A, Kesari K. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences.Int Braz J Urol. 2011; 37(4):432-54. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21888695


Akbari HA, Gaeini AA. Moderate exercise training as an effective strategy to reduce the harmful effects of cell phone radiation on Wistar rat's semen quality. Int J Radiation Research. 19(2):317-323. 2021. doi: 10.18869/acadpub.ijrr.19.2.317. https://ijrr.com/article-1-3646-en.html
Akdag MZ, Dasdag S, Canturk F, Karabulut D, Caner Y, Adalier N. Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats? J Chem Neuroanat. 2016. https://1.usa.gov/1RjkMVb

Al-Bayyari N. The effect of cell phone usage on semen quality and fertility among Jordanian males.
Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 2017; 22(3):178-182. https://bit.ly/2pfcO6L
Al-Quzwini OF, Al-Taee, Al-Shaikh SF. Male fertility and its association with occupational and mobile phone towers hazards: An analytic study. Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 2016; 21(4):236-240. https://bit.ly/1SRUWWs

Andrašková S, Holovská K, Ševčíková Z, Andrejčáková Z, Tóth Š, Martončíková M, Račeková E, Almášiová V. The potential adverse effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on the testes of prenatally exposed peripubertal male rats. Histol Histopathol. 2021 Dec 2:18402. doi: 10.14670/HH-18-402. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34854072/

Bin-Meferij MM, El-Kott AF. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015; 8(8):12487-97. https://1.usa.gov/1MURLR1

Boga A, Emre M, Sertdemir Y, Uncu İ, Binokay S, Demirhan O. Effects of GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation during the oogenesis and spermiogenesis of Xenopus laevis. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2016:137-144. https://1.usa.gov/1VQh4pP

Çetkin M, Kızılkan N, Demirel C, Bozdağ Z, Erkılıç S, Erbağcı H. Quantitative changes in testicular structure and function in rat exposed to mobile phone radiation. Andrologia.
2017; 49(10). doi: 10.1111/and.12761. https://bit.ly/2jIxlyh
Chu KY, Khodamoradi K, Blachman-Braun R, et al. Effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation emitted by modern cellphones on sperm motility and viability: An in vitro study. . Eur Urol Focus. 2022; S2405-4569(22)00247-4. doi:10.1016/j.euf.2022.11.004. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36379868/

Er H, Gamze Tas G, Soygur B, Ozen S, Sati L. Acute and Chronic Exposure to 900 MHz Radio Frequency Radiation Activates p38/JNK-mediated MAPK Pathway in Rat Testis. Reprod Sci. 2022. doi: 10.1007/s43032-022-00844-y.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35015292/
Fatehi D, Anjomshoa M, Mohammadi M, Seify M, Rostamzadeh A. Biological effects of cell-phone radiofrequency waves exposure on fertilization in mice; an in vivo and in vitro study. Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 2017. 23(2):148-153. https://bit.ly/2iUT4Yd

Ford-Glanton BS, Melendez BA. Male Reproductive Toxicants: Electromagnetic Radiation and Heat. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. 2018. 4:226-228. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-801238-3.64536-1.
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Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
20.5.2024 02:00

Pregnancy & Wireless Radiation Risks


More than 50 recent studies have found adverse effects from prenatal exposure
to wireless radiation in humans and six other species ....
Electromagnetic fields exposure on fetal and childhood abnormalities: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Kashani ZA, Pakzad R, Fakari FR, Haghparast MS, Abdi F, Kiani Z, Talebi A, Haghgoo SM. Electromagnetic fields exposure on fetal and childhood abnormalities: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Med (Wars). 2023 May 12;18(1):20230697. doi: 10.1515/med-2023-0697

Abstract

Today, in the modern world, people are often exposed to electromagnetic waves, which can have undesirable effects on cell components that lead to differentiation and abnormalities in cell proliferation, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, chromosomal abnormalities, cancers, and birth defects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of electromagnetic waves on fetal and childhood abnormalities. PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched on 1 January 2023. The Cochran's Q-test and I 2 statistics were applied to assess heterogeneity, a random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled odds ratio (OR), standardized mean difference (SMD), and mean difference for different outcomes, and a meta-regression method was utilized to investigate the factors affecting heterogeneity between studies. A total of 14 studies were included in the analysis, and the outcomes investigated were: change in gene expression, oxidant parameters, antioxidant parameters, and DNA damage parameters in the umbilical cord blood of the fetus and fetal developmental disorders, cancers, and childhood development disorders. Totally, the events of fetal and childhood abnormalities were more common in parents who have been exposed to EMFs compared to those who have not (SMD and 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 [0.15-0.35]; I 2, 91%). Moreover, fetal developmental disorders (OR, 1.34; CI, 1.17-1.52; I 2, 0%); cancer (OR, 1.14; CI, 1.05-1.23; I 2, 60.1%); childhood development disorders (OR, 2.10; CI, 1.00-3.21; I 2, 0%); changes in gene expression (mean difference [MD], 1.02; CI, 0.67-1.37; I 2, 93%); oxidant parameters (MD, 0.94; CI, 0.70-1.18; I 2, 61.3%); and DNA damage parameters (MD, 1.01; CI, 0.17-1.86; I 2, 91.6%) in parents who have been exposed to EMFs were more than those in parents who have not. According to meta-regression, publication year has a significant effect on heterogeneity (coefficient: 0.033; 0.009-0.057). Maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, due to the high level of stem cells and their high sensitivity to this radiation, the biochemical parameters of the umbilical cord blood examined was shown increased oxidative stress reactions, changes in protein gene expression, DNA damage, and increased embryonic abnormalities. In addition, parental exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation can lead to the enhancement of different cell-based cancers and developmental disorders such as speech problems in childhood.



Conclusions
Studies are associated with mothers' exposure to EMFs during pregnancy and non-ionizing radiation (RF and ELF-EMFs) with fetal complications such as significant enhancement of oxidant factors, decrease of antioxidant factors, and increase in DNA damage parameters, as well as changes in expression proteins in cord blood genes. On the other hand, close maternal exposure in prenatal and postnatal (residence or occupational exposure) with EMFs of high voltages power lines more than 1 mG or 50 Hz with congenital anomalies (CNS defect, spina bifida) and fetal developmental disorders (such as reduced embryonic bud length) and neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood (e.g., speech problems in children) are associated. Moreover, parents' exposure to ionizing and non-ionizing radiation (X-ray, ELF-EMF, and RF examinations) before and after birth is also associated with enhancement of the risk of cancers (such as rhabdomyosarcoma, ALL, brain tumors, and neuroectoderm) in childhood and adolescence. However, due to the limitations of studies, such as inaccurate measurement of exposure to ELF-EMF (e.g., interviews based on participants' reminders) or inaccurate measure of the actual rate of exposure to EMF or case–control model of most studies, the effects of EMF on fetal and childhood abnormalities should be interpreted with caution. Considering the widespread exposure to non-ionizing radiation, a little enhancement of exposure to EMF could lead to unacceptable health consequences for future generations. Although the number of epidemiological studies examining the undesirable effects of EMF exposure in humans is limited, the findings of this study should prompt further research on this significant environmental danger for pregnant women.
​Open access paper: https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/med-2023-0697/html?lang=en

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Impacts of smartphone radiation on pregnancy: A systematic review
Imteyaz El Jarrah, Mohammad Rababa. Heliyon. Impacts of smartphone radiation on pregnancy: A systematic review. 2022 Feb;8(2):e08915. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e08915.

Abstract

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has impacted all aspects of people's lives, with many tasks and services now being delivered online in the aim of reducing contact and preventing further transmission of the disease. This has resulted in the increase in the use of portable electronic devices (i.e., mobile phones, smartphones, laptops), which emit different frequencies of electromagnetic field (EMF) radiation. However, the evidence on the harmful impacts of EMF radiation exposure on the human body, particularly on the abdomen of the female body during pregnancy, is scarce. Further, the related studies in the literature have yet to be systematically reviewed. If unmanaged, the absorption of EMF radiation by the maternal abdomen during pregnancy is associated with serious birth and infant outcomes.

Purpose: This study aimed to systematically review the published studies on the direct effects of EMF radiation emitted from mobile phones on pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes.

Methods: After a systematic search using the PRISMA guidelines, a total of 18 articles were retrieved from 5 databases. Studies which addressed the negative outcomes of EMF radiation exposure on mothers, adults, and children's health were included. The research articles were then sorted based on whether their findings were related to the impacts of EMF on physiological or pregnancy outcomes.

Results: The findings of this review showed that EMF radiation exposure is associated with hormonal, thermal, and cardiovascular changes among adults. However, the reviewed studies did not consider the impacts of EMF radiation exposure on pregnancy outcomes specifically, which makes it difficult to draw conclusions from this review. Only four of the reviewed studies were conducted among pregnant women. These studies reported that EMF radiation exposure during pregnancy is associated with miscarriages and fluctuations in the fetal temperature and heart rate variability, as well as infant anthropometric measures.

Conclusions: More research should be conducted to identify the specific impacts of EMF radiation exposure on pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes. Healthcare providers and researchers are recommended to collaborate to improve public health through public education and updated organizational policies to limit these environmental risks by encouraging the use of safe technologies.

Conclusion
The current review found EMF radiation exposure to be linked to hormonal, thermal, and cardiovascular changes in adults. EMF radiation exposure has also been linked with miscarriages and alternations in fetal temperature, HRV, and infant anthropometric measurements. A thorough review of each of the selected studies revealed that further research is needed to find conclusive evidence regarding the impacts of EMF radiation exposure on maternal physiological status and pregnancy, birth, and infant outcomes. This gap in the literature needs to be addressed for the development of effective strategies for safe pregnancy. Follow-up studies conducted among pregnant women who use mobile phones during pregnancy are highly recommended. Healthcare providers need to take into consideration the potential maternal and fetal health status changes that are associated with mobile phone use. Fetal temperature, HRV, and anthropometric measures need to be assessed on a regular basis. Health care providers may use this evidence to encourage pregnant women to use their mobile phones in ways which decrease the risks of harm to the woman and the fetus. Women may set limits on their use, keep mobile phones away from their bodies, or use device with very low-frequency EMF radiation.
Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8823972/
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Mobile Phone Use During Pregnancy: Which Association With Fetal Growth?

Nathalie Boileau, François Margueritte, Tristan Gauthier, Nedjma Boukeffa, Pierre-Marie Preux, Anaïs Labrunie, Yves Aubard. Mobile Phone Use During Pregnancy: Which Association With Fetal Growth? J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod. 2020 Jul 2;101852. doi: 10.1016/j.jogoh.2020.101852.
Abstract
Introduction: Few studies have investigated the effect of electromagnetic waves on the human fetus whereas nowadays mobile phone use is ubiquitous. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between mobile phone use by pregnant women and fetal development during pregnancy in the general population.
Material and methods: Data came from the NéHaVi cohort ("prospective follow-up, from intrauterine development to the age of 18 years, for children born in Haute-Vienne"), a prospective, longitudinal, multicenter (three maternity units in Haute-Vienne) observational cohort focusing on children born between April 2014 and April 2017. Main objective was to investigate the association of mobile phone use on fetal growth. Univariate and multivariate models were generated adjusted for the socioprofessional category variables of the mother, and other variables likely to influence fetal growth.
Results: For the analysis 1,378 medical charts were considered from which 1,368 mothers (99.3%) used their mobile phones during pregnancy. Mean phone time was 29.8 minutes (range: 0.0 - 240.0 minutes) per day. After adjustment, newborns whose mothers used their mobile phones for more than 30 minutes/day were significantly more likely to have an AUDIPOG score ≤ 10th percentile than those whose mothers used their mobile phones for less than 5 minutes/day during pregnancy (aOR = 1.54 [1.03; 2.31], p = 0.0374). For women using their cell phones 5 to 15 min and 15 to 30 min, there wasn't a significant association with an AUDIPOG score ≤ 10th, respectively aOR = 0.98 [0.58; 1.65] and aOR = 1.68 [0.99; 2.82].
Conclusion: Using a mobile phone for calls for more than 30 minutes per day during pregnancy may have a negative impact on fetal growth. A prospective study should be performed to further evaluate this potential link.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32623065/
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Maternal Cell Phone Use During Pregnancy Increased Preterm Births

Tsarna E, Reedijk M, Birks LE, Guxens M, Ballester F, Ha M, Jiménez-Zabala A, Kheifets L, Lertxundi A, Lim HR, Olsen J, Safont LG, Sudan M, Cardis E, Vrijheid M, Vrijkotte T, Huss A, Vermeulen R. Maternal Cell Phone Use During Pregnancy, Pregnancy Duration And Fetal Growth In Four Birth Cohorts. Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Jul 1;188(7):1270-1280. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwz092.

Abstract

Previous studies evaluating potential effects of prenatal exposure to radiofrequency fields from cell phones on birth outcomes are inconsistent. We explored if maternal cell phone use was associated with pregnancy duration and fetal growth.

We used information from 55,507 pregnant women and their children from Denmark (1996-2002; DNBC), the Netherlands (2003-2004; ABCD), Spain (2003-2008; INMA) and Korea (2006-2011; MOCEH). Based on self-reported number of cell phone calls per day, exposure was grouped as none, low (reference level), intermediate, and high. We examined pregnancy duration (gestational age at birth, preterm/postterm birth), fetal growth (birth weight ratio, small/large for gestational age), and birth weight, low and high birth weight, and meta-analyzed cohort specific estimates.
The intermediate exposure group had higher risk of giving birth at lower gestational age (Hazard Ratio=1.04, 95% CI 1.01, 1.07), and exposure-response relationships were found for shorter pregnancy duration (P<0.001) and preterm birth (P=0.003). We observed no association with fetal growth or birth weight. In conclusion, maternal cell phone use during pregnancy may be associated with shorter pregnancy duration and increased risk for preterm birth.
Results should be interpreted with caution, as they may reflect stress during pregnancy or other residual confounding, rather than direct effect of cell phone exposure.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30995291
Excerpts
Exposure to RF-EMF [radio frequency electromagnetic fields] during pregnancy could affect the growth and development of the fetus and the pregnancy duration either due to direct radiation of the fetus and the placenta, or indirectly as a result of altered maternal physiology ...
... During calling and texting abdominal exposure is low and modeling studies estimate that exposure levels of the human fetus are very low (9–12), although an experimental study on humans has shown that abdominal RF-EMF exposure may affect the placenta function (13). In addition, an association between RF-EMF exposure and thyroid dysfunction has been indicated in animal studies (14,15)....

... A cohort study from Turkey (N=500) retrospectively assessed cell phone use and reported shorter pregnancy duration and increased risk for preterm birth (16). In a cohort study from Iran (N=1,200), no association with birth weight was found (17). In a much larger sample from Norway (N=100,231), no association was found between cell phone use and low birth weight, preterm birth, or small for gestational age (SGA) (18)....

The mothers from DNBC and ABCD reported their frequency of cell phone calls during pregnancy 7 years postnatally. In INMA and MOCEH, similar questionnaires were given to the mothers during pregnancy. To be consistent with previous analyses within these cohorts (29), we classified exposure in four categories (none, low, intermediate, high), based on available information regarding daily frequency of cell phone calls during pregnancy (Table 2)....

Table 2 footnote: In DNBC, ABCD, and INMA cohorts, none exposure corresponds to no calls per day, low exposure to 0-1 calls per day, intermediate exposure to 2-3 calls per day, and high exposure to 4 or more calls per day. In MOCEH cohort, none exposure corresponds to no calls per day, low exposure to 0-2 calls per day, intermediate exposure to 3-5 calls per day, and high exposure to 6 or more calls per day.

... the OR [odds ratio] for preterm birth gained statistical significance in the highly exposed group within the cohorts with prospective exposure assessment (OR=2.03, 95% CI 1.22, 3.39) (Web Tables 8 and 10). In the analysis with binary exposure, we observed an increased risk of giving birth at lower gestational age (HR=1.04, 95% CI 1.02, 1.07), and increased odds for preterm birth (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.05, 1.29) for the mothers that used their cell phone more often during pregnancy (Web Tables 8 and 11). The estimates for all the other outcomes were not different from unity (Web Table 11)....

In our study, we observed an association of maternal cell phone use during pregnancy with pregnancy duration, but not with fetal growth. Since fetal exposure is very low during cell phone calls (9–12), for the interpretation of these results we considered the potential effect of RF-EMF on maternal head and neck structures, as well as indirect pathways related to the use of cell phones rather than the radiation per se. Animal studies have suggested that RF-EMF exposure may result in minor thyroid gland dysfunction (14,15). Additionally, higher preconception thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and subclinical hypothyroidism during pregnancy have been associated with higher risk for miscarriage and preterm birth (46–49). Thus, the increased risk for giving birth preterm among heavier users of cell phones that we observed could be mediated by mild thyroid dysfunction. However, the association of RF-EMF exposure from cell phone use with thyroid function is not established, and large-scale epidemiological studies on the topic are lacking. Increased oxidative stress has been also considered (50). However, it is not clear whether the elevation of radical oxygen species resulting from local RF-EMF exposure is of such an extent in humans that it could trigger systematic responses affecting the birth outcomes. Causal pathways involving local radiation of parts of the human body other than maternal head and neck structures were not considered, as this exposure would not be reflected in the number of cell phone calls per day....
The exposure variable was based only on the number of cell phone calls per day; duration of calling was not taken into account, as it was available only in MOCEH. Furthermore, the number of cell phone calls per day during pregnancy was self-reported in all cohorts, and was validated only in MOCEH (59). Thus, misclassification of exposure should have attenuated the observed association, under our assumption that misclassification was predominantly non-differential (60–62). We expect that misclassification was much larger in the older cohorts (DNBC and ABCD), as the number of cell phone calls per day was reported seven years postnatal. Therefore, the estimates in DNBC and ABCD cohorts should be more biased towards the null in comparison to INMA and MOCEH cohorts....
In conclusion, in our study more frequent maternal cell phone use during pregnancy was associated with shorter pregnancy duration, resulting in increased risk for preterm birth. No association with fetal growth and birth weight was observed. Study results make strong effects unlikely and should be interpreted with caution, as they may reflect an effect of stress during pregnancy or other residual confounding, rather than a direct effect of RF-EMF exposure.
My note: See Thyroid Cancer and Mobile Phone Use for studies that examine the effects of cell phone use on the thyroid gland.
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Prenatal maternal cell phone use linked to lower child cognition at 5 years of age: 3 birth cohorts
Sudan M, Birks LE, Aurrekoetxea JJ, Ferrero A, Gallastegi M, Guxens M, Ha M, Lim H, Olsen J, González-Safont L, Vrijheid M, Kheifets L. Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and child cognition at age 5 years in 3 birth cohorts. Environ Int. 2018 Nov;120:155-162. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.07.043. Highlights

• Prenatal maternal cell phone use may be related to child cognition.
• Cognition scores are slightly lower in relation to higher frequency use, although imprecise.
• The causal mechanisms are unknown at this time.
• The association is likely affected by social and behavioral factors.
Abstract

BACKGROUND: There have been few studies of children's cognitive development in relation to mothers' cell phone use, and most were limited to outcomes at age 3 years or younger. We examined the relationship between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and cognitive performance in 5-year old children.

METHODS: This study included data from 3 birth cohorts: the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) (n = 1209), Spanish Environment and Childhood Project (INMA) (n = 1383), and Korean Mothers and Children's Environment Health Study (MOCEH) (n = 497). All cohorts collected information about maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and cognitive performance in children at age 5. We performed linear regression to compute mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) in children's general, verbal, and non-verbal cognition scores comparing frequency of maternal prenatal cell phone use with adjustments for numerous potential confounding factors. Models were computed separately for each cohort and using pooled data in meta-analysis.

RESULTS: No associations were detected between frequency of prenatal cell phone use and children's cognition scores. Scores tended to be lower in the highest frequency of use category; MD (95% CI) in general cognition scores were 0.78 (-0.76, 2.33) for none, 0.11 (-0.81, 1.03) for medium, and -0.41 (-1.54, 0.73) for high compared to low frequency of use. This pattern was seen across all cognitive dimensions, but the results were imprecise overall.

CONCLUSION: We observed patterns of lower mean cognition scores among children in relation to high frequency maternal prenatal cell phone use. The causal nature and mechanism of this relationship remain unknown.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30096609

Excerpt In this investigation of maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and cognition in children, we observed a pattern of slightly lower mean cognition scores among children at age 5 years in relation to high frequency maternal prenatal cell phone use in pooled data from three different birth cohorts. Patterns were consistent across cognitive dimensions, but the results were imprecise. We cannot conclude that our results reflect an effect of RF from cell phones, nor do our results indicate that maternal cell phone use directly influences child cognition as we still lack a known mechanism for how cell phone exposure may impact cognitive function. Although the magnitude of the mean differences in cognition scores that we observed were slight, and 1- or 2-point differences in scores are unlikely to have a considerable impact on individuals, there may be considerable costs to society associated with a negative shift of population IQ, especially if it is due to a very common exposure (Trasande et al., 2005). Thus, with the ubiquity of cell phone use among parents and children alike, it is clearly important to continue investigations into the possible health and cognitive effects of this exposure, with more studies examining associations related to frequency and duration of cell phone use and additional specific exposure parameters.
--

Effect of radiofrequency radiation on reproductive health (Review)
Singh R, Nath R,Mathur AK,Sharma RS. Effect of radiofrequency radiation on reproductive health. Indian J Med Res. 2018 Dec; 148(Suppl 1): S92–S99. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1056_18.

Abstract

The development of cellular phone system has greatly increased the extent and magnitude of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure. The RFR emitted from mobile phone and mobile phone base stations exerts thermal and non-thermal effects. The short-term and long-term exposure to RFR may have adverse effect on humans as well as animals. Most laboratory studies have indicated a direct link between exposure to RFR and adverse biological effects. Several in vitro studies have reported that RFR induces various types of cancer and DNA or chromosomal damage. On the other hand, some animal studies have not reported adverse effects of this radiation. The present review summarizes information available on the possible effects of RFR on the reproductive health.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469375/

--
Neurodevelopment for first 3 years following prenatal mobile phone use and lead exposure
Choi K, Ha M, Ha H, Park H, Kim Y, Hong Y, et al. Neurodevelopment for the first three years following prenatal mobile phone use, radio frequency radiation and lead exposure. Environmental Research, 156:810-817, July 2017.

Highlights


• RFR exposure was measured by mobile phone use questionnaire and 24-h personal exposure meter among pregnant women.
• Child neurodevelopment was assessed by trained examiners at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age. • Associations were not observed between prenatal exposure to RFR and child neurodevelopment during the first three years. • A potential combined effect of prenatal exposure to lead and mobile phone use was suggested.
Abstract

Background Studies examining prenatal exposure to mobile phone use and its effect on child neurodevelopment show different results, according to child's developmental stages.

Objectives To examine neurodevelopment in children up to 36 months of age, following prenatal mobile phone use and radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure, in relation to prenatal lead exposure.

Methods We analyzed 1198 mother-child pairs from a prospective cohort study (the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health Study). Questionnaires were provided to pregnant women at ≤20 weeks of gestation to assess mobile phone call frequency and duration. A personal exposure meter (PEM) was used to measure RFR exposure for 24 h in 210 pregnant women. Maternal blood lead level (BLL) was measured during pregnancy. Child neurodevelopment was assessed using the Korean version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Revised at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age. Logistic regression analysis applied to groups classified by trajectory analysis showing neurodevelopmental patterns over time.

Results The psychomotor development index (PDI) and the mental development index (MDI) at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of age were not significantly associated with maternal mobile phone use during pregnancy. However, among children exposed to high maternal BLL in utero, there was a significantly increased risk of having a low PDI up to 36 months of age, in relation to an increasing average calling time (p-trend=0.008). There was also a risk of having decreasing MDI up to 36 months of age, in relation to an increasing average calling time or frequency during pregnancy (p-trend=0.05 and 0.007 for time and frequency, respectively). There was no significant association between child neurodevelopment and prenatal RFR exposure measured by PEM in all subjects or in groups stratified by maternal BLL during pregnancy.

Conclusions We found no association between prenatal exposure to RFR and child neurodevelopment during the first three years of life; however, a potential combined effect of prenatal exposure to lead and mobile phone use was suggested.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28511138

--

Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and child behavioral problems in five birth cohorts
Birks L, Guxens M, Papadopoulou E, Alexander, Ballester F, Estarlich M et al. Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and child behavioral problems in five birth cohorts. 2017 Jul;104:122-131. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.03.024.

"This is the largest study to date to evaluate these associations and to show mostly consistent results across cohorts with retrospectively and prospectively assessed maternal cell phone use."

Highlights


• Largest study to date to use prenatal cell phone use data collected prospectively.
• High prenatal cell phone use linked to hyperactivity/inattention problems in child.
• No prenatal cell phone use linked to low risk for any behavioral problems in child.
• Analysis adjusted for many confounders, but associations cannot be judged causal.
• Future research should adjust for parenting style, maternal hyperactivity, and more.

Abstract
Introduction Previous studies have reported associations between prenatal cell phone use and child behavioral problems, but findings have been inconsistent and based on retrospective assessment of cell phone use. This study aimed to assess this association in a multi-national analysis, using data from three cohorts with prospective data on prenatal cell phone use, together with previously published data from two cohorts with retrospectively collected cell phone use data.
Methods We used individual participant data from 83,884 mother-child pairs in the five cohorts from Denmark (1996–2002), Korea (2006–2011), the Netherlands (2003–2004), Norway (2004–2008), and Spain (2003–2008). We categorized cell phone use into none, low, medium, and high, based on frequency of calls during pregnancy reported by the mothers. Child behavioral problems (reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire or Child Behavior Checklist) were classified in the borderline/clinical and clinical ranges using validated cut-offs in children aged 5–7 years. Cohort specific risk estimates were meta-analyzed.

Results Overall, 38.8% of mothers, mostly from the Danish cohort, reported no cell phone use during pregnancy and these mothers were less likely to have a child with overall behavioral, hyperactivity/inattention or emotional problems. Evidence for a trend of increasing risk of child behavioral problems through the maternal cell phone use categories was observed for hyperactivity/inattention problems (OR for problems in the clinical range: 1.11, 95% CI 1.01, 1.22; 1.28, 95% CI 1.12, 1.48, among children of medium and high users, respectively). This association was fairly consistent across cohorts and between cohorts with retrospectively and prospectively collected cell phone use data.

Conclusions Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk for behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention problems, in the offspring. The interpretation of these results is unclear as uncontrolled confounding may influence both maternal cell phone use and child behavioral problems.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5506372/

-- A review on electromagnetic fields and the reproductive system
Asghari A, Khaki AA, Rajabzadeh A, Khaki A. A review on electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and the reproductive system. Electron Physician. 2016 Jul 25;8(7):2655-62. doi: 10.19082/2655.

Abstract

Environmental factors, such as electromagnetic waves, induce biological and genetic effects. One of the most important physiological systems involved with electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is the genital system. This paper reviews the effects of EMFs on human reproductive organs, female animals, fetus development and the importance of two types of natural antioxidants, i.e., vitamin E and fennel. The studies presented in this review referred to the effects of different exposures to EMFs on the reproductive system, and we tried to show the role of natural antioxidants in reducingthe effects of the exposures. Many studies have been done on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing electromagnetic waves on the cell line of spermatogenesis, sexual hormones, and the structure of the testes. Also, about the hormonal cycle, folliculogenesis and female infertility related to EMF have been given more consideration. In particular, attention is directed to pregnant women due to the importance of their fetuses. However, in addition to the studies conducted on animals, further epidemiological research should be conducted.

Conclusions

Many studies have shown that electromagnetic fields can have destructive effects on sex hormones, gonadal function, fetal development, and pregnancy. So people must be aware of the negative effects of EMFs. Although the impact of the waves varied at different frequencies, it is better to stay as far away as possible from their origin because of the risks associated with exposures to these waves. In addition, people can use natural antioxidants to help reduce the effects of these waves.

Open Access Paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5014506/

--

Recent studies that found adverse effects from prenatal exposure to wireless radiation (Updated: May 18, 2024)

Humans

behavioral problems: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28392066
behavioral problems: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21138897
behavioral problems (lead interaction): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23555766
cognitive development: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30096609
fetal growth: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32623065/fetal growth: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10921072/
headaches: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3674098/pdf/nihms470908.pdf
hearing loss: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23574412
miscarriage: https://bit.ly/1Iwye5z
neurodevelopment (interaction w/ lead exposure): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28511138
preterm birth: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23905441
preterm birth: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30995291
spontaneous abortion: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25937931
spontaneous abortion: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25877464

Rats

blood, brain & behavior: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28288806
bone & muscle tissue: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26959616
brain: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32476377
brain: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24604340
brain: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23906636
brain: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23935717
brain: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22676902

brain: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27544572 (DECT cordless phone)
brain: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32476377/
brain: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnagi.2020.00162/fullbrain: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36374647/
brain & behavior: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31927574
brain & liver: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24580725
cochlea: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24784924
heart: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36383165/
kidney: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25084839
kidney: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26905323
liver: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26084117
liver: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27427155
liver: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31801129
liver: https://actavet.vfu.cz/90/3/0315/
low birth weight: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30243215 (NTP study)
neurodevelopment: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28458069
neurodevelopment: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29397508
neurodevelopment: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35112244/
ovarian reserve: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31820670
testes: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24095929
testes: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34854072/

Mice

behavior: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25359903
brain: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27787231
brain & behavior: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22428084 (Yale study)
cerebellum, hippocampus, heart, kidney & liver: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28434276

Chicks

brain & behavior: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4902983/
cardiovascular: https://www.isisn.org/BR17(1)2020/383-398-17(1)2020BR20-34.pdf
kidneys: https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2022/58391.16862

Rabbits


blood: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23526187
metabolic activity: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35904122/

Frogs

behavior: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27017260

Zebrafish

sensorimotor function: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0235869

--

Feb 9, 2016

French cell phone manufacturer warns pregnant women and teens about cell phone radiation
The French phone manufacturer WIKO states in their manual for the Pulp 4G smartphone (pp. 21-22):


"The maximum SAR value tested on this device when used in its normal position at the ear is 0.114 W/kg and 0.387 W/kg when used close to the body, at a minimum distance of 1.5 cm. It complies with the rules on exposure to radio frequencies when used in its normal position at the ear or at a minimum distance of 1.5 cm from the body. The device uses a high-quality network connection for transmitting files, data and messages. On occasion, the transmission of files or messages may be delayed until the connection is available. When this is the case, be sure to follow the instructions regarding the separation distance for establishing the transmission. If you use a case, belt-clip or holder for carrying the phone, it must not contain any metal and should be kept at a minimum distance of 1.5 cm from your body.

*The SAR limit for mobile devices is 2.0 watts / kilogram (W/kg) averaged over ten grams of body tissue. SAR values may vary according to the standards for reporting information that are in force in different countries. [My note: This standard is used in France and many other countries. In the U.S. the limit is 1.6 watts / kilogram averaged over one gram of body tissue.]

Tips for Reducing Exposure Levels

We recommend that you use your phone in good reception conditions in order to reduce the amount of radiation received. It is advisable to limit the amount of time you use the phone in underground car parks and when travelling by car or train, etc.

Reception conditions are indicated by the bars that are displayed on your phone: the more bars there are, the better the reception quality.

We recommend that you use the hands-free kit to reduce exposure to radiation.

To reduce the adverse effects of prolonged radiation exposure, we advise teenagers to hold the phone away from their lower abdomen, and that pregnant women hold the phone at a distance from their stomach."https://data.wikomobile.com/documents/fichiers/f404d5a6f9dbd799184f05010cac9cd2.pdf#page=21

--

July 1, 2015

Doctors Caution Pregnant Women About Wireless Radiation Health Risks
Over one hundred medical doctors and scientific experts from around the world agree: the risks of exposure to RF radiation from wireless devices for pregnant women and their unborn children are real, and women have a Right To Know.

NEW YORK, July 1, 2015 /PRNewswire/ -- More than one hundred medical doctors, scientists and public health experts from around the world have signed a Joint Statement advising pregnant women to take simple precautions to protect themselves and their babies from wireless radiation. The Statement is part of a national right-to-know campaign called the BabySafe Project created by two non-profit organizations to inform pregnant women about the issue.

"The wireless world may be convenient, but it's not without risks," says Patricia Wood, Executive Director of Grassroots Environmental Education and co-creator of the BabySafe Project. "When more than one hundred of the world's leading medical doctors and researchers on wireless radiation say we have enough evidence for women to take protective action, we think women should know about it."

The project is based on recent scientific studies suggesting that radiation from wireless devices is capable of interfering with the tiny electrical impulses that help synapses connect in a developing brain. Researchers at Yale University have been able to demonstrate that the brains of laboratory mice exposed to pulsed radio frequency radiation in utero were wired differently from those of the mice who were not exposed, resulting in behavioral differences that include poorer memory and symptoms that resemble ADHD in children.

The Yale study builds on more than twenty years of research and hundreds of independent, peer-reviewed studies showing that exposure to radiation from wireless devices can have non-thermal, biological effects on humans, including DNA strand breaks and other impacts not previously known.

The authors of many of those studies are among those calling for precautions.

"The fetus is perhaps the most vulnerable to these types of insults, when the brain is just forming, when all of the organ systems are just beginning to develop," says Dr. Hugh Taylor, Chief of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale-New Haven Hospital, Professor of Women's Health at Yale University, and lead author of the study. "There's essentially no downside to being cautious and protecting your baby. Why not do it?"

SOURCE Grassroots Environmental Education

https://bit.ly/1GMY4Nk

--

June 3, 2014

The following joint statement on pregnancy and wireless radiation is part of the Baby Safe Project, a new public awareness initiative designed to inform women about the links between pregnancy and wireless radiation. The statement was signed by 44 physicians and scientists from 13 nations, and by 13 educators who have studied wireless radiation health effects.

The project is a joint initiative of two environmental health non-profit organizations: Grassroots Environmental Education and Environmental Health Trust.

A video of the press conference that launched the Baby Safe Project and supplementary resources are available at https://bit.ly/1kqJUur/.


Dr. Hugh Taylor from the Yale University School of Medicine, Dr. Devra Davis from the Environmental Health Trust, and Dr. Maya Shetreat-Klein, a pediatric neurologist who treats autistic children, made presentations at the press conference and answered questions from journalists.

Dr. Taylor discussed his peer-reviewed, experimental research on pregnant mice that were exposed to cell phone radiation. In his study prenatal exposure to cell phone radiation resulted in decreased memory and increased hyperactivity in the offspring. A dose-response relationship was observed between the amount of fetal exposure to cell phone radiation and altered brain activity in the offspring. Dr. Taylor recommends that pregnant women limit their exposure to cell phone radiation.

Dr. Davis discussed the history of tobacco and asbestos in the U.S. to argue for a precautionary approach to reducing risks from "possibly carcinogenic" environmental exposures like wireless radiation (as determined by the World Health Organization). She summarized peer-reviewed, experimental research on prenatal exposure to microwave radiation conducted by Dr. Nesrin Seyhan which found DNA damage in mice and by Dr. Suleyman Kaplan which found damage to brain cells in the hippocampus as well as adverse behavioral effects in the offspring. Dr. Davis provided recommendations on how to reduce exposure to cell phone and Wi-Fi radiation.

Dr. Shetreat-Klein discussed peer-reviewed observational research that found prenatal exposure to wireless radiation associated with adverse behavioral changes in children. She advises pregnant women to keep cell phones away from their bodies.

In response to audience questions, Dr. Davis discussed the need for research funding. She mentioned that the Environmental Health Trust and Dr. Joel Moskowitz at Berkeley are calling for an annual, one dollar fee per cell phone to be devoted to training and research on wireless radiation and health. Dr. Taylor reported that his patients appreciate receiving precautionary information regarding the need to reduce exposure to wireless radiation during pregnancy. Dr. Davis discussed recommendations from the U.S. General Accountability Office and the American Academy of Pediatrics that call on the FCC to test cell phones in a realistic manner. Finally, Dr. Davis discussed the potential product liability faced by the cell phone industry due to adverse health impacts, an issue which she addressed in her book on cell phone radiation, Disconnect.

Joint Statement on Pregnancy and Wireless Radiation
We join together as physicians, scientists and educators to express our concern about the risk that wireless radiation poses to pregnancy and to urge pregnant women to limit their exposures.

We recognize that the exquisitely delicate systems that direct the development of human life are vulnerable to environmental insults, and that even minute exposures during critical windows of development may have serious and life-long consequences.

We know that the scientific process demands a thorough and exhaustive examination of the possible impact of wireless radiation on health; however, we believe substantial evidence of risk, rather than absolute proof of harm, must be the trigger for action to protect public health.

We call on the research community to conduct more studies to identify the mechanisms by which a fetus could be affected by wireless radiation exposures. We call on our elected leaders to support such research and to advance policies and regulations that limit exposures for pregnant women. We call on industry to implement and explore technologies and designs that will reduce radiation exposures until such research is carried out.

We affirm our role as health and science professionals to inform the public about the potential dangers associated with early-life exposures to wireless radiation, and invite all professionals engaged in obstetric, pediatric, and environmental health advocacy to join us in our quest to ensure the safety and health of future generations.

Signatories
(Affiliations listed for identification purposes only)

Mikko Ahonen, PhD,
University of Tampere, Finland

Jennifer Armstrong, MD, Ottawa Environmental Health
Martin Blank, PhD, Associate Professor of Physiology and Cellular Biophysics, Columbia University
David Brown, PhD, Public Health Toxicologist, Environment and Human Health, Inc.
Lois Brustman, MD, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Specialist, St. Luke's - Roosevelt Hospital Center
Sheila Bushkin-Bedient, MD, Concerned Health Professionals of New York
David Carpenter, MD, School of Public Health, University at Albany
Richard Clapp, DSc, MPH, Professor Emeritus of Environmental Health, Boston University
Devra Davis, PhD, MPH, Visiting Scholar, University of California at Berkeley Alvaro Augusto de Salles, PhD, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Larysa Dyrszka, MD, Pediatrician, New York
Dr. Elizabeth Evans, MA, (Cantab) MBBS (London), DRCOG, UK Beatrice Golomb, MD, PhD, Professor of Medicine, UC San Diego School of Medicine
Oleg Gregoriev, DrSc, PhD, Chairman, Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation
Magda Havas, PhD, Associate Professor of Environmental & Resource Studies, Trent University, Ontario, Canada
Gunnar Heuser, MD, University of California at Los Angeles (retired)
Olle Johansson, PhD, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Sweden
Cynthia Johnson-McKay, MD, Columbia University
Süleyman Kaplan, PhD, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey Henry Lai, PhD, Bioelectromagnetics Research Laboratory, University of Washington Michael Lerner, PhD, President, Commonweal
Luana Licata, PhD, University of Rome Tor Vergata
Don Maisch, PhD, www.emfacts.com, Australia
Asish Mehta, MD, MCh, DNB, Neurological Surgeon Mumbai, India
Anthony Miller, MD, School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Canada Joel Moskowitz, PhD, School of Public Health, University of California at Berkeley
Hildor Palsdottir, PhD, School of Medicine, New York University
Janet Perlman, MD, MPH, University of California at Berkeley
Rachel Naomi Remen, MD, School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco
Lisa Ridgway, MD, Pediatrician
Aviva Romm, MD, Family Physician, Boston
Annie Sasco, MD, DrPH, University of Bordeaux, France Stephen Sinatra, MD, FACC, CNS, CBT
Maya Shetreat-Klein, MD, Pediatric Neurologist, Bronx, New York
Colin L. Soskolne, PhD, University of Canberra, Australia
Ken Spaeth, MD, MPH, Hofstra University, North Shore--LIJ Health System
Yael Stein, MD, Hebrew University – Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel
Anne Steinemann, PhD, University of California at San Diego
Hugh Taylor, MD, Chief of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yale-New Haven Hospital
Leonardo Trasande, MD, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Langone Medical Center, New York University Lucy Waletzky, MD, Psychiatrist, Sleepy Hollow, New York
John Wargo, PhD, Professor of Risk Analysis, Environmental Policy, and Political Science, Yale University
John West, MD, Surgeon, RadNet
Jingduan Yang, MD, Myrna Brind Center of Integrative Medicine at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia
Wafaa Aborashed,
Bay Area Healthy 880 Communities
Nancy Alderman, Environment and Human Health, Inc. Mary Beth Brangan & James Heddle, Ecological Options Network (EON) Giorgio Cinciripini, Italian Network of No-Electrosmog NGOs Frank Clegg, Canadians For Safe Technology Desiree Jaworski, Center for Safer Wireless B. Blake Levitt, former New York Times contributor, medical/science journalist, author Ellen Marks, California Brain Tumor Association L. Lloyd Morgan, Environmental Health Trust Janet Newton, EMRadiation Institute
Camilla Rees, MBA, ElectromagneticHealth.org
Cindy Sage, MA, Sage Associates; Co-Editor, BioInitiative 2012 Report
--
For more information about wireless radiation reproductive health effects and effects on children
The Baby Safe Project. "What You Need to Know about Wireless Radiation and Your Baby"
https://bit.ly/babysafetips

The Baby Safe Project
https://bit.ly/1rDKjiq

Environmental Health Trust
https://bit.ly/1kjkaRP


Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
https://www.saferemr.com/2015/09/effect-of-mobile-phones-on-sperm.html


Physicians for Safe Technology
https://mdsafetech.org/baby-safe/

Related news releases from Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Cell Phone Use and Prenatal Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation May Cause Headaches in Children
https://www.prlog.org/12269207

Children's Cell Phone Use May Increase Their Risk of ADHD
https://www.prlog.org/12110138


MOBI-KIDS: Childhood Brain Tumor Risk & Mobile Phone Use Study
https://www.saferemr.com/2013/05/mobi-kids-childhood-brain-tumor-risk.html
Media: Children's Cell Phone Use
https://www.saferemr.com/2013/01/media-coverage-childrens-cell-phone.html

Cell Phone Radiation, Pregnancy, and Sperm
https://www.prlog.org/12026867


Cell Phone Radiation Damages Sperm
https://www.prlog.org/11911996

Magnetic Field Exposure Before Birth May Contribute to Childhood Obesity
https://www.prlog.org/1193609

Belgium Adopts New Regulations to Promote Cell Phone Radiation Safety https://www.prlog.org/12231532
French Health Agency Recommends Children and Vulnerable Groups Reduce Cell Phone Radiation Exposure
https://www.prlog.org/12226630

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
16.5.2024 20:59

Webinar: Health Hazards of Wireless Technologies: What do we know now?


CHE: Collaborative for Health & Environment

September 25, 2024
2:00 pm US Eastern Time

RSVP for This Webinar

Slides & Resources

Related webinars

Moskowitz, J. 2021. Health Effects of Cellphone & Cell Tower Radiation: Implications for 5G.

Moskowitz, J. 2023. Radiofrequency Radiation and Your Health: Is 5G Harmful?

Wireless technologies, including cell phones, wireless internet, and Bluetooth devices, have become ubiquitous in our lives. Most adults in the US own a cell phone, and cell phone use is widespread among children and adolescents. New cell antenna sites are being deployed widely. Wireless technologies and equipment designs also change rapidly.

The preponderance of scientific evidence shows adverse biological and health effects from the radiofrequency (RF) radiation, or electromagnetic fields (EMFs), used and generated by these devices. A number of studies have considered the mechanisms of biological harm from RF radiation, and federal studies have documented increased incidence of certain tumors in laboratory animals associated with RF exposure. Epidemiological studies have found increased risk of certain tumors associated with long-term use of wireless phones.

In this webinar, Dr. Joel Moskowitz will provide a brief overview of selected recent studies on health hazards of wireless technologies. He will briefly discuss a meta-analysis of case-control studies of cell phone use and tumor risk, as well as the state of the evidence on children's brain cancers, thyroid cancers, and other health hazards. This webinar is designed to provide a brief introduction to a subset of the recent scientific evidence, with a focus on cancer and on children's health.

Featured Speaker

Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D. is the Director of the Center for Family and Community Health, School of Public Health, UC Berkeley. Dr. Moskowitz has conducted research on disease prevention programs and policies for more than 40 years, most recently focusing on adverse health effects of cell phone and wireless radiation. In 2009 he served as the senior author on a hallmark paper reviewing research on mobile phone use and increased brain tumor risk published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology. He has disseminated research related to wireless technology, public health, and policy since 2009. He is a member of the International Commission on the Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (ICBE-EMF) and an advisor to the International EMF Scientist Appeal signed by more than 250 scientists who published peer-reviewed research on EMF and biology or health. His Electromagnetic Radiation Safety website is a valuable resource for scientists, journalists, and the public

​https://www.healthandenvironment.org/che-webinars/96771
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
8.5.2024 00:20

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields


I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on radio frequency and other non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) monthly since 2016. The complete collection contains more than 2000 abstracts with links to these papers. Several hundred EMF scientists around the world receive these updates.
To download Volume 3 which contains abstracts of papers published in 2024 (including the new papers listed below) click on the following link (92 page pdf):https://bit.ly/EMFstudies-May2024
To download Volume 2 which contains abstracts of papers published from 2021 through 2023 click on the following link (867 page pdf):https://bit.ly/EMFStudies-2021-2023
To download Volume 1 which contains abstracts of papers published from 2016 through 2020 click on the following link (875 page pdf):https://bit.ly/EMFStudies-2016-2020
The abstracts for recently published papers appear below.

Invited Perspective: Why Systematic Reviews, Scoping Reviews, and Evidence-to-Decision Frameworks Are Critical for Transparent, Consistent, Equitable, and Science-Based Decision-Making in Environmental Health
(My note: Systematic reviews require a multitude of macro- and micro-decisions. When conducted by biased investigative teams, systematic reviews generate erroneous conclusions and policy implications. This applies to toxic EMF as well as chemical exposures.)

Chartres N, Joglekar R. Invited Perspective: Why Systematic Reviews, Scoping Reviews, and Evidence-to-Decision Frameworks Are Critical for Transparent, Consistent, Equitable, and Science-Based Decision-Making in Environmental Health. Environ Health Perspect. 2024 Mar;132(3):31304. doi: 10.1289/EHP14346.
No abstract
"... systematic review is simultaneously being corrupted as agencies, including the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as part of implementing the amended the Toxic Substances Control Act, are appropriating the term in regulatory decision-making without meeting many of the standards of an empirically based systematic review. 4,9–12 This could result in rulemakings that underestimate the true risk of harm posed by toxic chemical exposures, which could have devastating implications for vulnerable populations, including low-wealth communities of color. 11"

Open access paper: https://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/doi/10.1289/EHP14346
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Mobile telephony radiation exerts genotoxic action and significantly enhances the effects of gamma radiation in human cells
Panagopoulos DJ. Mobile telephony radiation exerts genotoxic action and significantly enhances the effects of gamma radiation in human cells. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2024 Mar;43(2):103-120. doi: 10.4149/gpb_2023036.
Abstract
I previously reported chromosomal damage in human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs) induced by: a) Mobile telephony (MT) electromagnetic fields (EMFs)/electromagnetic radiation (EMR), b) a high caffeine dose, and c) the combination of the two stressors. HPBLs from the same subjects exposed to gamma radiation at doses 0.1, 0.3, or 0.5 Gy, displayed more aberrations than those exposed to MT EMFs or the high caffeine dose in a dose- dependent manner. When the cells exposed to these gamma radiation doses were pre-exposed to a single 15-min MT EMF exposure, the number of aberrations increased significantly more than the sum number of aberrations induced by the individual stressors in all subjects. Thus, MT EMF exposure at a power density ~ 136 times below the latest International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection-ICNIRP exposure limit, apart from the fact that it is genotoxic by itself, significantly enhanced the genotoxic action of gamma radiation. Since gamma radiation at similar doses is applied for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, people should be aware of the increased risk during treatment periods. Comparison of the genotoxic action between MT EMF and gamma radiation shows that the ICNIRP limits are, at least, ⁓4.5×104 times less stringent than the limits for gamma radiation.
Excerpts
The studies that found real-life UMTS (3G/4G) exposure to be even more genotoxic than real-life GSM (2G) (D'Silva et al. 2017, 2021) are in line with the fact that newer types of MT/WC EMFs (3G, 4G, 5G) transmit increasingly higher amount/density of variable information (speech, text, images, video, Internet) making the signal increasingly complicated, unpredictably varying each moment, and thus, increasingly more bioactive due to the inability of the living organisms to adapt to a highly variable stressor. Thus, the effects of the under deployment 5G MT EMF are expected to be even more intense than those of 2G, 3G, 4G. This should have been seriously considered by the responsible public health authorities....

The disruption of cell electrochemical balance by manmade (polarized and coherent) EMFs through irregular gating of voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) in cell membranes is described by the "ion forced-oscillation and VGIC dysfunction" mechanism (IFO-VGIC mechanism) (Panagopoulos et al. 2000, 2002, 2015b, 2021; Panagopoulos 2022b). According to this mechanism, the mobile ions in the cells are forced to oscillate in parallel and in phase with the applied man-made oscillating EMFs and this coordinated oscillation of electric charge exerts constructive Coulomb forces on the channel sensors of the VGICs similar to those exerted by membrane voltage changes that physiologically gate the VGICs. This causes irregular gating, and thus, dysfunction of the VGICs, which leads to intracellular release of ROS that finally cause genetic/cellular damage (Panagopoulos et al. 2021, 2022b)....
What has been referred to by Pall (2018) as voltage-gated calcium channel activation mechanism ("VGCC activation mechanism") is no other than the IFO-VGIC mechanism specifically on the calcium voltage-gated ion channels, and should not be reported as a different mechanism. Pall claimed he suggested a different mechanism simply because he hypothesized that the VGICs are gated by "direct" forces on their voltage-sensors by "penetrating" RF EMFs instead of ELF forces exerted by the oscillating ions in close proximity to the sensors. The impossibility of Pall's claims is analyzed in commentary papers (Foster and Balzano 2021; Panagopoulos 2021; Arribas et al. 2022).
Conclusions:

(1) MT EMF exposure, apart from the fact that it is genotoxic by itself, significantly enhanced the genotoxic action of gamma radiation in combined exposure; (2) People/patients who are subjected to diagnostic or therapeutic treatment with ionizing radiation should be prudently advised to avoid using Wireless Communication (WC) devices (mobile/smart phones, wi-fi, cordless domestic phones, etc.) for a few days before, during, and after such treatments; (3) Medical/radiology practitioners should be specifically educated on the risks of anthropogenic EMF-exposures in addition to those of ionizing radiations; (4) Comparison with caffeine and gamma radiation suggests that the ICNIRP (2020) limits for WC EMF exposure should be lowered by 40,000 and 45,000 times respectively;(5) The limit for short-term (acute) exposure should then become 0.1 μW/cm2 and accordingly for long- term exposure 0.001 μW/cm2; (6) The combined effects of real-life man-made EMFs with a variety of other environmental stressors should be examined as a priority by next studies.
Open access paper: https://www.elis.sk/download_file.php?product_id=8263&session_id=ef2ijbhbn0hevd1s33q2nvkrp6
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Effect of exposure to RF-EMF from lab simulator of 5G NR base station on physiological parameters & cognitive abilities of male rats of different ages
(My note: Methodological limitations of this study reduce generalizability to real-world 5G exposures.)

Krivova NA, Kudabaeva MS, Zaeva OB et al. The effect of exposure to RF-EMF from the laboratory simulator of 5G NR base station on physiological parameters and cognitive abilities of male wistar rats of different ages. Sci Rep 14, 10283 (2024). doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-60862-5.

Abstract

In this article, the impact of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure from a simulated base station for the 5G New Radio (5G NR) telecommunication on rats was studied. The base station affects all age groups of the population, thus, for the first time, the experiment was conducted on male Wistar rats of three different ages (juvenile, adult, and presenile). The base station exposure parameters were chosen according to ICNIRP recommendations for limiting the exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field: frequency 2.4 GHz with an average specific absorption rate of 0.0076 W/kg and 0.0059 W/kg over the whole body of experimental animals. Throughout the experiment, body weight was examined weekly, and the dynamics of body weight gain was monitored. Rectal and skin surface temperature on the right hind limb was monitored weekly. Testing in the Morris water maze was performed during the last, Week 5, of RF-EMF exposure. After euthanasia, organ weights were determined in experimental and control animals. None of the investigated parameters did show any statistically significant differences between exposed and control animals of the same age. The data obtained can be used to assess the possible consequences of chronic exposure to RF-EMF from 5G NR base stations.

Open access paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-024-60862-5

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Human exposure to EMF from 5G base stations: analysis, evaluation and comparison of different assessment methods

Expósito I, Hakizimali C, Sánchez MG, Cuiñas I, Verhaevert J. Human exposure to EMF from 5G base stations: analysis, evaluation and comparison of different assessment methods. Measurement, Volume 229, 2024. doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2024.114434.

Highlights

This paper analyzes the feasibility of assessing the 5G base stations compliance using broadband field probes and compares their performance with alternative methodologies and equipment.

Performance of three different methodologies and equipment (broadband probes, spectrum analyzers, and drive test scanners), in the context of human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) from 5G base stations, is compared.

Quantification of the uncertainty that the fluctuation in 5G signal levels induces in the assessment of electromagnetic fields exposure is provided.

The use of broadband field probes for 5G exposure assessment is still possible under certain considerations and correcting the results considering the base station load and beamforming effects.

Abstract
5G networks deployment poses new challenges when evaluating human exposure to electromagnetic fields. Fast variation of the user load and beamforming techniques may cause large fluctuations of 5G base stations field level. They may be underestimated, resulting in compliance of base stations not fitting the requirements. Apparently, broadband field meters would not be adequate for measuring such environments. However, we analyze the feasibility of confidently using broadband field meters and compare their performance with alternative equipment. Measurements based on the synchronization signals power level, using spectrum analyzers or drive test scanners, may be valid, if gain differences between the signaling and data radiation patterns are characterized. These methods lead to good results but require more time and knowledge. Nevertheless, using broadband field meters is still possible if the measurement results are corrected considering the base station load. Under specific conditions, explained here, fast assessment of 5G compliance could be provided.
Conclusions

Assessing human exposure to an electromagnetic field in presence of a 5G base station is not an easy task. The implementation of M−MIMO techniques in 5G base stations results in adaptive beamforming. This makes difficult to guarantee that the field levels are at their maximum at the measurement location during the complete measurement period, which would limit the applicability of broadband instruments as having been done for previous generations. In this research, we have compared different methods for 5G exposure assessment, using a broadband field meter with an isotropic probe, a spectrum analyzer and a drive test scanner.

Along the paper, we first give an overview of the 5G signal structure, describing the frequency domain and time domain specifications. Afterwards, possible assessment methods are described. The SSB level is measured using the Keysight FieldFox N9913A SA and the Rohde & Schwarz TSM6 DTS. The values are extrapolated to the worst-case exposure and compared to the measurements done with the Wavecontrol WPF8 broadband field probe. Measurements are repeated increasing the base station load by performing a heavy download from a 5G user terminal located near the testers.

The proposed methods were field tested at the University of Vigo, Spain, with a commercial 5G base station located on its campus. The measurements were performed at 7 locations in LOS conditions around the base station, gathering data with the three different equipment at the same locations and at the same time. This data collection allows the comparison of the three methodologies under the same radiating conditions.

All results have been analyzed considering the specific measurement uncertainties, which allows a deeper and more precise comparison among them.

From the measurement results, we can extract that the exposure levels are low at this stage of the 5G deployment. When loading the base station, the results showed that using the broadband field meter can overestimate the field level. Thus, it is still a useful method to check if the field levels comply with the regulation in human exposure; very simple and cost-effective compared with others. In-situ measurements of human exposure to EMF have to be practical and easy to carry, involving only the resources and equipment strictly necessary, but without compromising the validity of the results. When the reference levels are surpassed, more accurate methods based in the assessment and extrapolation of the SSB level could be a solution. The drawback is the required post processing, specially correcting the gain difference between SSB and data signals. If not provided by the network operator, this difference can be determined through measurements, as explained along this document. Measuring with an SA in max-hold mode in the bandwidth of the SSB does not work in 5G as it does in LTE, as we cannot be sure if the measured level corresponds to the SSB or to the user data, no matter if we are forcing the load of the station or not.

The analysis of the results demonstrate that broadband instruments can be used for assessing human exposure to EMF in the vicinity of 5G base stations, which radiating elements provide fields with extreme fluctuations in their intensity as a function of the system load and beamforming configuration. This is accurate when measurements are done by forcing an extra load of the station and the pointing of an antenna beam towards the probe. The validation of this fast method as a first attempt to assess the compliance of 5G stations permits the testing of these base stations in an efficient way. Only when broadband instrument results (including their uncertainties) would overpass the reference levels, a more detailed analysis would be necessary, which procedure and tips are also depicted along this paper.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0263224124003191
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Absorption of 5G sub-6 GHz electromagnetic radiation from base station to male reproduction system
Lin J, Li J, Ding G. Absorption of 5G sub-6 GHz electromagnetic radiation from base station to male reproduction system. Int J Radiat Biol. 2024 May 6:1-8. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2024.2347354.
Abstract

Background: The impact of electromagnetic radiation from communication on the male reproductive system has emerged as a significant concern in public health. A notable distinction of the 5G sub-6 GHz band, compared to traditional 2G, 3G, and 4G frequency bands, is the inclusion of higher frequency bands. This has raised public concerns regarding the potential effects of these higher frequencies on organisms, particularly their reproductive systems. While it is imperative to investigate the biological effects and potential risks associated with these new frequency bands in laboratory settings, comparing and evaluating differences between various frequency bands remain challenging due to the absence of standardized parameters such as exposure conditions and duration. In contrast, dose assessment offers a simpler and more reliable approach.

Materials and methods: The dose assessment method was employed in this study to investigate the risks associated with sub-6 GHz electromagnetic radiation from 5G base stations on the male reproductive system. A classical human body model (Duke) was utilized, and an electromagnetic simulation environment was established based on the actual polarization direction of the exposed base stations and various body postures. This research explored the effects of field direction, posture, public population, and frequency on the specific absorption rate of the reproductive system.

Results and conclusions: While maintaining the same level of exposure, a higher frequency results in a reduced dosage on reproductive system. Further analysis reveals that, considering the public exposure threshold, the employment of higher frequency bands in 5G sub-6 GHz does not present a greater dosage on reproductive system compared to lower frequency bands. Consequently, with regard to dosage, there is no need for excessive concern among the general public regarding the impact of electromagnetic radiation emitted by 5G base stations operating below 6 GHz on male reproductive health.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38709715/

Excerpt

The normalized evaluation revealed a strong negative correlation between the RSSAR results and frequency (figures 6 and 8), indicating the reproductive system's response to varying frequencies of electromagnetic waves. It also indicates that high-frequency skin effects are particularly prominent in the reproductive system. In the exposure limit assessment, there was an evident inflection point at 2.2 GHz where the trend of RSSAR values with frequency changes reached its maximum peak (figure 10). Therefore, when considering the exposure threshold, the higher frequency bands in 5G did not show higher dose values on RSSAR, but on the contrary, higher dose values were obtained in the 4G bands (such as 2.2 GHz in this study). These findings suggest that the potential risk of higher frequency electromagnetic waves in 5G sub-6 GHz is lower, as indicated by both normalized and exposure limit assessments.

Restriction and future focus

This research also has certain limitations. The exposure environment has not been considered in the context of the actual 5G exposure environment. With the introduction of 5G base stations, the grid of base stations may become denser and the energy of a single beam of electromagnetic radiation may be higher (Sofri et al. Citation2022). Although reference (Celaya-Echarri et al. Citation2020) simulated and compared the exposure values caused by base stations in the 2G–5G frequency band, the electric field conditions in real communities should also be measured and compared in detail. In future work, exposure measurements and dose assessing could be combined with epidemiological investigations to further explore the effects of new frequency bands on reproductive and other systems.

Conclusions

The absorbed dose level of electromagnetic radiation emitted by communication base stations on the male reproductive system was analyzed, with a specific focus on the primary frequency points within the sub-6 GHz frequency band. The study revealed that higher frequencies resulted in reduced dose values while maintaining equivalent exposure levels. Further analysis demonstrated that, considering the exposure threshold, the utilization of higher frequencies in 5G sub-6 GHz did not present a greater risk compared to lower frequencies. Therefore, from a dosage assessment perspective, concerns regarding the impact of sub-6 GHz electromagnetic radiation emitted by 5G base stations on male reproductive health are unwarranted.

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Central Causation of Autism/ASDs via Excessive [Ca2+]i Impacting Six Mechanisms Controlling Synaptogenesis during the Perinatal Period: The Role of Electromagnetic Fields and Chemicals and the NO/ONOO(-) Cycle, as Well as Specific Mutations

Pall ML. Central Causation of Autism/ASDs via Excessive [Ca2+]i Impacting Six Mechanisms Controlling Synaptogenesis during the Perinatal Period: The Role of Electromagnetic Fields and Chemicals and the NO/ONOO(-) Cycle, as Well as Specific Mutations. Brain Sciences. 2024; 14(5):454. doi: 10.3390/brainsci14050454. (Published: 30 April 2024)

Abstract

The roles of perinatal development, intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i, and synaptogenesis disruption are not novel in the autism/ASD literature. The focus on six mechanisms controlling synaptogenesis, each regulated by [Ca2+]i, and each aberrant in ASDs is novel. The model presented here predicts that autism epidemic causation involves central roles of both electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and chemicals. EMFs act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation and [Ca2+]i elevation. A total of 15 autism-implicated chemical classes each act to produce [Ca2+]i elevation, 12 acting via NMDA receptor activation, and three acting via other mechanisms. The chronic nature of ASDs is explained via NO/ONOO(-) vicious cycle elevation and MeCP2 epigenetic dysfunction. Genetic causation often also involves [Ca2+]i elevation or other impacts on synaptogenesis. The literature examining each of these steps is systematically examined and found to be consistent with predictions. Approaches that may be used for ASD prevention or treatment are discussed in connection with this special issue: The current situation and prospects for children with ASDs. Such approaches include EMF, chemical avoidance, and using nutrients and other agents to raise the levels of Nrf2. An enriched environment, vitamin D, magnesium, and omega-3s in fish oil may also be helpful.

Excerpts

Figure 1 is an outline of the mechanisms proposed here and, in some cases, elsewhere, to act during the perinatal period of brain development [5], to disrupt synaptogenesis and therefore cause autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Accordingly, key factors in autism/ASD causation are proposed to be the six mechanisms in the lower left part of Figure 1 (in red), each of which have been shown to have important roles in synaptogenesis in the developing brain. These six mechanisms are neuronal migration, dendritic outgrowth, synapse formation, synapse maturation, synaptic pruning, and lowered MeCP2 function. It is shown below that these six mechanisms are regulated by intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i).

VGCC activity acts via [Ca2+]i to produce diverse biological effects via the pathways shown in Figure 2

.... Let us shift now to ASD treatment and prevention. These are presented here not to give medical advice, but rather to enlighten the reader in the central issues of this special issue: The current situation and prospects for children with ASDs. Both treatment and prevention require avoidance of electronically-generated EMFs and diverse chemicals, however difficult that may be. Let us start with EMFs. There are many sources of EMFs in our living spaces, workplaces, educational and recreational environments, and even outdoors. Many of these are discussed in Section 2.1.

There are "safety guidelines" initially proposed by ICNIRP, an organization set up by the industry and these ICNIRP safety guidelines have been adopted, sometimes with minor modifications, over much of the world. The ICNIRP and similar "safety guidelines" are all based on thermal effects produced over either a 6 min or 30 min period. However, as discussed above, biological effects are caused by electric forces or time-varying magnetic forces produced by electronically-generated EMFs, and are unrelated to thermal effect "safety guidelines". It follows that all assurances of safety based on these "safety guidelines" have no scientific merit.

Pregnant women should not use cell phones, cordless phones, should avoid Wi-Fi fields, and should use wired connections to the internet, avoid Bluetooth, should not spend time near smart meters, cell phone towers, avoid high voltage powerlines, etc. Pregnant women should avoid being in buildings with high dirty electricity in their electric powerlines. Such avoidance is very challenging. A second choice is to use shielding to protect the fetus and the young baby after birth.

You can get large shielded T-shirts to protect the fetus, wearing a regular cloth T-shirt underneath to minimize body contact. Such shielding materials have large numbers of metal (often silver) fibers. I believe that shielding mostly acts by disrupting the coherence of the EMFs, therefore greatly lowering any electric or magnetic forces. Shielding has been extensively studied in the scientific literature [271,272,273,274,275,276,277]. For example, ref. [271] states that "By using wireless technologies, we increase the influence of the electromagnetic field on the human body. The basic measures for the protection against electromagnetic radiation are: (1) shielding of the radiation source, (2) shielding of the workplace, (3) personal protective equipment, (4) reduction of radiation in the immediate vicinity of the radiation source". [271] goes on to discuss the shielding effects of both fabrics containing tiny metal fibers and also brick walls.

You can buy shielding paint of two different types to protect yourself in your house and, if you live in an apartment, this may be the only way to protect yourself from your neighbors' EMFs. Shielding paint can be either graphite (black) paint which can be painted over with other colors. Other more pleasant colored shielding paint can be purchased containing tiny metallic particles. You can also buy open shielding cloth to put over windows, making them into lace like curtains to lower EMF exposures coming through the windows. Similar approaches can be used after birth to protect the young baby. It is highly desirable to purchase a good EMF meter to provide information and prevent the worst exposures throughout the perinatal period.

Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2076-3425/14/5/454

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The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields exposure on human self-reported symptoms: A systematic review of human experimental studies (WHO SR8)

(Note: Methodological problems with many studies included in this systematic review undermine the validity of this review paper.)

Bosch-Capblanch X, Esu E, Oringanje CM, Dongus S, Jalilian H, Eyers J, Auer C, Meremikwu M, Röösli M. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields exposure on human self-reported symptoms: A systematic review of human experimental studies. Environment International. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2024.108612. Available online 2 April 2024.
Abstract
Background The technological applications of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have been steadily increasing since the 1950s exposing large proportions of the population. The World Health Organization (WHO) is assessing the potential health effects of exposure to RF-EMF.
Objectives To systematically assess the effects of exposure to RF-EMF on self-reported non-specific symptoms in human subjects and to assess the accuracy of perception of presence or absence of RF-EMF exposure.

Methods Eligibility criteria: experimental studies carried out in the general population and in individuals with idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to EMF (IEI-EMF), in any language.

Information sources: Medline, Web of Science, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Epistemonikos and Embase and consulted the EMF portal, searched till April 2022.
Risk of bias: we used the Risk of Bias (RoB) tool developed by OHAT adapted to the topic of this review.
Synthesis of results: we synthesized studies using random effects meta-analysis and sensitivity analyses where appropriate.

Results Included studies: 41 studies were included, mostly cross over trials and from Europe, with a total of 2,874 participants. Synthesis of results: considering the primary outcomes, we carried out meta-analyses of 10 exposure-outcomes pairs. All evidence suggested no or small non-significant effects of exposure on symptoms with high (three comparisons), moderate (four comparisons), low (one comparison) or very low (two comparisons) certainty of evidence. The effects (standard mean difference, where positive values indicate presence of symptom being exposed) in the general population for head exposure were (95% confidence intervals) 0.08 (−0.07 to 0.22) for headache, −0.01 (−0.22 to 0.20) for sleeping disturbances and 0.13 (−0.51 to 0.76) for composite symptoms; and for whole-body exposure: 0.09 (−0.35 to 0.54), 0.00 (−0.15 to 0.15) for sleeping disturbances and −0.05 (−0.17 to 0.07) for composite symptoms. For IEI-EMF individuals SMD ranged from −0.19 to 0.11, all of them with confidence intervals crossing the value of zero. Further, the available evidence suggested that study volunteers could not perceive the EMF exposure status better than what is expected by chance and that IEI-EMF individuals could not determine EMF conditions better than the general population.

Discussion Limitations of evidence: experimental conditions are substantially different from real-life situations in the duration, frequency, distance and position of the exposure. Most studies were conducted in young, healthy volunteers, who might be more resilient to RF-EMF than the general population. The outcomes of interest in this systematic review were symptoms, which are self-reported. The available information did not allow to assess the potential effects of exposures beyond acute exposure and in elderly or chronic ill people. It cannot be ruled out that a real EMF effect in IEI-EMF groups is masked by a mix with insensitive subjects. However, studies on symptom reporting and/or field perception did not find any evidence that there are particularly vulnerable individuals in the IEI-EMF group, although in open provocation studies, when volunteers were informed about presence or absence of EMF exposure, such differences have been consistently observed.

Interpretation: available evidence suggests that acute RF-EMF below regulatory limits does not cause symptoms and corresponding claims in everyday life are related to perceived and not real EMF exposure status.
Excerpts 4.4. Implications for practice

We could not find any evidence that would support an association between exposure to RF-EMF below regulatory recommendations and a large variety of short term reported symptoms; neither evidence that could suggest the capacity of individuals to detect the exposure to RF-EMF. This is the case for the general population, for IEI-EMF individuals, in the main meta-analyses as well as in the exposure–response and sensitivity analyses.

While these findings cannot rule out other long term potential harms of RF-EMF, they suggest that the presence or absence of common symptoms may not become good clinical predictors of the occurrence or evolution of IEI-EMF. It may also indicate that notion of acute effects from RF-EMF below regulatory limits in the everyday environment are better explained with the nocebo or the attribution hypothesis (Dieudonné, 2020).

4.5. Implications for research

The body of evidence in this review seems to consistently suggest the lack of association between EMF exposure and symptoms, in a variety of conditions and populations. The most critical aspect challenging the certainty of the evidence was the limited detail in the methodology of included studies, particularly in the issues related to the exposure randomisation and allocation concealment. While we hardly downgrades the evidence on the grounds of 'indirectness', most of the studies were focusing on adults, young adults and even adolescents, which may have limited the external validity of findings.

In order to confirm the findings of this systematic review, future research should, thus, consider adhering to best reporting practices and considering a wider scope of participants, including, for example, the elderly.

Future research should also be carried out standardising the design of experiments in terms of exposure ranges, timing and sequence of events, so as to make studies more comparable. It may be worth to increase exposure levels above regulatory limits for the general population to explore potential critical threshold for non-specific symptoms. Self-evident such studies need to follow a prudent approach to ensure that any symptoms are transient and do not result in a long term health impairment.

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412024001983
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Is the sustainability of exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation possible?
Calvente I, Núñez MI. Is the sustainability of exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation possible? Medicina Clínica (English Edition), 162(8):387-393. 2024. doi: 10.1016/j.medcle.2023.11.016.
Abstract
Technological advances imply an increase in artificially generating sources of electromagnetic fields (EMF), therefore, resulting in a permanent exposure of people and the environment (electromagnetic pollution). Inconsistent results have been published considering the evaluated health effects. The purpose of this study was to review scientific literature on EMF to provide a global and retrospective perspective, on the association between human exposure to non-ionizing radiation (NIR, mainly radiofrequency-EMF) and health and environmental effects. Studies on the health effects of 5G radiation exposure have not yet been performed with sufficient statistical power, as the exposure time is still relatively short and also the latency and intensity of exposure to 5G. The safety standards only consider thermal effects, do not contemplate non-thermal effects. We consider relevant to communicate this knowledge to the general public to improve education in this field, and to healthcare professionals to prevent diseases that may result from RF-EMF exposures.
Excerpts

ICNIRP reviews safety guidelines but does not provide solutions, uses SAR, only considers thermal effects, does not consider non-thermal effects. Scientific evidence shows the importance of considering both thermal and non-thermal effects, short and long-term biological effects, and other factors. On the other hand, more frequent periodic reviews of the regulations are needed. According to ICNIRP the last one was in 2020. Even considering the leap in technology use in 2020, should we wait as many years as now (approx. 10) for a new update?

There are countries with stricter regulations than those established by IARC (sic) that are more concerned about the effects of this type of exposure (Italy, Belgium, Austria (Salzburg), Switzerland, Russia, China)....

In the face of such divergent assessments of wireless RF radiation, the practice of ALARA – as low as reasonably achievable – for RF health and safety should be followed.

On the basis of the evidence presented here, is it possible to speak of sustainability in relation to electromagnetic fields?

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2387020624001268
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Environmental Factors as the Main Hormonal Disruptors of Male Fertility

Wdowiak N, Wójtowicz K, Wdowiak-Filip A, Pucek W, Wróbel A, Wróbel J, Wdowiak A. Environmental Factors as the Main Hormonal Disruptors of Male Fertility. J Clin Med. 2024 Mar 29;13(7):1986. doi: 10.3390/jcm13071986.

Abstract

Introduction and objective: Many scientific reports confirm a systematic decline in male semen parameters over the last decades. This phenomenon has been observed in all parts of the world, and its occurrence is associated, among others, with the hazardous effects of some environmental factors. The environmental factors for which the adverse effect on male fertility has been proven include water, air, and soil pollution, as well as electromagnetic fields and ionizing radiation. The aim of this article was the evaluation of the effect of selected environmental factors on male reproductive capacity based on an analysis of the current scientific reports.

Review methods: A systematic literature review was carried out using three databases: PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus. The search was limited to the period from 2015 until the end of December 2023. Brief description of the state of knowledge: Environmental factors, such as heavy metals, tobacco smoke, pesticides, dioxins, furans, phthalates, and bisphenols, are well-tested substances that exert an adverse effect on male fertility. A harmful effect of electromagnetic fields and water and air pollution on reproductive functions may be expected; however, this has not been fully proven.

Summary: Results obtained by many researchers published to date should evoke great concern regarding the quality of the environment in which we live, as well as fears about the effect of environmental factors not only on male fertility, but also on all aspects of human health. The majority of environmental pollutants affect the male body by causing oxidative stress and through their effect on the endocrine system.

Excerpt

12. Electromagnetic Fields

Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) originating from both the natural environment and human activity constantly affects living organisms. The effect of EMR on the reproductive system may occur as a result of the thermal effect, generation of oxidative stress, changes in the structure of proteins, and causing changes in ion transport through cell membranes; however, these pathomechanisms have not yet been fully explained. Based on studies conducted to date it is known that electromagnetic fields generate oxidative stress, disrupting the function of sperm mitochondria and causing the activation of cell membrane NADH oxidase [43].

Balance in the free radical system, which is affected by the electromagnetic fields, as well as the activity of ion channels, are together responsible for the process of sperm hyperactivation. Human spermatozoa, in order to become ready to fertilize an oocyte, undergo many metabolic changes affecting the cell membrane, which leads to capacitation occurring in the woman's reproductive tract. As a result of these transformations, sperm can interact with the structures of the corona radiata, and subsequently with the zona pellucida of the oocyte. This process is necessary for fertilization. Possible premature capacitation taking place in the seminal plasma causes energy depletion of the sperm and reduces the chance for fertilization. Balance in the free radical system is the factor responsible for the proper moment of capacitation. Ion channels are responsible for the proper course of this process, including CatSper, a pH-regulated, calcium-selective ion channel, KSper (Slo3), and the voltage-gated channel Hv1. To date, it has been considered that many other channels regulate these processes; however, this was not supported by research, and only the implementation of the patch–clamp technique shed new light on the possibilities of opportunities to learn about this process. It is known that mutations and deletions of the genes responsible for the function of these channels are responsible for the existence of certain types of male infertility. The voltage-gated channel Hv1, which is an electrical voltage sensor responsible for processes related to fertilization, seems to be the most sensitive to the effect of EMF. The results of studies concerning the effect of EMF on the immune system cells confirmed that the frequency close to 15 Hz has the greatest impact on the transport of Ca2+ ions into the cell. Therefore, it may be expected that similar relationships will also concern sperm [43,44].

It has long been known that welding arcs are a very harmful source of EMF for males. Their radiation consists of intensive thermal radiation of high-temperature welding gases, welded or cut elements, electrode, and flux material, on which the lines and bands of radiation characteristic of these materials overlap. The gas burner flame temperature usually does not exceed 2000 K. Thus, this radiation consists mainly of infrared and light, and only hydrogen and acetylene burners are characterized by a higher combustion temperature and emit near-ultraviolet light. Scientific reports concerning the effect of welding on male fertility confirm that in males performing this profession, deterioration of the main sperm parameters occurs, and their partners are at an increased risk of miscarriage. The type of harmful effect on the male reproductive system depends on the type of materials to be welded and applies primarily to mild steel [43,44].

Exposure to strong EMF also concerns employees operating radar stations. Currently, various types of radars operate on frequencies from 3 MHz (HF band) to 110 GHz (W band). In the lower part of this range operate radars which measure the height of the ionosphere, and those using the phenomenon of reflection of electromagnetic waves from the ionosphere for detecting objects hidden beyond the horizon, often over a distance of thousands of kilometers. Most radars operate at frequencies ranging from several hundred megahertz to 100 GHz, including speed cameras known to drivers, which are used to take photos of cars and are based on the 34.3 ± 0.1 GHz band. The reports concerning their effect on male fertility are contradictory. Some researchers describe an increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm and reduction in sperm motility, with a simultaneous absence of effect on its density in employees of radar stations. In turn, other researchers describe a decreased sperm density in people exposed to radar waves. There are also reports that do not indicate any differences in the quality of sperm between males exposed to a radar, and those not exposed to its effect.

Due to the development of telecommunication technologies, at present, almost every person is exposed to EMF related to GSM. Our own study conducted at the beginning of the 'era of mobile phones' demonstrated an increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm and a decrease in the percentage of sperm in progressive movement, together with an increase in exposure to GSM. Studies concerning the effect of mobile phone technology on sperm have been continued by many researchers. They demonstrated that the waves emitted by mobile phones cause an increased production of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress in sperm, and intensification of sperm DNA fragmentation. Similar relationships were confirmed on animal models. In a study in which mice were exposed to radiation of 900 mW/kg for 12 h daily for 7 days an adverse effect of EMR was observed on mitochondrial genome integrity. It was also proven that long-lasting telephone calls lead to an increase in temperature in the brain, which may affect the activity of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis [43,44].

A significant exposure to electromagnetic fields also concerns males working on high-voltage electrical installations. It was found that among employees exposed for many years to contact with voltage of 400 kV, fewer children were born compared to the control group. Among children exposed to high voltage, the male gender prevailed. It was also observed that among offspring of males exposed to high voltage, congenital defects occurred more frequently.

There are also other scientific reports that confirm a beneficial effect of electromagnetic fields with lower frequency ranges on both sperm parameters and the function of tissues responsible for human reproduction. Some scientific studies confirmed that exposure of sperm to magnetic fields within the range from 10–50 Hz contributes to the improvement of the motility of human sperm, whereas others presented opposite results.

In animal models, while investigating the exposure of fish reproductive cells to magnetic fields, an improvement was observed in sperm motility parameters, and an increase in the percentage of fertilizations. Electromagnetic fields have found application in the treatment of prostate disorders in animals. A group of researchers confirmed that in dogs, the exposure of the prostate to frequencies of 4–12 Hz has a healing effect on prostate enlargement, not causing changes in sperm parameters of the animals. The results of studies confirming a beneficial effect of electromagnetic fields provide hope for their use in the treatment of human infertility; however, a long-term impact of this type of energy will require meticulous research, especially regarding possible epigenetic effects diagnosed only in future generations. Own studies of sperm exposed in vitro to weak EMF, close to that used at security checkpoints, showed an effect on DNA methylation [43,44].
At present, we are unable to specify what amount of energy related to EMF is harmful, neutral, or beneficial for human reproductive capacity. It may be expected that there are amounts of energy with neutral or beneficial effect, and only exceeding them may cause harmful effects.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2077-0383/13/7/1986
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Influence of power control in the mobile network on the radiation level
Mitić D, Lebl A, Markov Ž. Influence of power control in the mobile network on the radiation level. Journal of Electrical Engineering, 75(2):161-165. 2024. doi: 10.2478/jee-2024-0019.
Abstract

The paper evaluates how the control of transmitted power affects the intensity of radiation in a mobile network cell. Cell models without power control, with standard power control and a model with power control and channel reallocation are considered. The relative reduction of radiation is evaluated and several examples of calculations are presented. Remarks are given on the dependence of radiation reduction on the number of traffic channels, traffic intensity and signal attenuation coefficient. The assessment procedure and results are based on previously verified traffic process simulation models.

Conclusion

The paper shows that control of emitted power, in addition to saving energy and reducing interference, also contributes to the radiation reduction.
Control of the emission power by matching the power with the user's distance affects the reduction of radiation in proportion to the increase in the number of frequency carriers. The radiation level depends on the distribution of the users' surface density in the cell and on the environmental signal attenuation coefficient.
Additional control of the emission power by channel reallocation can further reduce the radiation level. This reduction is greater when there is a smaller number of frequency carriers (but greater than 1), with less offered traffic and with a higher attenuation coefficient.
Open access paper: https://doi.org/10.2478/jee-2024-0019

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Frequency selective human-centric sub 6 GHz electromagnetic measurements in shopping mall

Berisha D, Rexhëbeqaj-Hamiti V, Dobruna J, Maloku H, Limani Fazliu Z, Ibrani M. (2024). Frequency selective human-centric sub 6 GHz electromagnetic measurements in shopping mall. Cogent Engineering, 11(1). doi: 10.1080/23311916.2024.2340311.
Abstract
Limiting human exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic fields in crowded indoor public spaces such as shopping malls, is identified as one of the key metrics in the process of green and digital environment transformation. To assess the exposure levels in shopping malls, we conducted a human centric extensive measurement campaign using three-axial frequency selective measurement equipment. Our study involved various indoor locations within the mall, capturing electrical field levels at different times and days of the week. A total of 529,340 samples were collected during working days, and 430,020 samples were collected during weekends. We measured E-field strength, power density, and calculated total exposures for frequency bands ranging from 88 MHz to 5850 MHz. The presented comparative analysis revealed that mobile communications technologies operating at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz were the main contributors to personal exposure levels in different mall environments.

Conclusions

This paper presents the exposure levels in shopping malls during different days of the week, obtained through a rigorous 3-month measurement campaign utilizing frequency selective measurement equipment. The collected data underwent careful processing, including screening of each measured E-field exposure level to ensure accurate sampling and minimize errors.

The average total E-field exposure value during the weekday was 0.39 V/m, while during the weekend 0.33 V/m. The highest contributors to the total exposure levels in various shopping mall environments are mobile communication technologies operating at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz (2G–3G–4G). The Downlink 2G–3G operating at 900 MHz, has an average electric field exposure value of 0.2 V/m during the weekdays and during the weekend, while the Downlink 2G–4G operating at 1800 MHz has an average E-field value of 0.1 V/m during the weekdays and 0.17 V/m during the weekend.

On weekdays, the main factor contributing to total exposure levels was 2G–3G mobile communications operating at 900 MHz (Downlink), accounting for 52.4% of the exposure, followed by mobile communications at 1800 MHz (Uplink and Downlink. Furthermore, the highest E-field values during weekdays were observed in the Downlink 2G–3G band and Wi-Fi 2 G technology, exceeding the upper limit of 6 V/m.

During the weekend, the primary contributor to total exposure levels remained the 2G–3G communications at 900 MHz (Downlink), accounting for 37% of the exposure. However, there was an increase in e-field values for 2G–4G communications at 1800 MHz (Downlink), with its contribution rising to 34% compared to 15% during weekdays. The highest observed value was for Wi-Fi 5G technology, reaching 4.98 V/m, although its contribution to the total exposure levels was only 0.6%.

Based on the cumulative distribution analysis, it can be inferred that during the weekdays, 90% of the measured data have an E-field exposure value of less than 1 V/m. On the other hand, during the weekend, 90% of the measured data have a value smaller than 0.64 V/m. These values are in line with the E-field values recorded in similar studies as referenced in.

In conclusion, based on our extensive measurement campaign, personal exposure levels are higher in shopping malls during the weekdays compared to the weekend. The highest contributors to the total personal exposure at shopping malls are the Mobile communication technologies (Uplink/Downlink) and WI-FI technologies.

Contrary to our initial expectations regarding the indoor environment of the shopping mall, our measurement data reveals that Wi-Fi technologies are not the primary contributors to the total exposure. Instead, mobile communication technologies operating at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz have emerged as the dominant sources due to their high data rates and extensive coverage.

https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23311916.2024.2340311
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Progress in microwave absorbing materials: A critical review
Sharma S, Parne SR, Panda SSS, Gandi S. Progress in microwave absorbing materials: A critical review. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2024 Apr 4;327:103143. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2024.103143.
Abstract
Microwave-absorbing materials play a significant role in various applications that involve the attenuation of electromagnetic radiation. This critical review article provides an overview of the progress made in the development and understanding of microwave-absorbing materials. The interaction between electromagnetic radiation and absorbing materials is explained, with a focus on phenomena such as multiple reflections, scattering, and polarizations. Additionally, types of losses that affect the performance of microwave absorbers are also discussed, including dielectric loss, conduction loss, relaxation loss, magnetic loss, and morphological loss. Each of these losses has different implications for the effectiveness of microwave absorbers. Further, a detailed review is presented on various types of microwave absorbing materials, including carbonaceous materials, conducting polymers, magnetic materials, metals and their composites, 2D materials (such as MXenes and 2D-transition metal dichalcogenides), biomass-derived materials, carbides, sulphides, phosphides, high entropy (HE) materials and metamaterials. The characteristics, advantages, and limitations of each material are examined. Overall, this review article highlights the progress achieved in the field of microwave-absorbing materials. It underlines the importance of optimizing different types of losses to enhance the performance of microwave absorbers. The review also recognizes the potential of emerging materials, such as 2D materials and high entropy materials, in further advancing microwave-absorbing properties.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38598925/​ --

Rosmarinic Acid Protects the Testes of Rats against Cell Phone and Ultra-high Frequency Waves Induced Toxicity
Fatahi Asl J, Goudarzi M, Mansouri E, Shoghi H. Rosmarinic Acid Protects the Testes of Rats against Cell Phone and Ultra-high Frequency Waves Induced Toxicity. Iran J Med Sci. 2024 Apr 1;49(4):237–46. doi: 10.30476/ijms.2023.97695.2952.

Abstract Background: Cell phone and Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) waves produce oxidative stress and cause testicular toxicity. This investigation was directed to evaluate the effectiveness of Rosmarinic Acid (RA) against oxidative stress caused by UHF radiation in rats.

Methods: Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into six groups. The control received 5 mL normal saline (0.9% NaCl) by gavage, the cell phone group received 915 MHz, the UHF waves group just received 2450 MHz, the RA/cell phone group received RA plus 915 MHz, RA/UHF waves group received RA plus 2450 MHz, and RA just received RA (20 mg/kg). After 30 days of consecutive radiation, the biochemical and histopathological parameters of their testes were measured. Statistical comparison was made using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test.

Results: Cell phone and UHF wave radiation significantly diminished the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione content (P<0.001). On the opposite, UHF significantly increased oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde level, nitric oxide level, and protein carbonyl content (P<0.001). UHF also significantly reduced the number of Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, epithelial height, and seminiferous tubular and luminal diameters (P<0.001). RA, as an effective antioxidant, reverses the above-mentioned harms and moderates the adverse effects of UHF on the testes of rats by significantly diminishing the oxidative stress indices and antioxidant enzyme rise and improving the histological parameters (P<0.001).

Conclusion: RA can protect the testes of rats from UHF-induced toxicity by reducing oxidative stress. RA as a food supplement might be useful for protecting humans exposed to UHF environmental contamination.
Open access paper: https://ijms.sums.ac.ir/article_49676.html
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Panax ginseng Ameliorates Pituitary-Ovarian Dysfunction Induced by RF EMR from Cell Phones via Upregulation of the CREM Signaling Pathway
Oyewopo OA, Badejogbin OC, Ajadi IO, Enye LA, Ajadi MB, Ebuwa IV, Owolabi OV, Areloegbe SE, Olaniyi KS. Panax ginseng Ameliorates Pituitary-Ovarian Dysfunction Induced by Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation from Cell Phones via Upregulation of the CREM Signaling Pathway. Curr Drug Discov Technol. 2024 Apr 30. doi: 10.2174/0115701638279386240425050818.
Abstract
Background: Panax ginseng (PG) is a plant that contains ginsenosides, which are considered adaptogens that confer cellular protection. However, the impact of PG on pituitary-ovarian dysfunction and subsequent infertility is unknown. This study investigated the hypothesis that PG would attenuate pituitary-ovarian dysfunction associated with mobile phone's Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation (RF-EMR) in experimental rat models and the possible involvement of a cAMP Response Element Modulator (CREM)-dependent pathway.

Methods: Twenty adult female Wistar rats were divided randomly into four groups, each consisting of five rats. The control group was administered a vehicle (distilled water) orally, while the P. ginseng group received 200 mg/kg of P. ginseng extract orally. The RF-EMR group was exposed to 900MHz radiation, and the RF-EMR + PG group was exposed to the same radiation while also being treated with 200 mg/kg of P. ginseng orally. These treatments were administered daily for a period of 56 days.

Results: The RF-EMR group exhibited significant reductions in serum levels of LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone compared to the control group. Moreover, levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly lower in the RF-EMR group compared to the control. Additionally, there was a notable decrease in the expression of the CREM gene, accompanied by disrupted pituitary/ovarian morphology in the RF-EMR group compared to the control. However, the administration of PG mitigated these changes.

Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that P. ginseng extract shields against pituitary-ovarian impairment linked to RF-EMR exposure from cell phones by boosting antioxidant capacity and promoting the CREM-dependent pathway.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38693729/
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Electric and magnetic field pollution in near substations and investigation of anxiety and depressive effects on adult individuals living in this area
Sert C, Başak N, Koruk İ. Electric and magnetic field pollution in near substations and investigation of anxiety and depressive effects on adult individuals living in this area. Electromagn Biol Med. 2024 May 3:1-11. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2024.2348574.

Abstract

Exposure to electromagnetic fields causes a variety of health problems in living systems. We investigated EMF pollution in Şanlıurfa city center and also investigated anxiety-depression symptoms in individuals (18-40 years old) exposed to this pollution. For this purpose, electric field and magnetic field measurements were taken at Electricity Distribution Center and 44 substations (for each transformer), at 0 points, 1 meter away, 2 meters away and the house/office closest to the transformer. The experimental group was individuals living in electricity distribution center residences and individuals living near transformers (n = 55). The control group was selected from individuals who lived outside the city center of Şanlıurfa, did not have transformers or high transmission lines near their homes, and did not have any chronic diseases that could cause stress (n = 50). Anxiety and depression symptoms of the groups were measured using the Beck Anxiety Inventory Scale (BAI) and Beck Depression Inventory Scale (BDI). The relationship between EMF pollution and anxiety-depression was evaluated statistically. Maximum MF and EF values were recorded as 0.22 mT and 65.9 kV/m, respectively. All measured MF values were below standards, but EF values were above standards at some points. In conclusion, there is no statistically convincing evidence of a relationship between EMF exposure and anxiety-depression (p > 0.05). This result shows that there may be more meaningful results in places with higher EMF levels. We interpreted the fact that exposure to electromagnetic fields does not cause anxiety and depression in individuals, as the measured values are below the limit values.

Plain language summary

Electromagnetic field pollution causes various health problems in living systems. Research on this subject continues. We investigated electromagnetic field pollution in Şanlıurfa city center and investigated the psychological effects on individuals exposed to this pollution. For this purpose, electric and magnetic field measurements were made at 0 points, 1 meter, 2 meters away and at the closest places to the transformer in 44 substations. The experimental group was individuals living near a transformer, the control group was individuals living outside the city center and without a transformer/high transmission line near their home. Anxiety and depression symptoms of the groups were measured using the Beck Anxiety and Depression test. The relationship between EMF pollution and anxiety-depression was evaluated statistically. As a result, no statistical change was observed regarding a relationship between electromagnetic pollution and anxiety-depression.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38699873/

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The effect of a rotating magnetic field on the antioxidant system in healthy volunteers - preliminary study
Cecerska-Heryć E, Gliźniewicz M, Grygorcewicz B, Serwin N, Stodolak P, Słodzińska W, Birger R, Goszka M, Polikowska A, Budkowska M, Rakoczy R, Dołęgowska B. The effect of a rotating magnetic field on the antioxidant system in healthy volunteers - preliminary study. Sci Rep. 2024 Apr 15;14(1):8677. doi: 10.1038/s41598-024-59391-y.
Abstract

Oxidative stress is characterized by an excessive concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting from a disturbance in the balance between ROS production and their removal by antioxidant systems (SOD, CAT, GPx). Prolonged and intense oxidative stress can cause various forms of damage to cells, which markers are total antioxidant capacity (TAC), reactive oxygen species modulator (ROMO1), and malondialdehyde (MDA). It has been demonstrated that magnetic fields can positively affect human health, for example, by reducing oxidative stress. Determination of the effect of a rotating magnetic field (RMF) on the activity/concentration of selected oxidative stress markers. A group of 30 healthy volunteers (15 women and 15 men) (mean age 24.8 ± 5.1) in the study classified into the following groups: internal control group (CG);1 h 25 Hz (samples placed in the field for one hour at 25 Hz); 3 h 25 Hz (samples placed in the field for 3 h at 25 Hz), the 1 h 50 Hz group ( placed in RMF for an hour at 50 Hz), and a group of 3 h 50 Hz (samples placed in the field for 3 h at 50 Hz). Serum samples were collected in K2EDTA tubes.. The magnetic induction value obtained for RMF is 37.06 mT and 42.64 mT.Activity/concentration of selected oxidative stress markers was analyzed by ELISA. The influence of an RMF on the activity/concentration of SOD, MDA, TAC, and ROMO1 was demonstrated (p < 0.001; p = 0.0013; p < 0.001; p = 0.003). The RFM can reduce oxidative stress, as evidenced by higher SOD and CAT activities in the CG than in samples placed in the RFM. Prolonged exposure to the RFM at 50 Hz increased the TAC level, indicating an intensification of oxidative stress in these samples. The optimal conditions for staying in the RFM (reducing oxidative stress) are 1 h 50 Hz for SOD and MDA; 3 h 25 Hz for CAT and TAC. In the case of ROMO1, it is stated that 1 h 25 Hz are the optimal conditions for no increased production of ROS.

Open access paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-024-59391-y
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Pulsating Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Influence Differentiation of Mouse Neural Stem Cells towards Astrocyte-like Phenotypes: In Vitro Pilot Study
Isaković J, Slatković F, Jagečić D, Petrović DJ, Mitrečić D. Pulsating Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Influence Differentiation of Mouse Neural Stem Cells towards Astrocyte-like Phenotypes: In Vitro Pilot Study. Int J Mol Sci. 2024 Apr 4;25(7):4038. doi: 10.3390/ijms25074038.

Abstract

Even though electromagnetic fields have been reported to assist endogenous neurogenesis, little is known about the exact mechanisms of their action. In this pilot study, we investigated the effects of pulsating extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on neural stem cell differentiation towards specific phenotypes, such as neurons and astrocytes. Neural stem cells isolated from the telencephalic wall of B6(Cg)-Tyrc-2J/J mouse embryos (E14.5) were randomly divided into three experimental groups and three controls. Electromagnetic field application setup included a solenoid placed within an incubator. Each of the experimental groups was exposed to 50Hz ELF-EMFs of varied strengths for 1 h. The expression of each marker (NES, GFAP, β-3 tubulin) was then assessed by immunocytochemistry. The application of high-strength ELF-EMF significantly increased and low-strength ELF-EMF decreased the expression of GFAP. A similar pattern was observed for β-3 tubulin, with high-strength ELF-EMFs significantly increasing the immunoreactivity of β-3 tubulin and medium- and low-strength ELF-EMFs decreasing it. Changes in NES expression were observed for medium-strength ELF-EMFs, with a demonstrated significant upregulation. This suggests that, even though ELF-EMFs appear to inhibit or promote the differentiation of neural stem cells into neurons or astrocytes, this effect highly depends on the strength and frequency of the fields as well as the duration of their application. While numerous studies have demonstrated the capacity of EMFs to guide the differentiation of NSCs into neuron-like cells or β-3 tubulin+ neurons, this is the first study to suggest that ELF-EMFs may also steer NSC differentiation towards astrocyte-like phenotypes.

Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/25/7/4038
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
22.5.2024 20:58

Overview of Contents


Tips to Reduce Your Wireless Radiation Exposure
General
Welcome to EMR Safety

Featured News Stories
Overview of Older Contents
"Radiofrequency Radiation and Your Health: Is 5G Harmful?" (Joel Moskowitz, Federal Mobility Group webinar / video & slides, 2023)
"Health Effects of Cellphone & Cell Tower Radiation: Implications for 5G" (Joel Moskowitz, UC Center for Occupational & Environmental Health webinar / video & slides, 2021)
International Commission on the Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (ICBE-EMF)
International EMF Scientist Appeal - see also https://emfscientist.org/ (video)
"Cellphone radiation is harmful, but few want to believe it" (Joel Moskowitz, UC Berkeley News, 2021)
Mobilize: A Film About Cell Phone Radiation (documentary video)
Wireless Radiation TV News Coverage (300+ TV news videos)

Overview Articles

5G: Health and Environmental Impact

"Regulators Steamroll Health Concerns as the Global Economy Embraces 5G" (Washington Spectator) "We Have No Reason to Believe 5G is Safe" (Scientific American) Scientific American Created Confusion about 5G's Safety: Will They Clear It Up?
5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health? 5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health Effects
Scientists and Doctors Demand Moratorium on 5GGovernment Accountability Office (GAO) 2020 Report on 5G5G and Health (Netherlands Health Council)European Parliament: 5G Health Effects and Environmental Impact
5G Wireless Technology: Cutting Through the Hype

Cell Tower Health Effects
Mobile Phone Health Effects
Key Cell Phone Radiation Research StudiesRecent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields (2016 on)

Cancer or Tumor Risk
Animal Studies
NTP Cell Phone Radiation Study: Final Reports
NTP: Not the First Govt. Study to Find Wireless Radiation Can Cause Cancer in Lab Rats
Ramazzini Institute Cell Phone Radiation Study Replicates NTP Study

Head and Neck Tumor Risk
New review study finds that heavier cell phone use increases tumor riskExpert report by former U.S. govt. official: High probability RF radiation causes brain tumorsCell phone and cordless phone use causes brain cancer: New reviewWHO Monograph on Cancer Risk from Mobile Phone UseStoryline vs. Rest-of-the-story: Brain cancer incidence, cellphone use & trends data Acoustic Neuroma and Cell Phone Use Thyroid Cancer and Mobile Phone Use
Cell Phone Use and Salivary Gland Tumor Risk
MOBI-KIDS: Childhood Brain Tumor Risk & Mobile Phone Use Study
The UK Million Women Study of Cell Phone Use and Brain Tumor Risk
Brain Tumor Incidence
Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising in the US: The Role of Cellphone & Cordless Phone Use
Trends in Brain Tumor Incidence Outside the U.S.
The Incidence of Meningioma, a Non-Malignant Brain Tumor, is Increasing in the U.S.


Reproductive Harm
Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm QualityPregnancy & Wireless Radiation RisksFemale Infertility & Cell Phone Radiation


Other Health Risks
Research on Wireless Radiation Exposure to the Immune System Does long-term exposure to 4G LTE cell phone radiation impair cell phone users' health?
Effects of Cell Phone Use on Adolescents
Research on Smart Phone and Internet Addiction

Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS)Symptoms Experienced by Persons with EHS (FCC Docket #13-84)The "Havana syndrome": A special case of electrohypersensitivity
Does Cell Phone and Wi-Fi Radiation Cause Alzheimer's Disease? Cellphone use may be harmful for people with dental braces

Cell Phone and Wireless Radiation
Wireless Radiation Exposure LimitsInternational Commission on the Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (ICBE-EMF)Study: Wireless radiation exposure for children should be hundreds of times lower than federal limits (based on NTP study) What's Wrong with Cell Phone Radiation Exposure Limits? (SAR)
Children are more exposed to cell phone radio-frequency radiation than adults


Wireless Radiation Health Risks
Cell Tower Health Effects
Cell Phone Towers are Largest Contributor to Environmental Radiofrequency Radiation

Recent Research on WiFi Effects
Wi-Fi in Schools & Other Public PlacesCouncil of Europe: Restrict Wi-Fi and Mobile Phone Use in Schools

Hybrid & Electric Cars: Electromagnetic Radiation Risks
International Perspective on Health Effects of Low Intensity Non-Ionizing Radiation
Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields (since 2016)
Thirty Years of Research on Effects of Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (1990 - 2024)
Power Watch: 1,670 Scientific Papers on EMF (1979 - 2018)

Genetic effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields
Research on Wireless Radiation Exposure to the Immune System

Environmental Health Risks (Effects on Other Species)
Electromagnetic fields threaten wildlifeEffects of Wireless Radiation on Birds and Other Wildlife
Product Safety
Buyer Beware: Cell Phone Radiation-Reducing Products
Cell Phone Cases Can Increase Radiation Exposure
AirPods: Are Apple's New Wireless Earbuds Safe? (Blood-brain barrier effects)New Apple Watch Reignites Concerns over Cell Phone Radiation

Power Line Frequencies (Extremely Low Frequency Fields)
Thirty Years of Research on Effects of Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (1990 - 2024)PowerWatch: 1,670 Scientific Papers on EMF (1979 - 2018)Cancer Risks from Exposure to Power Lines and Electrical Appliances
Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields (since 2016)

Wireless Radiation Research, Guidelines & Regulatory Policies
American Academy of Pediatrics
American Academy of Pediatrics: Protect Children from Cell Phone & Wireless Radiation

American Cancer Society
American Cancer Society: Cell Phone Radiation Risk

Berkeley Model Cell Phone Ordinance
Berkeley Cell Phone "Right to Know" Ordinance

California Public Health Department
Cell Phone Safety Guidance from the California Public Health Department
California's Cell Phone Safety Guidance: Media Coverage

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
New York Times' Exposé of CDC's Retraction of Warnings about Cell Phone Radiation

Federal Communications Commission
How the FCC Shields Cellphone Companies from Safety Concerns (ProPublica)"Environmental Procedures at the FCC: A Case Study in Corporate Capture" by a former FCC officialAn Exposé of the FCC: An Agency Captured by the Industries it Regulates
Government Accountability Office (GAO)GAO 2012 Mobile Phone Report to the CongressGovernment Accountability Office (GAO) 2020 Report on 5G
Industry Influence
IEEE Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR)
Industry-funded Scientists Undermine Cell Phone Radiation Science
Government Failure to Address Wireless Radiation Risks Cell Phone Industry Product Liability Lawsuit

International Commission on the Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields
International Commission on the Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields (ICBE-EMF)
International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
ICNIRP's Exposure Guidelines for Radio Frequency Fields
Worldwide Radio Frequency Radiation Exposure Limits versus Health Effects

International EMF Scientist Appeal (https://emfscientist.org)International Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields & Wireless Technology
World Health Organization / International Agency for Research on CancerWHO Radiofrequency EMF Health Risk Assessment Monograph (EHC series) WHO Radiofrequency Radiation Policy International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO) Position on Radiofrequency Radiation

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
29.2.2024 00:16

Tips to Reduce Your Wireless Radiation Exposure


To learn why it is important to reduce your exposure to wireless radiation see my Welcome to EMR Safety page for an overview of the health risks including presentations, radio interviews, and podcasts.
This page contains safety tips from various organizations on how to reduce your exposure to wireless radiation from cell phones, cordless phones, laptops, tablets, Wi-Fi routers, and other wireless technology.

To download the following one-page handout click on the link: https://bit.ly/wirelesstipsheet


https://bit.ly/wirelesstipsheet
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https://bit.ly/3E0nezL

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Protecting kids from wireless radiation in school and at homeEnvironmental Working Group, November 2022
EWG's big picture recommendations for wireless devices
  • Default to airplane mode.
  • Increase distance from devices.
  • Turn off when not in use.
  • Used wired devices if possible.

Children are almost constantly exposed to wireless radiation, starting as early as the first weeks of life. As they get older, that exposure grows every day, thanks to the widespread use of smartphones, laptops and other wireless devices in the classroom and at home.

Wireless devices radiate radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Research has raised concerns about the health risks of exposure to this radiation, including harm to the nervous and reproductive systems, and higher risk of cancer. Cell phone radiation was classified a "possible carcinogen" in 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, part of the World Health Organization. The agency said human epidemiological studies showed a link between higher risk of a type of malignant brain cancer and cell phone use.

At home

Parents and caregivers can exert more control over their kids' wireless radiation exposure at home than at school, and have more latitude to try new ways of using devices.

Getting started

To begin, inventory your home's electronic devices. Consider smart speakers, cordless phones and mouses, gaming consoles, cell phones, wireless security systems and electric alarm clocks, among other types of technology. Even things you might not think emit electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation, like Fitbits and other wearable fitness devices, are a source of wireless radiation exposure and best for young kids to avoid.

Increase distance

The first, easiest-to-implement option is to increase the distance between your child and wireless devices in the home. The more distance, the less exposure.

Wired headphones or the speaker mode on a cell phone can put distance between the device and kids' bodies. They should carry the device in a backpack or bag, not a pocket.

When no one is actively using the device, make sure it's in airplane mode. Otherwise, the device will keep seeking the "signal" – it will continue trying to communicate with nearby cell towers, producing unnecessary radiation.

Another simple but important fix: Locate routers and cordless phone base stations – the worst radiation offenders – away from where your kids sleep, study and play. See if you can lower your Wi-Fi router's output. It may be set to "High" as a default, which could create more intense wireless radiation output than anyone in your household needs.

Choose wired

To reduce radiation exposures significantly, many experts recommend using wired devices whenever possible. Make replacing wireless headphones with wired your first step then, over time, choose auxiliary devices that plug in or are battery-powered, including keyboards, mouses and microphones. Wireless earbuds also emit radiofrequency radiation, so limit the use of such devices, especially for children and youth.

Here are some other ways to reduce exposure to electromagnetic radiation from wireless.

The big picture

  • Aside from the obvious devices (phones, tablets, computers, game consoles), think twice about wireless digital baby monitors and other wireless or virtual devices. If used, such devices and appliances should be kept away from bedrooms and other areas where children sleep.
  • Shut off all wireless devices, including your router, at night and when they're not in use.
  • Consult this checklist for a low-electromagnetic field, or EMF, set-up published by Environmental Health Trust if you or a family member spend a lot of time at a computer.

At night

  • Strongly encourage your child not to sleep near their wireless gadgets. If this isn't possible – and let's face it, with teenagers, you may not succeed at wresting the phone or tablet away – try to convince them to place it away from their head instead of under a pillow.
  • Even better, keep electronics out of bedrooms as much as possible, or at least away from beds. This includes TV screens and audio speakers.
  • Use an old-fashioned electric or battery alarm clock that doesn't connect to Wi-Fi. And get one for your children if they claim to need their cell phone so they can get up in the morning.
  • Move beds away from utility meters or large appliances, which also emit radiation, even if they're on the other side of a wall.

Studying, playing and communicating

  • Experts recommend starting a child's cell phone use as late as practical, considering the family and educational context and needs of each child. The younger kids are, the more vulnerable their bodies are to potentially harmful effects of wireless radiation exposure.
  • Encourage your children to use a device's speaker function or wired earbuds when they want to use their phone to talk.
  • Download movies and shows instead of streaming them, then watch in airplane mode. Even better, watch on a wired computer or screen.
  • Teach and encourage your children to use their laptop or tablet placed on a table or another hard surface, away from their bodies.
  • Get wired – consider getting cords and cables for your kids' game console, and turning it off when your children finish playing.

Powering down

  • Put phones in airplane mode as much as possible when they are near children, with both Wi-Fi and Bluetooth turned off. If they (or you) want to put a phone in a pocket or backpack, turn it off first.
  • Also, power devices down when you're in transit, like on a plane, train, bus or in a car.
  • Get to know when radiation emissions are highest – streaming video, traveling in a car, or when the signal is poor – and do what you can to help your child avoid these scenarios. (To see how strong or weak the signal is, check how many bars it has.)
At school

Parents and caregivers don't have nearly as much control at school over how much their child is exposed to wireless radiation as they do at home. And with technology ever more prevalent in educational settings, chances are kids are close to a variety of devices all day.

Nearly half of U.S. schools report having a computer for every child, according to a Department of Education study. Another 37 percent have a computer for each child in some age groups. In some cases, kids may take the device home with them for long or short periods. The survey also said 70 percent of teachers use technology in the classroom.

It's tough to shield your child from wireless radiation exposure entirely. But you can take steps to lower their exposure based on advice published by experts. Start by approaching school administrators with your concerns. Learn your school or district's cell phone policy. If none exists, request that a committee be formed to develop a policy and plan trainings for teachers about safe technology use.

Here are a few ideas teachers can implement in the classroom or that schools and school districts can use. The gold standard: Whenever possible, use wired connections for laptops, tablets, interactive white boards, printers and other devices.

If a wired school network isn't feasible:

  • Emphasize keeping devices off and turning them on only when in use – and issue frequent reminders.
  • Students' personal electronic devices, like cell phones, should be turned off or in airplane mode during school.
  • Make sure the school policy on wireless device use is posted in classrooms.
  • Ask school districts to equip new facilities with wired technology.
  • Many experts recommend setting school Wi-Fi routers to the lowest possible level that still allows educational content access, as well as turning off routers when they're not in use.
Wireless technology use during the pandemic

From the start of the coronavirus pandemic, wireless technology became the main path for accessing education and participating in virtual classrooms for kids and families in the U.S. and across the globe. In 2020, a survey found nearly half of 2- to 4-year-olds and about two in three kids ages 5 to 8 already owned their own mobile devices, a tablet or smartphone – and that was before the Covid-19-related school closures prompted desperate working parents nationwide to employ wireless devices as babysitters and educators.

That's many kids with constant access to wireless devices – and also exposed to the health risks of wireless radiation. Parents have taken note of these potential harms. A European citizens group coalition in March called for simple steps to protect kids by swapping wireless for cables in places where children spend time and educating the public about the dangers of exposure.

Earlier this year, EWG together with more than 22,000 people petitioned federal regulators to establish stricter standards for kids' exposure to wireless devices' radiofrequency radiation.

For more information

To find additional resources, advocacy guidance, tip sheets and other useful suggestions, consult the websites of one of these organizations:

  • The Environmental Health Trust's "Wi-Fi in Schools Toolkit" offers a wealth of resources, including fact sheets and tip sheets, background on the science of EMF exposure, and guidance for parents, teachers and schools. It also has more than a dozen downloadable and printable posters on exposure and sleep, children's development, and the effects of EMF exposure on breast cancer risk and male reproductive health.
  • An Environmental Health in Nursing textbook downloadable chapter on EMF, courtesy of the Alliance of Nurses for Healthy Environments, contains useful information, like a detailed explanation of the health impacts of EMF exposure, advocate organizations' tip sheets, and other valuable resources.
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics issued recommendations about EMF exposure.
  • The Massachusetts Breast Cancer Coalition offers a downloadable backgrounder for students and educators on "Cell Phones, Wireless and Your Health," which includes suggested activities to use in the classroom and as homework. It includes a list of additional websites you may choose to consult.
https://www.ewg.org/news-insights/news/2022/11/protecting-kids-wireless-radiation-school-and-home
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Safety Recommendations for Children Who Use Digital Technologies to Study at Home
Scientific Research Institute of Hygiene and Children's Health in the Russian Ministry of Health and the Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (RusCNIRP)March 25, 2020
(The recommendations were translated from Russian using Google's translation tool and then edited for easier reading on the Electromagnetic Radiation Safety website.)
The following recommendations for distance learning at home are intended for children (up to 18 years of age) and their parents and grandparents and anyone who helps children study at home using digital technologies.

1. Children under 18 years of age who study at home should primarily use personal computers and laptops connected to the Internet via a wired network. When using a wireless network, the distance from the Wi-Fi router to the student should be at least 5 meters (16 feet).

2. The keyboard of the computer or laptop must be disinfected with an antiseptic every day before starting work. The monitor also needs to be treated with an antiseptic agent.

3. Before using the keyboard wash the hands of both the child and the adult who helps him or her.

4. To reduce the risk of visual impairment and musculoskeletal system disorders, provide a child working at a computer or laptop with a convenient workplace (the height of the table and chair should correspond to the height of the child), to exclude the illumination of the monitor screen.

5. The main light source at the child's workplace should be located on the side of the screen (not behind the screen and not from the back of the person working with the screen). The brightness of the source should approximately correspond to the brightness of the screen.


6. The use of tablets for distance learning at home is acceptable for adolescents over 15 years old. Before using the tablet, you need to wash your hands and wipe the screen with a disinfectant (wet towel). The location of the Wi-Fi point should be at least 5 meters (16 feet) from the student's workplace. The tablet is placed on the table on a stand at an angle of 30 degrees, the distance from the screen to the pupil's eyes is at least 50 centimeters (20 inches). Do not use a laptop or tablet on your lap, in your hands, lying down and the like.
30 degree angle
7. For all age groups: completely avoid use of smartphones for educational purposes (reading, searching for information)
8. For all age groups: for reading or completing tasks, mainly use ordinary books and notebooks.

9. Children under 6 years old must not use any computer equipment for educational purposes at home.

10. Children 6 to 12 years of age should minimize the use of computer equipment for educational purposes at home. If it is necessary to use it, the total duration of all types of on-screen activities should not exceed 2 hours per day (including watching TV). The class schedule should be based on a one-to-three schedule for 6 to 8 year olds (for every 10 minutes of work 30 minutes of rest) and one-to-two schedule for ages over 8 and up to 12 years (for every 10 minutes of work - 20 minutes of rest).

11. For children 12 to 18 years of age, the following mode of computer use is recommended: "one to two" for 12 to 15 year olds (for every 30 minutes of work - 60 minutes of rest) and "one to one" for children for 16 to 18 year olds (for every 45 minutes of work - 45 minutes of rest).


The total duration of all types of screen activities for children 12 to 18 years of age, including watching TV, should not exceed 3.5–4 hours per day.

12. For the prevention of visual fatigue, perform gymnastics for the eyes during the break; for the prevention of general fatigue - a warm-up (tilts, body turns, squats, etc.)

13. If necessary to use headphones limit their continuous use: no more than an hour at a volume of not more than 60%.

14. Ventilate the room where the students study, before the start of classes (at least 15 minutes) and after each hour of work.

15. Do not use tablets and smartphones for educational purposes outdoors (in the park, on the playground and similar places).


The above recommendations are based upon research from multicenter studies on children's health and safety while using digital educational technologies, materials from the Scientific Research Institute of Hygiene and Children's Health "NRCM of Children's Health," and the Russian National Committee for Protection against Non-Ionizing Radiation, as well as recommendations from the World Health Organization and the best safety practices for children's digital educational environments.
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California Department of Public Health


In December, 2017, the California Department of Public Health captured worldwide attention when it published an official cell phone safety document,"How to Reduce Exposure to Radiofrequency Energy from Cell Phones." The three-page document is available at https://bit.ly/CDPHguidance.
In March, 2017, before the judge could finalize her ruling in a lawsuit we filed under the Public Records Act, the California Department of Public Health released an unofficial cell phone safety document, "Cellphones and Health," dated April, 2014. The document was originally written in 2009 but never released to the public. More information is available on my web site.
To download 3-page document: https://bit.ly/CDPHguidance
More Safety Tips
American Academy of Pediatrics. "Cell Phone Radiation & Children's Health: What Parents Need to Know." https://bit.ly/AAPrecs
Athens Medical Association. "16 Rules to Reduce Wireless Radiation Exposure." https://bit.ly/2pOt2HG

Baby Safe Project. "What You Need to Know about Wireless Radiation and Your Baby."
bit.ly/BabySafeEMR

City of Berkeley. Berkeley Cell Phone "Right to Know" Ordinance.

Canadians for Safe Technology. "Wireless Safety Tips. https://bit.ly/C4STtips

Connecticut Department of Public Health. "Cell Phones: Questions and Answers about Safety." https://bit.ly/cellphoneFAQsConn

Consumer Reports. "Cell Phone Radiation Warnings." https://bit.ly/CRwarnings

Electrosensitive Society. "How to reduce your exposure: Electromagnetic hygiene in 12 easy steps. https://bit.ly/ESsafetytips

Environmental Health Trust. "10 Tips to Reduce Cell Phone Radiation." https://bit.ly/EHT10tips

Environmental Working Group. "EWG's Guide to Safer Cell Phone Use." https://bit.ly/EWGcellphone

German Federal Office for Radiation Protection. Recommendations from the BfS for making telephone calls on mobile communications. https://bit.ly/BfScalls

German Federal Office for Radiation Protection. Smartphones and tablets--tips to reduce radiation exposure. https://bit.ly/GFRPtips

International Commission on the Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields. "Safety Tips on Reducing Wireless Radiation Exposure." https://bit.ly/ICBE-safety-tips

New Jersey Education Association. "Minimize Health Risks from Electronic Devices." NJEA Review. Sept 2016. bit.ly/NJEAtips

Physicians for Safe Technology. "Safety Tips for Wireless Devices." bit.ly/MDsafeTechTips

Prevent Cancer Now, "11 Ways to Use Your Cell Phone More Safely." https://preventcancernow.ca/11-ways-to-use-your-cell-phone-safely/

Vienna Medical Association. "Mobile Phone Information."




Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
22.2.2024 21:50

Welcome to EMR Safety


Since January 2013, the EMR Safety web site has addressed key scientific and policy developments concerning the health risks from exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and other non-ionizing electromagnetic fields.
With more than 200 posts, Saferemr.com provides a curated collection of links to articles on the health risks associated with cell phones and cordless phones, cell towers, 4G and 5G, Wi-Fi, Smart Meters, electric and hybrid cars, and various wireless devices. I also report on the manufacturing of doubt about the science by industry-linked scientists and organizations and by government agencies.

The web site has had more than four million page views by visitors from over 200 countries which attests to the global concern about the impact of wireless radiation on our health and on the environment.



EMR Safety reached one million page views on April 7, 2017, two million page views on March 11, 2019, three million page views on July 14, 2021, and four million page views on February 22, 2024.

During the past 11 years, more than half (56%) of visitors were from outside the United States with Canada, United Kingdom, France, Germany, India, Australia, Russia, and China represented the most.



For visitors new to this web site or this topic, see the overviews about why we are concerned about cell phones, cell towers, and other wireless devices:
"Cellphone radiation is harmful, but few want to believe it"
(Interview with Joel Moskowitz, UC Berkeley News, July 1, 2021)

"Radiofrequency Radiation and Your Health: Is 5G Harmful?" (Joel Moskowitz, Federal Mobility Group webinar / video & slides, 2023)
"We Have No Reason to Believe 5G is Safe" (Scientific American)"Regulators Steamroll Health Concerns as the Global Economy Embraces 5G" (The Washington Spectator)

For safety tips from various organizations about how to reduce your cell phone radiation exposure see: Cell Phone and Wireless Technology Safety Tips.
To explore specific topics, click on "Overview of Contents," located on the right hand side of the page. Articles are listed by topic. Find the article of interest and click on the link.
Overview of Contents

You can also look up articles by the month and year they were last updated in the archive, which is located in the right-hand column. Click on the month and a list of articles posted that month will appear. Then click on the article's title, and it will take you to the post of interest.
Each month I update a summary of peer-reviewed research on health risks associated with wireless radiation including the cancer risk, reproductive harm and neurological disorders. The complete collection of abstracts which contains more than 1,800 scientific papers since 2016 can be downloaded as a pdf file.
Finally, you can find topics of interest by using the Search Box at the upper left hand side of the page:

The most popular posts address 5G radiation, cellphones and health, the role of cell phones in increasing cancer or tumor incidence, electromagnetic fields (EMF) in hybrid and electric automobiles, and the Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) of popular smartphones.
For regular updates about electromagnetic radiation safety follow me on Twitter (@berkeleyprc), Facebook or LinkedIn.

Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D. School of Public Health University of California, Berkeley
E-Mail: jmm@berkeley.edu

Overview of Contents

Overview Articles

Tips to Reduce Your Wireless Radiation Exposure
International Commission on the Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields
International Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields & Wireless Technology (250+ EMF scientists petition for warnings & stronger regulation)

Mobilize, a Film about Cell Phone Radiation -- Award-winning documentary
Recent News Stories
News Releases

Radio Interviews (and Podcasts)
Presentations

Supplemental Information:
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
23.2.2024 02:30

5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?


See the bottom of this page for additional summaries and resources.

Worldwide deployment of 5G, the fifth-generation of cell phone technology, started in 2019. 5G cellular technology employs low-band (600-900 megahertz), mid-band (1.7-4.7 gigahertz), and high-band radio frequencies (24-47 gigahertz).
The allocation of radio frequency spectrum for 5G varies by country. In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has allocated low-band spectrum at 0.6-0.8 GHz (i.e., 600-800 MHz), mid-band spectrum in the 2.5-4.0 GHz range, and 11 GHz of high-band frequencies including licensed spectrum from 24-28 GHz and 37-47 GHz, as well as unlicensed spectrum from 64-71 GHz which is open to all wireless equipment manufacturers.
To increase transmission speed 5G utilizes complex modulation of the carrier wave (i.e., Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access). Other features include massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) or the capacity to send large amounts of data across multiple streams, and beamforming or the use of multiple antennas to control the signal enabling it to be targeted toward specific users. These features can create brief, but very intense, exposures to radio frequency radiation. Since current exposure limits are based upon exposures averaged over time (6 or 30 minutes), these bursts of radiation are essentially unregulated.
Biological and Health Effects of 5G

https://www.emf-portal.org/en/article/overview/mobile-communications-5g#level-1
Hardly any research has been published on the biological or health effects of 5G. According to EMF-Portal, an archive that contains more than 41,000 publications on electromagnetic fields, of the 675 papers published on "5G," only 26 (4%) were medical/biological studies (as of February 22, 2024). The 26 studies reported evidence of oxidative stress and adverse effects on the neuroendocrine system, the cardiovascular system, sleep quality, sperm quality, bone quality, gene expression, and sensorimotor responses. Most studies used animal models and short-term exposures to microwave radiation (especially continuous wave 3.5 GHz).
However, only four of these 26 studies may have actually tested the effects of 5G exposure. The biologic and health effects associated with exposure to 5G radiation depend on more than just the carrier frequency. Although these 26 studies employed carrier frequencies employed with 5G (e.g., 0.7 GHz, 2.65-3.6 GHz, 27-36 GHz), only four studies tested exposures with 5G modulation and other features that are likely to affect the nature and extent of biological or health effects from exposure. Most studies employed a continuous wave generator; yet, 5G requires a complex modulated, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal with additional features that yield brief, high intensity exposures (i.e., phased arrays, beamforming, and massive MIMO).

The four 5G studies are briefly summarized below (Hardell and Nilsson, 2023; Chu et al., 2023; Pustake et al., 2022; Perov et al., 2022).
Two studies examined the effects of exposure to a 5G cell tower but were subject to confounding with other radio frequency exposures:
  1. Hardell and Nilsson (2023) reported a case study in which a man and woman developed electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) with neurological symptoms, headache, fatigue, insomnia, tinnitus, skin disorders, and blood pressure variability) after a 5G antenna was added to a 3G/4G cell tower on the roof of their apartment building. (To date, this research team has published a half dozen case studies with 5G cell towers.)
  2. Perov et al. (2022) exposed male rats for four months to a 5G base station that transmitted at 3.6 GHz, 28 GHz, and 36 GHz and found that the exposure moderately increased stress on the neuroendocrine system.
Only two studies examined the effects of exposure to 5G using 4G/5G cell phones:
  1. Chu et al. (2022) conducted a pilot study in which human semen samples were briefly exposed to smart phones and found that Wi-Fi negatively affected sperm motility and viability, but not 4G/5G; however, the results varied across phones.
  2. Pustake et al. (2022) exposed butter bean seeds to a 4G/5G cell phone and found adverse effects on seed germination and growth.
Following are the 26 so-called "5G" studies currently listed in EMF-Portal:

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ICNIRP Guidelines' Exposure Assessment Method for 5G Millimetre Wave Radiation May Trigger Adverse Effects

Redmayne M, Maisch DR. ICNIRP Guidelines' Exposure Assessment Method for 5G Millimetre Wave Radiation May Trigger Adverse Effects. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20, 5267. doi: 10.3390/ijerph20075267.

Abstract
The current global roll-out of 5G infrastructure is designed to utilise millimetre wave frequencies (30–300 GHz range) at data transmission rates in the order of gigabits per second (Gbps). This frequency band will be transmitted using beamforming, a new introduction in near-field exposures. The International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has recently updated their guidelines. We briefly examine whether the new approach of the ICNIRP is satisfactory to prevent heat damage and other adverse bio-effects once millimetre wave 5G is included, and we challenge the use of surface-only exposure assessment for local exposures greater than 6 GHz in part due to possible Brillouin precursor pulse formation. However, this is relevant whether or not Brillouin precursors occur from absorption of either 5G or future G transmissions. Many significant sources conclude there is insufficient research to assure safety even from the heat perspective. To date, there has been no published in vivo, in vitro or epidemiological research using exposures to 5G New Radio beam-formed signals.

Conclusions
Surface radiofrequency exposure assessments including mmW radiation are insufficient to ensure safety; there are several reasons assessment of SAab is also needed.
A real danger of the 'expert' assurances of a lack of risk is that they discourage the necessary research to evaluate risk properly. They may also discourage review of apparently outmoded/questionable approaches being taken in RF exposure standards.
Once the 5G mmW band is internationally operational, a significant proportion of the world's population will be exposed to new hazards. The intensity and complexity of near-field exposure, such as when carrying a phone in a pocket or using it next to the head, will be different for 5G, and this is the first time mmW have been used for public telecommunications and the first time beamforming has been deliberately introduced for near-field use. Without research on the impact of near-field 5G, this global step is an experiment at the population level. Bearing this in mind, there is a vital and urgent need for targeted research and for a re-evaluation of the scientific relevance of the current RF human exposure standards' basic approach and assumptions.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/20/7/5267
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Case Report: The Microwave Syndrome after Installation of 5G Emphasizes the Need for Protection from Radiofrequency Radiation
Hardell L, Nilsson M. (2023). Case Report: The Microwave Syndrome after Installation of 5G Emphasizes the Need for Protection from Radiofrequency Radiation. Ann Case Report. 8: 1112. doi: 10.29011/2574-7754.101112.

Abstract

In this case report two previously healthy persons, a man aged 63 years and a woman aged 62 years, developed symptoms of the microwave syndrome after installation of a 5G base station for wireless communication on the roof above their apartment. A base station for previous telecommunication generation technology (3G/4G) was present at the same spot since several years. Very high radiofrequency (RF) radiation with maximum (highest measured peak value) levels of 354 000, 1 690 000, and >2 500 000 µW/m2 were measured at three occasions in the bedroom located only 5 meters below the new 5G base station, compared to maximum (peak) 9 000 µW/m2 prior to the 5G deployment. The rapidly emerging symptoms after the 5G deployment were typical for the microwave syndrome with e.g., neurological symptoms, tinnitus, fatigue, insomnia, emotional distress, skin disorders, and blood pressure variability. The symptoms were more pronounced in the woman. Due to the severity of symptoms, the couple left their dwelling and moved to a small office room with maximum (peak) RF radiation 3 500 µW/m2. Within a couple of days, most of their symptoms alleviated or disappeared completely. This medical history can be regarded as a classic provocation test. The RF radiation levels in the apartment were well below the limit proposed to be "safe" below which no health effects would occur, recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation (ICNIRP). These now presented symptoms of the microwave syndrome were caused by non-thermal effects from RF radiation and highlight that the ICNIRP guidelines used in most countries including Sweden do not protect human health. Guidelines based on all biological negative effects from RF radiation are urgently needed, as well as monitoring human health, not the least due to rapidly increasing levels of exposure.

Open access paper: https://www.gavinpublishers.com/article/view/case-report-the-microwave-syndrome-after-installation-of-5g-emphasizes-the-need-for-protection-from-radiofrequency-radiation
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Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted by Modern Cellphones on Sperm Motility and Viability: An In Vitro Study
Chu KY, Khodamoradi K, Blachman-Braun R, Dullea A, Bidhan J, Campbell K, Zizzo J, Israeli J, Kim M, Petrella F, Ibrahim E, Ramasamy R. Effect of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted by Modern Cellphones on Sperm Motility and Viability: An In Vitro Study. Eur Urol Focus. 2023 Jan;9(1):69-74. doi: 10.1016/j.euf.2022.11.004.

Abstract

Background: Cellphones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) for transmission of data for social media communication, web browsing, and music/podcast streaming. Use of Bluetooth ear buds has probably prolonged the time during which cellphones reside in the trouser pockets of men. It has been postulated that RF-EMR increases oxidative stress and induces free radical formation.

Objective: To investigate the effect of wireless-spectrum (4G, 5G, and WiFi) RF-EMR emitted by modern smartphones on sperm motility and viability and explore whether these effects can be mitigated using a physical barrier or distance.

Design, setting, and participants: Semen samples were obtained from fertile normozoospermic men aged 25-35 yr. A current-generation smartphone in talk mode was used as the RF-EMR source. A WhatsApp voice call was made using either 4G, 5G, or WiFi wireless connectivity. We determined if exposure effects were mitigated by either a cellphone case or greater distance from the semen sample.

Outcome measurements and statistical analysis: The semen samples were analyzed according to 2010 World Health Organization laboratory guidelines. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.28.

Results and limitations: We observed decreases in sperm motility and viability with WiFi exposure but not with exposure to 4G or 5G RF-EMR. With large variability among smartphones, continued research on exposure effects is needed.

Conclusions: Our exploratory study revealed that sperm motility and viability are negatively impacted by smartphones that use the WiFi spectrum for data transmission.

Patient summary: We looked at the effect of cellphone use on sperm motility and viability. We found that cellphones using WiFi connectivity for data usage have harmful effects on semen quality in men.

​Excerpts
Our study is not without limitations. First, our small sample size of 18 introduces potential sources of bias. We did not collect demographic data for these patients in order to maintain privacy, so the results may be subject to confounding bias. As the first of its kind at our institution, this small trial was a pilot study to validate our experimental model and procedures. We hope that further studies on the effects of RF-EMR on semen parameters can be performed on larger samples to validate our initial results. Second, we recognize that other potential variables, including temperature and radiation strength, could play a role in inducing changes in semen parameters. For this preliminary study, we were only interested in a single variable (radiation); future work should investigate the impact of temperature and radiation strength on changes in semen. This was an exploratory in vitro study, and further in vivo studies in animal models should be performed to further evaluate the impact of radiation on semen parameters.
Conclusions

Our study revealed that 4G/5G RF-EMR emitted by a contemporary cellphone did not have negative effects on sperm motility and viability. By contrast, WiFi exposure did have negative effects. During data use, there may be an increase in heat dissipated by a cellphone, depending on the power required to connect to the source. Interestingly, we observed varying effects of WiFi on sperm parameters, depending on the environment. We posit that a greater distance from the wireless router results in a need for more cellphone power, which may lead to greater heat production and result in negative effects on sperm motility and viability. Mitigation measures such as use of a cellphone case and increasing the distance between the cellphone and the sperm sample lessened the effects. Further studies need to be performed to better understand the effects of RF-EMR on sperm parameters.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36379868/

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Status of the Neuroendocrine System in Animals Chronically Exposed to Electromagnetic Fields of 5G Mobile Network Base Stations
Perov SY, Rubtsova NB, Belaya OV. Status of the Neuroendocrine System in Animals Chronically Exposed to Electromagnetic Fields of 5G Mobile Network Base Stations. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2023 Jan 4. doi: 10.1007/s10517-023-05689-2.
Abstract
We studied the biological effect of chronic exposure to multifrequency electromagnetic fields simulating the effects of 5G NR/IMT-2020 mobile communication systems. Male Wistar rats were exposed to 24-h radiation (250 μW/cm2) for 4 months. The exploratory activity of the animals and blood concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone were evaluated at the end of each month of exposure and 1 month after exposure. The results suggest that exposure to multifrequency electromagnetic field simulating the effects of 5G systems affected functional activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and was stressful in nature.
Excerpts
The animals were divided into 5 experimental (exposure to EMF of 5G systems, power density (PD) 250 μW/cm2) and 5 control (sham exposure) groups (12 rats each). Exposure conditions: chronic experiment — exposure for 4 months (120 days; 24-h, 7 days per week) and 1-month (30 days) post exposure period (without irradiation). During exposure period, the animals of experimental groups were kept in radio transparent (plastic) cages. Exposure was carried out by 5G/IMT-2020 base stations with simultaneous use of radio channels with 3.6 GHz (n78 with 100 MHz channel bandwidth), 28 GHz (n257 with 100 MHz channel bandwidth) and 37 GHz (n260 with 400 MHz channel bandwidth) central frequencies....
The neuroendocrine system of rats responded to chronic 4-month EMF exposure by waveform changes of serum levels of ACTH and corticosterone. ACTH content had a tendency to increase after 3 months of the experiment (Fig. 1).

Changes in serum corticosterone content in exposed animals were more pronounced; significant differences from the control group were revealed after 1 and 2 months of exposure and the maximum increase was found 1 month after end of exposure (Fig. 2).
Chronic exposure induced changes in orientation and exploratory activity and emotional state of experimental animals. These changes were detected starting from 3rd month of exposure, but did not reach significance threshold, and 1 month after the end of irradiation, the excitation and inhibition processes in the CNS returned to normal.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36598666/

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Brillouin Precursors, a theoretical oddity or a real concern for 5G millimetre-wave bands to be used in future high-speed telecommunications?

Don Maisch, Ph.D., Discussion Paper, July 21, 2022

The following topics are briefly discussed in the paper:

  • Brillouin Precursors
  • The need for reliable research
  • Uncertainties with ICNIRP's thermally based limits for millimeter wave emissions
  • A potential risk for property owners

Excerpts

"... With a millimeter wavelength of 0.65 mm at 42 GHz. The waves can penetrate into the human skin deep enough to affect most skin structures located in the epidermis and dermis.1 However, these types of waves present other challenges. The first is that when most of the energy is focused in a small area, such as 5G antenna beam-forming, the risk of human tissue heating for anyone in the path of the beam will be increased.
The second challenge is that signals such as radar that are made of sharp pulses behave differently when they enter body tissue containing moving charges (such as potassium ions). Each incoming pulse generates a force that accelerates these moving charges, thereby causing them to become emitters of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). This additional radiation adds large spikes onto the leading and trailing edges of the original EMR pulse. The sharp transients, called "Brillouin Precursors" increase the strength of the original signal and reradiate EMR waves deeper into the body than predicted by conventional thermal models. 2

The creation of Brillouin Precursors within the body by very short pulsed signals in the frequency of 10 GHz or more (millimeter wave bands) was described by Albanese et al in 1994. These authors predicted that the interaction of these signals with human tissue would cause disruption of large molecules, and damage cell membranes leading to blood-brain barrier leakage. 3 ....
It must be pointed out that little research has been carried out on the possibility of adverse biological effects from the creation of Brillouin precursors with 5G phased array antennas (let alone on 6G communications). Considering the high download speeds, which may have unintended adverse biological effects, this should be a priority.
Other damaging effects have been predicted in a paper published in Health Physics in December 2018 by Esra Neufeld and Niels Kuster. The paper suggests that permanent skin damage from tissue heating may occur even after short exposures to 5G millimetre wave pulse trains (where repetitive short, intense pulses can cause rapid, localised heating of skin). The authors stated that there is an urgent need for new thermal safety standards to address the kind of health risks possible with 5G technology ....
It is possible that this advice was in response to the ICNIRP draft guidelines (2019) as some changes were made to the final published guidelines. However, the changes did not conform to those suggested and it is not clear that the possibility of excessive heat absorption from these higher frequencies, which may result in pain, has been addressed in ICNIRP's current guidelines.
The necessity for more reliable research into possible damaging effects of pulsed millimetre waves used for 5G communications is also seen in an August 2021 paper by Foster and Vijayalaxmi ....
Concerns over the lack of scientific data regarding possible biological effects of millimeter waves proposed for use in modern telecommunications have been raised by Nicholas Lawler et al. in Biomedical Optics Express (May 2022). The authors found that the studies cited indicate a strong power and dose dependence of millimeter wave induced effects at biologically relevant exposure levels such as those recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) ....
The "take-home" message from the above mentioned papers is that we still do not have adequate research on 5G millimetre waves to be able to assure the public that the many thousands of 5G antennas, in many instances placed in close proximity to homes and workplaces, are without a possible health risk because the necessary research has not yet been conducted.
Open access paper: https://betweenrockandhardplace.files.wordpress.com/2022/08/don-maisch-brillouin-precursors-july-8-2022.pdf

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Expert reveals 5G risks

Lyn McLean, Director, EMR Australia PL, April 8, 2022

"Frequencies used in Telecommunications – An Integrated Radiobiological Assessment"

By Yuri G. Grigoriev, translated by ORSAA [Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association Inc (www.orsaa.org)]

The book can be downloaded for free: https://bit.ly/GrigorievBook (198 page pdf)

One of the world's leading authorities on wireless radiation has documented the risks of 5G radiation in "the first book on 5G that outlines the potential dangers of 5G technology, both in Russia and overseas."

The book, written by Professor Yuri Grigoriev shortly before his death, was recently translated into English by the Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association (ORSAA) and can now be downloaded for free.

Many countries (including Australia) base their radiation standards on Guidelines developed by the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the book, Prof Grigoriev points out that ICNIRP is not necessarily a credible body, and its members are not impartial scientists. The ICNIRP Guidelines, he believes, are inadequate because they are only designed to protect people from the heating effects of radiation. But even this, they don't do properly.

[Note: In the U.S., the radio frequency radiation guidelines adopted by the FCC are similar to those of ICNIRP.]

Among the problems with these guidelines are that:

  • they don't prevent unacceptable increases in temperature

  • they don't restrict the intensity of spikes of radiation

  • a person would have to hold a 5G mobile phone 8 cm from their head or body to comply with them.

Grigoriev says 'ICNIRP members persist in arguing that the thousands of peer-reviewed studies that have found biological or medical consequences from chronic exposure to non-thermal EMF levels are insufficient to warrant stricter safety regulations.'

Grigoriev refers to studies showing harmful effects of 5G millimetre waves (MMWs). They include:

  • demyelination of nerve cells

  • changes to cell membranes, including changes to ion channels

  • inhibition of cell cycle progression

  • changes to levels of enzyme and proteins in the brain's hippocampus

  • double-strand breaks in DNA

  • effects on reproduction

  • changes to the sensitivity of the skin

  • effects on peripheral and central nervous systems

  • effects on the hypothalamus and pituitary glands and changes to cortisol and testosterone hormones

  • changes to heart rate

  • changes to immune function

  • degranulation of mast cells in the skin (that can cause allergic-type symptoms).

Grigoriev says that individuals react differently to exposure, and this can make it difficult for observers to draw conclusions and can lead to errors in assessing the impacts of radiation.

He writes, "From our evaluation of the results of preliminary studies on the possible impacts on the health of the population of the 5G MMW-exposures alone …, we consider it reasonable to expect the following adverse effects: impacts on normal functioning in the critical organs of the skin and eyes; mediated systemic reactions in the body as a whole; and, most notable, impacts to the nervous and immune systems."

Grigoriev refers to calls by doctors, scientists and administrations in different countries to halt the roll-out of 5G until it can be demonstrated to be safe. He says, 'Irradiation of the human population by MMWs without the appropriate precautionary standards is clearly immoral – in the same way as conducting or observing an experiment would be, when it has the possibility of developing pathological processes; eg, according to the notion: 'Wait and see … then we will be able to establish proper standards.' Of course, by then, it will be too late!"


Professor Yuri G. Grigoriev (PhD, DMedSci) 1925-2021
  • Chief Scientific Officer, Laboratory of Radiobiology and Hygiene of Non-Ionizing Radiation, Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of the Federal Medical Biological Agency (Russia)
  • Academician, Academy of Electro-Technical Sciences (Russia)
  • Deputy Chair, Bureau of Radiobiology, Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Member of the WHO Advisory Committee (International EMF Project)
  • Member of the Russian Scientific Commission on Radiation Protection
  • Member of the Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
  • Member of the International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety
==
Mar 24, 2022 5G Observatory Quarterly Report 13 - Up to October 2021
Valdani Vicari & Associati (VVA), PolicyTracker, LS telcom AG. European Commission Study on "European 5G Observatory phase III." CNECT/2021/OP/0008: 1-135. 2021.
Excerpts
  • In the richest nations like the USA, Japan, South Korea and China, commercial 5G services have been in operation for a couple of years, and 5G is now spreading to less developed countries.
  • The USA has assigned the most mmWave (millimeter wave) spectrum: four bands in total, compared to one in some of the EU and none in China.
  • It is important to note that most of the figures collected on the number of 5G base stations are provided by governments, but in some cases such as the USA and Japan, they are based on market research estimates. It is possible that some market-based estimates are not entirely up to date or accurate.
Open access report: https://5gobservatory.eu/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/5G-Obs-PhaseIII_Quarterly-report-13_final-version-11112021.pdf

==
Possible health effects on the human brain by various generations of mobile telecommunication: a review based estimation of 5G impact
Hiie Hinrikus, Tarmo Koppel, Jaanus Lass, Hans Orru, Priit Roosipuu, Maie Bachmann. Possible health effects on the human brain by various generations of mobile telecommunication: a review based estimation of 5G impact. Int J Radiat Biol. 2022 Jan 7;1-48. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2022.2026516.

Abstract

Purpose: The deployment of new 5G NR technology has significantly raised public concerns in possible negative effects on human health by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF). The current review is aimed to clarify the differences between possible health effects caused by the various generations of telecommunication technology, especially discussing and projecting possible health effects by 5G. The review of experimental studies on the human brain over the last fifteen years and the discussion on physical mechanisms and factors determining the dependence of the RF EMF effects on frequency and signal structure have been performed to discover and explain the possible distinctions between health effects by different telecommunication generations.

Conclusions: The human experimental studies on RF EMF effects on the human brain by 2G, 3G and 4G at frequencies from 450 to 2500 MHz were available for analyses. The search for publications indicated no human experimental studies by 5G nor at the RF EMF frequencies higher than 2500 MHz. The results of the current review demonstrate no consistent relationship between the character of RF EMF effects and parameters of exposure by different generations (2G, 3G, 4G) of telecommunication technology. At the RF EMF frequencies lower than 10 GHz, the impact of 5G NR FR1 should have no principal differences compared to the previous generations. The radio frequencies used in 5G are even higher and the penetration depths of the fields are smaller, therefore the effect is rather lower than at previous generations. At the RF EMF frequencies higher than 10 GHz, the mechanism of the effects might differ and the impact of 5G NR FR2 becomes unpredictable. Existing knowledge about the mechanism of RF EMF effects at millimeter waves lacks sufficient experimental data and theoretical models for reliable conclusions. The insufficient knowledge about the possible health effects at millimeter waves and the lack of in vivo experimental studies on 5G NR underline an urgent need for the theoretical and experimental investigations of health effects by 5G NR, especially by 5G NR FR2.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34995145/
Excerpts
Experimental human in vivo studies at radiofrequency range 0.01-300 GHz published in peer-reviewed journals in the last fifteen years (2007–2021) were eligible, including all types of telecommunication signals and pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation.

Altogether 73 publications were included in the review.

According to investigated parameters, the studies were divided into four categories: resting electroencephalography (EEG), sleep EEG and sleep quality, event related potentials (ERP) and cognition-behavior and brain metabolism. Statistically significant changes in an investigated parameter between sham and exposed conditions were considered as an effect.

Table 2 presents the studies that report the RF EMF effect or no effect at different signal structures and frequencies.

No clear interdependency between the generation of telecommunication technology and the character of RF EMF effects becomes evident from Table 2. All categories of the reported statistically significant effects as well as no effects include exposure from various generations of telecommunication systems and different RF EMF frequencies.


The rate of studies reporting effect is 78.6% at 450 MHz, 66.7% at 900 MHz, 43.6% at 1800 MHz, and 57.1% at 2450 MHz. The rate of positive findings is maximal, 78.6%, at 450 MHz band and minimal, 43.8%, at 1800 MHz band. However, along with the possible regular frequency dependent trend, the decrease could be related to other factors: differences in signal structures and varying number of experiments at different frequencies. The difference between results at 450 MHz and 1800 MHz can be partly related to the character of applied exposure: at 450 MHz remarkable part of studies have used meander-like pulse-modulated, not telecommunication signals like RF EMF exposure.
The rate of studies reporting effect is 33.3% at TETRA, 63.6% at GSM, 46.2% at WCDMA, 80% at LTE and 20% at WiFi signals. These numbers should be taken with caution due to the small number of studies, especially at LTE, WiFi and TETRA signals. Some trends can be mentioned: the rate of studies reporting RF EMF effect is higher than 50% at LTE and GSM signals, lower than 50% at WCDMA and TETRA signals and minimal at WiFi signals. This trend is not in accordance with the possible dependence on the used radiofrequency and needs explanation based on the characteristic behavior of the used signals.

Conclusions

In the current review, the experimental investigations on RF EMF effects on human EEG, ERP, cognition and behavior were analyzed at the exposure conditions typical for the 2G, 3G and 4G generations of mobile telecommunication technology at frequencies from 450 to 2500 MHz. The search for publications indicated no studies on human EEG, ERP, cognition and behavior by 5G nor at RF EMF frequencies higher than 2500 MHz.

The results of the current review demonstrate no consistent relationship between the character of RF EMF effects and parameters of exposure by different generations (2G, 3G, 4G) of mobile telecommunication technology. The following trends can be mentioned:

  1. Various generations of telecommunication technology seem to contribute to similar effects. There is no special frequency nor signal structure related to a specific effect.

  2. Some decrease in the rate of studies reporting effects with the increase of RF EMF frequency can be declared. However, due to the small number of studies, especially at higher frequencies (≥2 GHz), the results need to be considered with caution.

The existing knowledge about the mechanisms underlying RF EMF effects allows us to formulate the following conclusions:

  1. The dielectric polarization, a physical reason behind the RF EMF effects, decreases with the frequency of RF EMF. The electric permittivity is relatively stable at frequencies over 0.1 and 10 GHz, but decreases fast at frequencies higher than 10 GHz. At frequencies higher than 10 GHz, the effects related to the dielectric polarization become small. The scarce data about the RF EMF effects at frequencies higher than 10 GHz provide insufficient knowledge to clarify the possible interaction mechanisms.

  2. The theory of parametric excitation could explain the impact of the signal structure. The presence of the low-frequency components lower than 1000 Hz in the spectrum of RF EMF exposure (2G-5G) is an important factor to give rise to the RF EMF effects on the nervous system. The RF EMF effects are most probably caused by the telecommunication systems with low-frequency components lower than 100 Hz (4G, 5G FR1, 5G FR2).

Currently, there are no data about RF EMF effects caused by 5G telecommunication systems. Combining data of experimental results with existing knowledge in the mechanisms of RF EMF effects, the conclusions about the possible 5G effects can be derived:

  1. At the RF EMF frequencies lower than 10 GHz, the impact of 5G NR FR1 should have no principal differences compared to the previous generations. The frequencies used in 5G are even higher and the penetration depths of the fields are smaller, therefore the effect is rather lower than at previous generations.

  2. The low-frequency components in the 5G NR FR1 RF EMF spectrum are similar to these of 4G. Therefore, the possible health effects should have the same level.

  3. At the RF EMF frequencies higher than 10 GHz, the mechanism of the effects might change and the impact of 5G NR FR2 becomes unpredictable.

  4. The possible health effects caused by 5G NR FR2 are not limited to the impact on skin but can be widened by the excitation of nervous system.

  5. Existing knowledge about the mechanism of RF EMF effects at millimeter waves lacks sufficient experimental data and theoretical models for reliable conclusions.

The insufficient knowledge about the possible health effects at millimeter waves and the lack of in vivo experimental studies on 5G NR underline an urgent need for the theoretical and experimental investigations of health effects by 5G NR, especially by 5G NR FR2.

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Health Effects of 5G Base Station Exposure: A Systematic Review
Tasneem Sofri, Hasliza A Rahim, Mohamedfareq Abdulmalek, Khatijahhusna Abd Rani, Mohd Hafizi Omar, Mohd Najib Mohd Yasin, Muzammil Jusoh, Ping Jack Soh. Health Effects of 5G Base Station Exposure: A Systematic Review. IEEE Access. Dec 30, 2021. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3139385.

Abstract

The Fifth Generation (5G) communication technology will deliver faster data speeds and support numerous new applications such as virtual and augmented reality. The additional need for a larger number of 5G base stations has sparked widespread public concerns about their possible negative health impacts. This review analyzes the latest research on electromagnetic exposure on humans, with particular attention to its effect on cognitive performance, well-being, physiological parameters, and Electroencephalography (EEG). While most of their results indicated no changes in cognitive function, physiological parameters, or overall well-being, the strength of the EEG alpha wave is noticed to vary depending on various aspects of cognitive functions. However, the available studies have not investigated the health effects resulting from exposure from the 5G mobile phone and base station antennas from 700 MHz to 30 GHz on the cognitive performance, well-being subjective symptoms, human physiological parameters, and EEG of adults. There is a need for such research regarding this current emerging technology. Such studies are significant in determining whether 5G technology is indeed safe for humans.

Conclusion

This work presents an analysis of exposure studies conducted using signals from 400 MHz to 1750 MHz (for 4G). From this analysis, the following conclusions are made:
• Most of the studies in literature using 2G/3G/4G showed no effects and no consistency in how exposure to these signals affected the cognitive, physiological parameters, well-being, and EEG of the volunteers.
• Most research on human cognition, physiological parameters, and well-being so far have focused on the impacts of GSM900/GSM1800/UMTS/4G MPs, GSM900/GSM1800/UMTS BSs, DECT, and Wi-Fi exposures.

• There is an absence of studies reporting the effects of 5G (700 MHz, 3.5 GHz, or 28 GHz) BS signals on adults in terms of cognitive performance, well-being, or physiological markers (heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature).

Figure 9 and 10 illustrated the possible flowchart and schematic diagram to study the effects of 5G BS exposure signals for sub-6 GHz and mmWave bands (of up to 30 GHz) to human subjects. Data from such a study will be useful in explicitly determining the significance signal exposure from 5G BS on human health, considering their much closer proximity to users.

Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9665755
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Health Council of the Netherlands and evaluation of the fifth generation, 5G, for wireless communication and cancer risks
Lennart Hardell. Health Council of the Netherlands and evaluation of the fifth generation, 5G, for wireless communication and cancer risks. World J Clin Oncol 2021; 12(6): 393-403 doi: 10.5306/wjco.v12.i6.393.
Abstract

Currently the fifth generation, 5G, for wireless communication is about to be rolled out worldwide. Many persons are concerned about potential health risks from radiofrequency radiation. In September 2017, a letter was sent to the European Union asking for a moratorium on the deployment until scientific evaluation has been made on potential health risks (https://www.5Gappeal.eu). This appeal has had little success. The Health Council of the Netherlands released on September 2, 2020 their evaluation on 5G and health. It was largely based on a World Health Organization draft and report by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, both criticized for not being impartial. The guidelines by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection were recommended to be used, although they have been considered to be insufficient to protect against health hazards (https://www.emfscientist.org). The Health Council Committee recommended not to use the 26 GHz frequency band until health risks have been studied. For lower frequencies, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines were recommended. The conclusion that there is no reason to stop the use of lower frequencies for 5G is not justified by current evidence on cancer risks as commented in this article. A moratorium is urgently needed on the implementation of 5G for wireless communication.

Core Tip: In this comment, guidelines for radiofrequency radiation are discussed in relation to a recent evaluation by the Health Council of the Netherlands. The Committee recommends that for the deployment of 5G the frequency band 26 GHz should not be used. For lower frequencies, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are recommended. However, these guidelines are not based on an objective evaluation of health risks, which is discussed in this paper.
Conclusion
In conclusion regarding cancer, current scientific evidence clearly demonstrates an increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma for use of mobile and/or cordless phones. In this review other tumor types and health endpoints are not discussed. The increased risk for brain and head tumors is based on human cancer epidemiology studies and is supported by similar tumor types found in animal studies. In fact, these animal studies confirmed the earlier results in case-control studies on increased tumor risk for use of wireless phones (both mobile and cordless phones). Mechanistic aspects on carcinogenesis come from laboratory findings on, e.g., the increase of reactive oxygen species[5] and DNA damage[4]. The current evaluation by the Health Council of the Netherlands is based on a WHO draft and SSM report. It also recommends using ICNIRP guidelines, considered to be insufficient to protect against health hazards, such as cancer, by the majority of the scientists in this field (https://www.emfscientist.org). The report does not represent a thorough, balanced, objective, and up-to-date evaluation of cancer risks and other hazardous effects from RF radiation. It is also strikingly contradictory as it concludes that serious health effects such as cancer and birth defects are "possible." Yet it has no objection to the roll-out of 5G and recommends that later studies are performed to study health outcomes such as cancer and birth defects. Thus, no lessons are learned from existing observations on increased cancer risks[49]. The conclusion by the Commission that there is no reason to stop the use of lower frequencies for 5G up to 3.5 GHz because of no "proven adverse health effects," merely reflects the biased conclusions by ICNIRP dominated groups. Thus that conclusion must be dismissed, and new guidelines for previous and new frequencies must be established considering the new technology, the different propagation pattern for 5G, and increased RF radiation. A moratorium is urgently required on the implementation of 5G for wireless communication[13]. Ultimately, wired solutions are preferred.

Open access paper: https://www.wjgnet.com/2218-4333/full/v12/i6/393.htm

--Related Posts
Regulators Steamroll Health Concerns as the Global Economy Embraces 5G (Washington Spectator)
"We Have No Reason to Believe 5G is Safe" (Scientific American)
Scientific American Created Confusion about 5G's Safety: Will They Clear It Up? (includes "5G, Public Health and Uncomfortable Truths")

5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health Effects5G Wireless Technology: Cutting through the Hype
Scientists and Doctors Demand Moratorium on 5GGovernment Accountability Office (GAO) 2020 Report on 5G5G and Health (Netherlands Health Council)European Parliament: 5G Health Effects and Environmental Impact
ICNIRP's Exposure Guidelines for Radio Frequency Fields
Worldwide Radio Frequency Radiation Exposure Limits versus Health Effects
Cell Tower Health EffectsElectromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS)
Physicians for Safe TechnologyEnvironmental Health TrustMicrowave News
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Health Safety Guidelines and 5G Wireless Radiation [Health Matters]
James C. Lin. Health Safety Guidelines and 5G Wireless Radiation [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine. 23(1):10-17. Jan. 2022, doi: 10.1109/MMM.2021.3117307.
Abstract
The rollout of 5G cellular communication technology is well underway worldwide. The advocates of 5G mobile technology hail it as a faster and more secure technology than its predecessor, 3G and 4G systems. The major enabling infrastructure uses millimeter-wave (mm-wave) and phased-array technology to achieve line-of-sight directivity, high data rates, and low latency. A central vulnerability or security threat is that it may allow spying on users. Nevertheless, this is a system architecture and technology or regulatory issue but not a biological effect or health safety matter.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9632507
My note: James C. Lin, Professor Emeritus in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois Chicago. Dr. Lin is one of the most renowned scientists who has studied the biological interactions of wireless radiation. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Since 2006 he has been the Editor-in-Chief of the Bioelectromagnetics journal published on behalf of the Bioelectromagnetics Society (BEMS), an international organization of biological and physical scientists, physicians and engineers. In a prior article, Dr. Lin, an ICNIRP Commission member from 2004-2016, accused the organization of groupthink: "The simultaneous penchant to dismiss and criticize positive results and the fondness for and eager acceptance of negative findings are palpable and concerning."

Like several previous articles that Dr. JC Lin wrote for IEEE Microwave Magazine, the abstract is biased toward risk minimization so read the paper or the following excerpts.

Excerpts
Low-band 5G starts at roughly 400 MHz and uses existing or previous 3G or 4G frequencies or newly opened frequencies to operate; the latter, for example, may overlap with the existing 4G band. The 5G rollout began with midband, which includes popular frequencies between 3 and 4 GHz. However, primary 5G technological advances are associated with high-band 5G, which promises performance bandwidth as high as 20 GHz, and multiple-input, multiple-output strategies using 64–256 antennas at short distances and offering performances up to 10 times better than the current 4G networks."
"For health safety matters, it is not apparent whether the biological responses to high-band 5G radiations would be akin to earlier generations or low-band 5G radiations, given the distinctive characteristics of mm-wave and its interaction with the complex structure and composition of pertinent, superficial biological cells and tissues such as the cornea of the eye and nerve-rich human skin, the large, protective organ of the body."
"The two most widely promulgated RF health safety guidelines or standards have recently published revisions of their respective 1998 and 2005 versions [1], [2]. The updated International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and IEEE standards appear to cater to industry wishes; they are strongly linked to thermal effects associated with measurable temperature elevations. Also, the updates seem to have been synchronized to accommodate the 5G rollout."
"To date, there has not been a single reported epidemiological study that investigated mm-waves and their potential health effects.
Thus, although there are roughly 100 published laboratory investigations of all types, and the reported biological responses are inconsistent in their association between biological effects and mm-wave exposure. Indeed, the types of reported laboratory investigations are small, limited, and diverse, considering the wide, 5G, mm-wave frequency domain. The jury on biological effects or health impacts is still out on 5G mm-waves. Moreover, there is a lack of ongoing, controlled laboratory investigations...."
"If the entities responsible for safety recommendations believe what appears to be their position concerning experimental results from rats from the NIEHS/NTP that a whole-body temperature rise of 1 °C is carcinogenic, then the safety factors of 50 adopted for the public or 10 for workers would be marginal for their stated purpose and practically meaningless from the perspective of "safety" protection (more so above 6 GHz)."
"As shown in Table 1, for mm-waves, the referenced local-tissue-temperature rise in the head, torso, and limbs of humans is 5 °C. This level of temperature rise would bring the tissue temperature from a normal value of 37 °C to a hyperthermic 42 °C. A 42 °C tissue temperature is known to be cytotoxic, with exponential cell-killing capacities. It is used as the basis for clinical cancer therapy in hyperthermia treatment for cancer protocols [14]–[16]. The recently updated safety recommendations provide a reduction factor of 10 for the public's safety and a reduction factor of two in the case of workers. In this situation, the efficacy of these updated safety recommendations is borderline, and the updated recommendations are meaningless from the perspective of safety protection.

In summary, the safety recommendation updates were based primarily on limiting the tissue-heating potentials of RF radiation to elevate body temperatures. There are significant anomalies in the recently updated safety recommendations. Moreover, aside from the aforementioned anomalies, the existing scientific data are too limited—especially at mm-wavelengths—to make a reliable assessment or conclusion with any certainty. Some of the updated safety recommendations are marginal, questionable, and lack scientific justification from the perspective of safety protection."

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5G Cellular Standards. Total Radiobiological Assessment of the Danger of Planetary Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure to the Population (in Russian)Y.G. Grigoriev, A.S. Samoylov. 5G-cellular standards. Total radiobiological assessment of the danger of planetary electromagnetic radiation exposure to the population. G384; М.: SRC — FMBC, Moscow, 2020.
Abstract

The book discusses the implementation of the 5G-standard in the cellular communication system. 5G-technology works with millimeter waves (MMW) with simultaneous distribution of the IoT (Internet of Things) program — Internet connection between «things», both for home use, and other objects, for example, in transport, in production. MMW are easily shielded. Given this, only the skin and sclera of the eyes will be affected.
A new radiobiological approach to hazard assessment of the 5G-standard is presented. The significance of radiobiological criteria and the degree of risk are considered, taking into account the appearance of new critical organs and the load on existing critical organs and systems during lifetime exposure to EMF in the population. This point of view of the authors is used to assess the total radiobiological danger of planetary electromagnetic radiation exposure to the population.
Ways of possible reduction of the electromagnetic load on the population are suggested.

Relevance of the book by L.A. Ilyin, RAS academician
Both in Russia and in countries abroad, there have been active discussions over the past few years about a promising proposal for optimizing cellular communications — the planetary introduction of a new 5G-standard that will guarantee fast transmission of a large amount of data. For this purpose, millimeter waves (MMW) will be used.
The techno-economic advantage of this offer is obvious and widely reported by the media in many countries. However, the degree of danger of this type of electromagnetic radiation to public health and the environment remains unclear.
Unfortunately, the appeals of scientists and medical professionals to the UN and the European Union about the need for preliminary medical and biological research before implementing the 5G-standard remain beyond real implementation. A number of countries refuse to place the 5G-standard on their territory.

Book by Yu.G. Grigoriev and A.S. Samoylov "5G-CELLULAR STANDARD. TOTAL RADIOBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE DANGER OF PLANETARY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION EXPOSURE TO THE POPULATION" considers the implementation of the 5G-standard in the cellular communication system. Unlike existing wireless technologies 2G, 3G and 4G, which use electromagnetic fields of the radio frequency range, the 5G-standard works with millimeter waves with simultaneous distribution of the IoT (Internet of Things) program — Internet communication between "objects", both for home use and other objects, for example, in transport and in production.
For stable delivery of MMW to the entire territory of our planet, Earth satellites are used. It is planned to launch 4,425 satellites for the implementation of the universal Internet access program, but there are already 800 satellites in space under this program. It should be noted that there are currently several thousand satellites in orbit, which is of great concern to astronomers and the security service of manned space flights in Russia.
In fact, the entire population will be trapped for life in the electromagnetic grid of millimeter waves and no one will be able to avoid their impact.

MMW are easily shielded. Naturally, to cover a certain area with a millimeter cell, you will need to increase the number of base stations (BS). For example, with a cell radius of only 20 meters, you will need about 800 base stations per square kilometer and located 3-5 meters from the consumer. This is in sharp contrast, for example, with 3G and 4G-standards, which use large cells and have ranges from 2 to 15 km or more.

Given that MMW is absorbed in biotissues at a depth of up to 2 mm, only the skin and sclera of the eyes will be affected by them. Therefore, the authors rightly believe that when assessing the risk of MMV, it is necessary to take into account the appearance of new critical organs — the skin and eyes. The skin is a very complex biostructure, has a large number of receptors and is actually a "bio-relay" between the external environment and the functional state of the body.
Naturally, the introduction of 5G-technology raises new questions. First, the technical part of providing this type of communication. A significantly larger number of micro-antenna base station antennas per unit area with satellite support is needed. Second, there is a lack of a consistent methodology for hygienic rationing. Third, there are only assumptions about possible biological effects in the lifetime impact of MMW on populations and ecosystems. There are no data on possible bioeffects with constant exposure to MMW on the skin and sclera of the eyes. Targeted research is still not carried out both in Russia and abroad.

There are different perspectives on the assessment of the dangers of this new technology. The International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assess the hazard only by adding the absorbed dose to existing standards. This is a small addition, and therefore the existing FCC and ICNIRP standards, approved in 1996, are not being revised. International standards, despite criticism from the scientific community and the European Union, have remained unchanged for more than 20 years.
The authors of the reviewed book consider this approach erroneous, because in this case, the radiation load on new critical organs — the skin and eyes--is not taken into account. They considered the significance of radiobiological criteria and the degree of risk, taking into account the emergence of new critical organs and the load on existing critical organs and systems, taking into account the lifetime exposure of the population to EMF. From this point of view, the book presents an assessment of the total radiobiological danger of planetary electromagnetic radiation exposure to the population.

The book offers new ways to reduce the electromagnetic load, taking into account 5G on the population. It is necessary to explain to the population that EMF is considered harmful and their safety is regulated by certain hygiene standards.

Exposure to EMF that exceeds these standards may negatively affect the health of the mobile user. In this regard, the population should strictly follow the existing hygiene recommendations. However, most people perceive gadgets simply as an element of convenient everyday communication without time limits, as a toy for children, for entertainment, using cellular communication without the need. The population should understand that by violating hygiene recommendations, they are putting themselves at a certain risk. This danger must be persistently explained and, above all, through the media. It is recommended to introduce such a concept as "The conscious risk". This is the first generalization on the problem of the danger of 5G-technologies, both in Russia and abroad.
Open access book (in Russian; 196 pp. pdf): https://bit.ly/Grigoriev5G
My comments: A considerable amount of research suggests that exposure to millimeter waves can affect many organs of the body, not just the skin and the eyes.

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Electromagnetic fields, 5G and health: what about the precautionary principle?
John William Frank. Electromagnetic fields, 5G and health: what about the precautionary principle? J Epidemiol Community Health. Published Online First: 19 January 2021. doi: 10.1136/jech-2019-213595.
Abstract

New fifth generation (5G) telecommunications systems, now being rolled out globally, have become the subject of a fierce controversy. Some health protection agencies and their scientific advisory committees have concluded that there is no conclusive scientific evidence of harm. Several recent reviews by independent scientists, however, suggest that there is significant uncertainty on this question, with rapidly emerging evidence of potentially harmful biological effects from radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposures, at the levels 5G roll-out will entail. This essay identifies four relevant sources of scientific uncertainty and concern: (1) lack of clarity about precisely what technology is included in 5G; (2) a rapidly accumulating body of laboratory studies documenting disruptive in vitro and in vivo effects of RF-EMFs—but one with many gaps in it; (3) an almost total lack (as yet) of high-quality epidemiological studies of adverse human health effects from 5G EMF exposure specifically, but rapidly emerging epidemiological evidence of such effects from past generations of RF-EMF exposure; (4) persistent allegations that some national telecommunications regulatory authorities do not base their RF-EMF safety policies on the latest science, related to unmanaged conflicts of interest. The author, an experienced epidemiologist, concludes that one cannot dismiss the growing health concerns about RF-EMFs, especially in an era when higher population levels of exposure are occurring widely, due to the spatially dense transmitters which 5G systems require. Based on the precautionary principle, the author echoes the calls of others for a moratorium on the further roll-out of 5G systems globally, pending more conclusive research on their safety.

Conclusions and recommendation

In assessing causal evidence in environmental epidemiology, Bradford Hill himself pointed out that 'the whole picture matters;' he argued against prioritising any subset of his famous nine criteria for causation. One's overall assessment of the likelihood that an exposure causes a health condition should take into account a wide variety of evidence, including 'biological plausibility'. After reviewing the evidence cited above, the writer, an experienced physician-epidemiologist, is convinced that RF-EMFs may well have serious human health effects. While there is also increasing scientific evidence for RF-EMF effects of ecological concern in other species, both plant and animal, these have not been reviewed here, for reasons of space and the author's disciplinary limitations. In addition, there is convincing evidence, cited above, that several nations' regulatory apparatus, for telecommunications innovations such as the 5G roll-out, is not fit for purpose. Indeed, significant elements in that apparatus appear to have been captured by vested interests. Every society's public health—and especially the health of those most likely to be susceptible to the hazard in question (in the case of EMFs, children and pregnant women)—needs to be protected by evidence-based regulations, free from significant bias.

Finally, this commentary would be remiss if it did not mention a widely circulating conspiracy theory, suggesting that 5G and related EMF exposures somehow contributed to the creation or spread of the current COVID-19 pandemic. There are knowledgeable commentators' reports on the web debunking this theory, and no respectable scientist or publication has backed it. Indeed, combatting it is widely viewed by the scientific community as critical to dealing with the pandemic, as conspiracy theorists holding this view have already carried out violent attacks on mobile phone transmission facilities and other symbolic targets, distracting the public and authorities at a time when pandemic control actions are paramount. 42 This writer completely supports that view of the broader scientific community: the theory that 5G and related EMFs have contributed to the pandemic is baseless.

It follows that, for the current 5G roll-out, there is a sound basis for invoking 'the precautionary principle'. This is the environmental and occupational health principle by which significant doubt about the safety of a new and potentially widespread human exposure should be a reason to call a moratorium on that exposure, pending adequate scientific investigation of its suspected adverse health effects. In short, one should 'err on the side of caution'. In the case of 5G transmission systems, there is no compelling public health or safety rationale for their rapid deployment. The main gains being promised are either economic (for some parties only, not necessarily with widely distributed financial benefits across the population) or related to increased consumer convenience. Until we know more about what we are getting into, from a health and ecological point of view, those putative gains need to wait.

Open access paper: https://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2021/01/04/jech-2019-213595 or https://jech.bmj.com/content/jech/early/2021/01/04/jech-2019-213595.full.pdf

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Chemical polarization effects of electromagnetic field radiation from the novel 5G network deployment at ultra high frequency
Ugochukwu O. Matthew, Jazuli S. Kazaure. Chemical polarization effects of electromagnetic field radiation from the novel 5G network deployment at ultra high frequency. Health Technology (Berl). 2021 Jan 27: 1-13. doi: 10.1007/s12553-020-00501-x.
Abstract
The wide-spectrum of non-ionizing, non-visible radiation emitted from the novel 5G network deployment was investigated and found liable to produce effects capable of heating up and altering human body nomenclature. The Ultra-high frequency magnetic fields, induced circulation of currents in the surrounding human body when potentially exposed. The quantum of these electromagnetic charges is influenced by the magnitude of the external magnetic field. The Magnetic fields warming is the major organic consequence of the electromagnetic fields radiofrequency radiation emitted from 5G network installation especially at a very high frequencies. From the current research, the levels of electromagnetic fields to which individuals are naturally unmasked under 4G network and 5G network technology in SCENARIO1, SCENARIO 2 and SCENARIO 3 are very negligible to alter human body dipolar chemistry. On the several findings of the research, deploying 5G network technology under the ultra-high frequency above 20 GHz will produce effect that will heat up the human body tissues due to electromagnetic field inducement since human body is dipolar in nature. The research established that while the current digital society will continue investment into 5G network technology, caution must be applied not to deploy 5G network under ultra-high frequency above 20 GHz due to its adverse health effects.
Conclusions

From the knowledge and principle of electromagnetism, human beings are constituted of substantial amount of oriented cells with diverse electromagnetic field attributes. The Biological attributes of the human tissue under diverse electromagnetic radiative emission are studied and that had provided the basis upon which the current research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the human body. The heating consequences of the radio electromagnetic waves from 5G network technology deployment had formed the fundamental basis for current research. On the several findings of the research, deploying 5G network technology under the ultra-high baseband above 20 GHz will produce effects such as heating up of the body tissues due to electromagnetic field inducement on the account that human body is dipolar in nature. The effects will extend to produce dielectric polarization, ionic polarization, interfacial polarization and orientational polarization. This is generally on the account that variations on dielectric properties of biological tissues with the frequency of the electromagnetic field inducement are very dissimilar. While it is very imperative to determine the frequency distribution in deploying the novel 5G network to avoid adverse dielectric dispersion that may flow into the human body.

Open access paper: https://www.springerprofessional.de/en/chemical-polarization-effects-of-electromagnetic-field-radiation/18805704

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New IEEE paper questions safety of exposure to 5G cell phone radiation
There has been considerable public pressure in many countries including the U.S. to stop deployment of 5G due to potential health risks. Most of the attention has focused on the cell towers or base stations; however, the safety of using 5G cell phones and other 5G personal devices may be an even greater concern due to the proximity of these devices to our bodies.
A new peer-reviewed paper, "Human Electromagnetic Field Exposure in 5G at 28 GHz," questions the safety of exposure to 5G millimeter waves. The authors found in a simulation study that use of a 5G cell phone at 28 GHz could exceed ICNIRP (i.e. international) radio frequency exposure limits when held at 8 centimeters (i.e., 3 inches) or closer to the head or body. Whereas the ICNIRP exposure limit for the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is 2.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue, the FCC limit is 2-3 times more conservative, namely the SAR limit is 1.6 watts per kilogram averaged over only 1 gram of tissue. This means compliance with the FCC exposure limit would require a greater separation distance from the body than 8 centimeters in the U.S.

Although there have been numerous peer-reviewed papers that have raised serious concerns about the safety of exposure to 5G radiation and/or millimeter waves, this new paper is significant because it is published in an industry-sponsored journal, the November/December issue of IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine.
Seungmo Kim, Imtiaz Nasim. Human Electromagnetic Field Exposure in 5G at 28 GHz. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine. 9(6):41-48. Nov. 1 2020. DOI: 10.1109/MCE.2019.2956223.
Abstract
The fifth-generation wireless (5G) has already started showing its capability to achieve extremely fast data transfer, which makes itself considered to be a promising mobile technology. However, concerns have been raised on adverse health impacts that human users can experience in a 5G system by being exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This article investigates the human EMF exposure in a 5G system and compares them with those measured in the previous-generation cellular systems. It suggests a minimum separation distance between a transmitter and a human user for keeping the EMF exposure below the safety regulation level, which provides consumers with a general understanding on the safe use of 5G communications.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9090831
Excerpts

"First, we discuss the human EMF exposure in the downlink as well as the uplink. Most of the prior work studies the uplink only, while hardly paying attention to EMF emissions generated by BSs [base stations or cell towers] in a 5G network. Recall the aforementioned changes that the 5G adopts: 1) operation at higher carrier frequencies; 2) reduction of cell size (which leads to increase in number of BSs; and 3) concentration of higher EMF energy into an antenna beam. They all imply that in 5G, unlike the previous-generation wireless systems, the downlink can also be a threat to human health as well as the uplink.

Second, we suggest that both SAR [Specific Absorption Rate] and PD [power density] should be used to display human EMF exposure for a wireless system. The reason is that SAR captures an amount of EMF energy that is actually "absorbed" into human tissues, whereas PD is an efficient metric only to present the EMF energy being introduced to a human user.

Third, we present an explicit comparison of human EMF exposure in 5G to those in the currently deployed wireless standards....

Fourth, we consider the maximum possible exposure that a human user can experience...."
"... in a 5G network, a consumer is likely to be exposed to high EMF energy more consistently. Nevertheless, it is easier to apply a "compliance distance" [17] in a downlink than in an uplink. Thus, this article suggests 1) an overhaul of the compliance distances defined in different standards and 2) the consumers' discretion on being close to a BS...."
"... the fact that a high-frequency EMF cannot penetrate deep into human skin does not mean that it is not dangerous. Specifically, although the penetration is limited only at the skin surface, the SAR (illustrated as a heat map in Figure 4) can be higher within the concentrated area, which can cause subsequent health problems such as skin heating."
Downlink vs. Uplink

"Figure 3(c) and (d) compare PD and SAR in uplink to the ICNIRP guidelines set at 10 W/m2 and 2W/kg, respectively. PD and SAR are remarkably higher in uplink than those in downlink, shown via a comparison of the results for uplink to those for downlink shown in Figure 3(a) and (b). It is attributed to smaller separation distance between a transmitter and a human body. Imagine one talking on a voice call; it is a "direct" physical contact of the phone and the head!

Also, it is significant to notice that no regulation exists at 28 GHz where this article investigates for 5G. As such, we refer to the ICNIRP's guideline that is set to be 2 W/kg by ICNIRP[11] at a frequency "below 10 GHz." In Figure 3(d), it provides a ""inferred" understanding on SAR in an uplink. The zoom-in look shown in Figure 3(d) suggests that in 5G, use of a handheld device within the distance of 8 cm causes an EMF absorption exceeding 2 W/kg, which would have been prohibited if the carrier frequency was lower than 10 GHz. This implies the gravity of human EMF exposure in an uplink of 5G."

Conclusion

"This article has discussed human EMF exposure in 5G operating at 28 GHz, while most of the prior work focuses only on the technological benefits that the technology brings. Considering the significance of wireless technologies in our daily life, the potential danger of using them should also be emphasized for sustainable advancement of the technologies. In this article, the first case study has demonstrated how much EMF exposure is caused in a 5G system compared to 4G and 3.9G. Then, the latter case study has suggested an adequate separation distance from a transmitter, in order to keep a human user from being exposed to EMF below a regulatory guideline. This article is expected to ignite continued interest in overarching research on the design of future wireless systems that achieve high performance while keeping consumer safety guaranteed.

However, considering the gravity of this issue, we suggest several directions to be achieved in our future research.

  • Human EMF exposure mitigation strategy: We are particularly interested in exploiting the technical features in future wireless systems—i.e., a larger number of BSs within a unit area. Such a paradigm change will enable a holistic, network-based approach to mitigate the EMF exposure as an optimization problem with a set of constraints representing the PD, SAR, and skin-temperature elevation.

  • Further studies regarding exact human health impacts caused by EMF exposure: The particular focus will be put on 1) skin dielectric effect with respect to frequency and 2) the effect of radiation when the body is covered with clothing or garment materials."

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Modelling of Total Exposure in Hypothetical 5G Mobile Networks for Varied Topologies and User Scenarios

Sven Kuehn, Serge Pfeifer, Beyhan Kochali, Niels Kuster. Modelling of Total Exposure in Hypothetical 5G Mobile Networks for Varied Topologies and User Scenarios. Final Report of Project CRR-816. A report on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). Zurich, IT'IS Foundation. 24 June 2019.
Executive Summary

In January 2019, the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) mandated the IT'IS Foundation to evaluate the total human exposure in hypothetical 5G mobile networks for varied topologies and user scenarios to identify factors that would minimize the total exposure of the population. In this study, total exposure is defined as the combined exposure from network base stations, the user's own device, as well as bystanders' mobile devices.

The influence of various factors on total exposure in mobile communication networks (as defined above) was modeled and analyzed with the help of the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Total exposure is described as the local peak specific absorption rate (SAR) spatially averaged over any 10 g of tissue mass (psaSAR10g) averaged over a period of 6 minutes. The unit psaSAR10g was chosen because it defines the governing basic restriction for wireless exposure as the whole-body average SAR limits (wbaSAR) are intrinsically met if the limits of local exposure are satisfied. The averaging duration of 6 minutes constitutes the internationally accepted averaging time to prevent thermal hazards at frequencies below 6 GHz as instant values have little justification. However, it should be noted that some regulators define shorter averaging time periods, e.g., the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of 100 s.

In a first step, we analyzed the tissue-specific exposure as a function of frequency. The preliminary dosimetric study showed that exposure of the human brain to the 3.6 GHz band, that has been recently added to the Swiss mobile communication frequencies, is reduced by a factor of >6 for the tissue averaged SAR when compared to mobile network operation at <1 GHz. This reduction is due to the smaller penetration depth at higher frequencies. This conclusion, however, does not apply to exposed tissues close to the surface or skin (eyes, testicles, etc.) when the peak SAR in this tissue is evaluated. The peak SAR in the grey matter remains in approximately the same order of magnitude ( 3 dB) over all frequencies but the area of high exposure is reduced at 3.6 GHz.

In a second step, we used data measured in 4G systems and analyzed the latest mobile network standards to extrapolate the exposures for various 5G network scenarios. These measured data were also used to extrapolate the exposure to the future development of data usage in 5G networks.

Specifically, we analyzed the effect on the total exposure of (i) the network topology by varying the cell size and amount of indoor coverage in the network, as well as the usage of (ii) an individual's own device, and (iii) devices of close bystanders.

The results – based on simulations of more than 200 different exposure scenarios – reveal that, for all user types, except for non-users (including passive mobile phone users and users dominantly using downlink data traffic, e.g., video streaming), total exposure is dominated by the person's own mobile device. Compared to non-users, the exposure is increased (i) for light users (with 100 MByte uplink data per day) by 6 – 10 dB (or a factor of 4 to 10), (ii) for moderate users (with 1 GByte uplink data per day) by 13 – 25 dB (or a factor of 20 to >300), and (iii) for heavy users by 15 – 40 dB (or a factor of 30 to >10000). Further, the results show that peak exposure of non-users is not defined by exposure to base stations but by exposure to mobile devices of close bystanders in urban areas resulting in 6 dB (or a factor of 4) higher exposure than from a nearby base station antenna.

While a reduction of the mobile cell size leads to a reduction in total exposure by a factor of 2 to10 for people actively using their mobile devices, this might also lead to a small increase by a factor of 1.6 in total exposure of non-users due the generally increased incident signal levels from the surrounding base stations.

Similarly, the exposure of active users can be reduced by a factor of 4 to 600 by increasing the indoor network coverage. Yet, in line with the results for the mobile cell sizes, increased indoor coverage will also lead to increased exposure of non-users by a factor of 2 to 10. This increase, however, starts at a level 1000 times lower than the typical total exposure of active users.

The results of this study show that the personal mobile device is the dominant exposure source for active mobile network users. Besides a person's own usage behavior, total exposure is also closely linked to the network infrastructure. Generally speaking, a network with a lower path loss, i.e., smaller cells and additional indoor coverage, helps to reduce total exposure. The exposure per transmitted bit is reduced by a factor of <3 by the increased spectral efficiency of the 5G technology, and the reduced penetration depth associated with the new bands at 3.5 – 3.8 GHz.

The results presented above are limited due to the network data that has been used and the definition of total exposure as stated in this report. Furthermore, it only considers time-averaged (6 min) and not instant exposures. This study does not consider (i) the effect of upcoming massive MIMO systems in 5G networks, (ii) alternative data transmission links, for instance the use of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), and (iii) millimeter wave frequencies in 5G mobile networks.
Conclusions
The results of this study show that the absorption of energy by the human brain, resulting from exposure to the 3.6 GHz band newly added to the Swiss mobile communication frequencies, is reduced by a factor >6 for the tissue averaged SAR when compared to mobile networks operating at <1 GHz, and by a factor of >2 when compared to the frequency bands at 1.8 – 2GHz. For deep brain regions, the reduction is much larger.
The reduced exposure for these regions is due to lower penetration depths at higher frequencies. Close to the surface (eyes, testicles, etc.) the exposure can be higher. At the most exposed surface of the grey matter, the values remain approximately 3 dB over all frequencies whereas the area of high exposure is reduced.
More than 200 Monte Carlo simulated exposure scenarios have been analyzed to evaluate total human exposure in 5G Networks for different topologies and user scenarios. The results show that for all users (except non-users), the total exposure is dominated by a person's own mobile device. Compared to a non-user, the exposure is increased for a light user (with 100 MByte uplink data per day) by 6 – 10 dB (or by a factor 4 to 10), for a moderate user (with 1 GByte uplink data per day) by 13 – 25 dB (or by a factor of 20 to >300), and for a heavy user by 25 – 40 dB (or a factor of 300 to >10000). The peak exposure of non-users is further not defined by exposure to surrounding base stations but by mobile devices of close bystanders in urban areas, resulting in 6 dB (or a factor of 4) higher exposure than from a nearby base station antenna.

Reducing the diameter of the mobile cell leads to a decreased overall exposure by a factor of 2 to 10 for people who actively use their mobile devices. At the same time, the reduction in cell size might lead to a small increase by a factor <2 in exposure for non-users. The exposure of active users can be reduced by factors ranging from 4 to 600 by increasing indoor network coverage which, in turn, will be linked to increased exposure of non-users by a factor of 2 to 10. However, such an increase is by a factor 1000 lower than the typical exposure of active users. The results of this study are limited due to the network data that has been used and the definition of total exposure as stated earlier in this report. This study does not consider (i) the effect of upcoming massive MIMO and multi-user MIMO systems in 5G networks, (ii) alternative data transmission links – for instance the use of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and (iii) millimeter wave frequencies in 5G mobile networks.

In summary, the results of this study show that the user's own mobile device is the dominant source of exposure for the population of active mobile network users. Besides personal usage patterns, totl exposure is also closely linked to the network infrastructure. Generally speaking, a network that decreases the path loss by means of smaller cells and additional indoor coverage will help to reduce the total exposure of the population.

https://www.bafu.admin.ch/dam/bafu/en/dokumente/elektrosmog/externe-studien-berichte/modelling-of-total-exposure-in-hypothetical-5g-mobile-networks-for-varied-topologies-and-user-scenarios.pdf.download.pdf/Modelling%20of%20Total%20Exposure%20in%20Hypothetical%205G%20Networks%20-%20Schlussbericht.pdf
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Oct 14, 2020
5G Research from the EMF-Portal Archive
As of June 1, 2020, the EMF-Portal archive listed 133 papers and letters to the editor published in professional journals and presentations at professional conferences that focus on 5G research. Although most discuss technical or dosimetric issues (n = 92), 41 citations address other issues including potential biologic or health effects.
In all, the EMF-Portal archive references more than 30,000 publications and presentations on non-ionizing electromagnetic fields. The Portal is a project based at the University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Germany.

Currently, no peer-reviewed, empirical studies of the biologic or health effects from actual exposure to 5G radiation have been published. Hence, those who claim that 5G is safe because it complies with radiofrequency exposure guidelines are engaging in sophistry.
These guidelines were designed to protect the population from short-term heating (or thermal) risks. However, numerous peer-reviewed studies have found adverse biologic and health effects from exposure to low-intensity or non-thermal levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF). Hence, more than 240 EMF scientists who have signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal have recommended that "guidelines and regulatory standards be strengthened":
"Numerous recent scientific publications have shown that EMF affects living organisms at levels well below most international and national guidelines….
The various agencies setting safety standards have failed to impose sufficient guidelines to protect the general public, particularly children who are more vulnerable to the effects of EMF."
To download the list of 133 papers and presentations: bit.ly/EmfPortal5G
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5G Wireless Deployment and Health Risks: Time for a Medical Discussion
Priyanka Bandara, Tracy Chandler, Robin Kelly, Julie McCredden, Murray May, Steve Weller, Don Maisch, Susan Pockett, Victor Leach, Richard Cullen, Damian Wojcik. 5G Wireless Deployment and Health Risks: Time for a Medical Discussion in Australia and New Zealand. ACNEM Journal. 39(1). July 2020.
No abstract.
Excerpts

"There is an urgent need for clinicians and medical scientists in the Australia-New Zealand region to engage in an objective discussion around the potential health impacts of the fifth generation (5G) wireless technology currently being deployed. The statements of assurance by the industry and government parties that dominate the media in our region are at odds with the warnings of hundreds of scientists actively engaged in research on biological/health effects of anthropogenic electromagnetic radiation/fields (EMR/EMF). (1) There have been worldwide public protests as well as appeals by professionals and the general public (2) that have compelled many cities in Europe to declare moratoria on 5G deployment and to begin investigations. In contrast, there is no medically-oriented professional discussion on this public health topic in Australia and New Zealand, where 5G deployment is being expedited. 5G is untested for safety on humans and other species and the limited existing evidence raises major concerns that need to be addressed. The vast body of research literature on biological/health effects of 'wireless radiation' (radiofrequency EMR) (3,4) indicates a range of health-related issues associated with different types of wireless technologies (1G-4G, WiFi, Bluetooth, Radar, radio/TV transmission, scanning and surveillance systems). These are used in a wide range of personal devices in common use (mobile/cordless phones, computers, baby monitors, games consoles etc) without users being aware of the health risks. Furthermore, serious safety concerns arise from the extra complexity of 5G as follows:
• 5G carrier waves use a much broader part of the microwave spectrum including waves with wavelengths in the millimetre range (hence called 'millimetre waves') which will be used in the second phase of 5G). Until now, millimetre waves have had limited applications such as radar, point-to-point communications links and non-lethal military weapons. (5)
• Extremely complex modulation patterns involving numerous frequencies form novel exposures.
• Beam formation characteristics can produce hotspots of high unknown intensities.
• A vast number of antenna arrays will add millions of microwave transmitters globally in addition to the existing RF transmitters thereby greatly increasing human exposure. This includes 5G small cell antennas to be erected every 200-250 metres on street fixtures, such as power poles and bus shelters, many of which will be only metres from homes with the homeowners having absolutely no say in where the antennas will be located.

This massive leap in human exposure to RF-EMR from 5G is occurring in a setting where the existing scientific evidence overwhelmingly indicates biological interference, (3,4) therefore suggesting the need to urgently reduce exposure...."
"As for the new 5G technology, it is concerning that leading experts in the technical field (6) have reported the possibility of damaging thermal spikes under the current exposure guidelines (from beam forming 5G millimetre waves that transfer data with short bursts of high energy) and some animals and children may be at an increased risk due to smaller body size. Even working within the entirely thermally-based current regulatory process, they pointed out 5G millimetre waves "may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines". (6) Microwave experts from the US Air Force have reported on 'Brillouin Precursors' created by sharp transients at the leading and trailing edges of pulses of mm waves, when beam forming fast millimetre waves create moving charges in the body which penetrate deeper than explained in the conventional models, and have the potential to cause tissue damage. (7) In fact, concerns about moving charges affecting deep tissue are associated with other forms of pulsed RF radiation currently used for wireless communications. This may be one factor explaining why the pulsed radiation used in wireless communication technologies is more biologically active than continuous RF radiation. (8) Such effects of high energy 5G mm waves could have potentially devastating consequences for species with small body size and also creatures that have innate sensitivity to EMF, which include birds and bees that use nature's EMFs for navigation. (9) Unfortunately, non-thermal effects and chronic exposure effects are not addressed in the current guidelines. (10)"
"Our investigation into the scientific literature has found RF-EMR to be a potent inducer of oxidative stress even at so-called "low-intensity" exposures (which are in fact billions of times higher than in nature (26)) such as those from commonly used wireless devices. An analysis (22) of 242 publications (experimental studies) which had investigated endpoints related to oxidative stress - biomarkers of oxidative damage such as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (indicating oxidative DNA damage) and/or altered antioxidant levels - revealed that 216 studies (89%) had reported such findings (Fig. 1). This evidence base on RF-associated oxidative stress from 26 countries (only one study from Australia and none from New Zealand) is relatively new and mostly post 2010, i.e. after the WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RF-EMR as a Group 2B possible carcinogen. Moreover, 180 studies out of the 242 (74.7%) were in vivo studies (including several human studies) which presents strong evidence.
"Proponents of 5G often dismiss concerns about health risks claiming that 5G microwaves will minimally penetrate the skin and therefore any effects are limited to minor skin heating (and they acknowledge that there is some uncertainty around heating effects on the eyes). The medical community understands that skin is the largest organ of the human body and a key part of the neuro-immune and neuro-endocrine systems. Natural UVA and UVB (also so-called non-ionizing radiation) that penetrate the skin less than 5G millimetre waves have profound effects on health and wellbeing of humans. Therefore, artificial 5G waves must be subjected to rigorous safety testing."
"Unfortunately, the questionable conduct of regulatory agencies such as ARPANSA and WHO's international EMF Project (43) with conflicts of interest due to funding links to the wireless industry (44) remains to be investigated. More open questioning and protests are appearing in Europe and North America where there is some level of engagement on the part of government bodies in response to warnings of adverse health effects of anthropogenic EMF/EMR by expert medical bodies such as EUROPAEM and AAEM (31,32) (despite industry opposition)."
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5G Communication Technology and Coronavirus Disease [Health Matters]
James C. Lin. 5G Communication Technology and Coronavirus Disease [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine, 21(9):16-19. Sep 2020.

No abstract.
Excerpts
"The fact is that there is no link between the COVID-19 virus and 5G cell phone technology or 5G base-station communication towers. These are totally different constructs; they are not even close. None of the conspiracy theories that try to link 5G and the coronavirus make any sense scientifically."
"For biological matters, it is not obvious whether the biological responses to high-band 5G radiation will be akin to earlier generations or low-band 5G radiations, given the distinctive characteristics of mm-wave [millimeter wave] and its interaction with the complex structure and composition of pertinent biological tissues."
"It is important to note that the recent NTP and Ramazzini RF exposure studies presented similar findings in terms of heart schwannomas and brain gliomas. Thus, two relatively well-conducted RF exposure studies employing the same strain of rats showed consistent results in significantly increased cancer risks. More recently, an advisory group for the IARC has recommended including reevaluation of the carcinogenicity of human exposure to RF radiation, with high priority, in their monograph series [7]."
"... the 5G frequency domain is divided into low, mid, and high bands. The operating frequencies at low and mid bands can overlap with the current 4G band at 6 GHz or below. Thus, the biological effects of RF radiation at these lower frequency bands are likely to be comparable to 2, 3, or 4G. However, the scenarios of high-band 5G—especially for 24–60 GHz in the mm-wave region for high-capacity, short-range wireless data communications—are relatively recent arrivals and pose considerable challenge to health risk assessment. There is a paucity of data on permittivity and coupling, such as reflection, transmission, and induced energy deposition, in biological tissues in the mm-wave frequency band."
"Induced energy deposition increases with mm-wave frequency. However, at the highest frequencies, the energy deposition in the deeper regions inside the skin is lower because of the reduced penetration depth at these frequencies [11]."
"A recently published review [13] included 45 in vivo studies conducted using laboratory animals and other biological preparations and 53 in vitro studies involving primary cells and cultured cell lines.... This industry-supported review noted that, aside from the wide frequency ranges, the studies were diverse both in subjects and in the end points investigated. Biological effects were observed to occur both in vivo and in vitro for different biological endpoints studied. Indeed, the percentage of positive responses at nonthermal levels in most frequency groups was as high as 70%."
"While many of these investigations with mm-wave exposures reported biological responses, there is inconsistency in the dependence of biological effects and mm-wave intensity used for exposure. Also, the reported in vitro and in vivo laboratory investigations are modest in number and diverse in subject matter, considering the wide 5G/mmwave frequency domain. The jury on the biological effect or health impact is still out on 5G. Moreover, there is a lack of ongoing controlled laboratory investigations. Simply put, the existing scientific data are too limited for any reliable assessment or conclusion with certainty."
https://ieeexplore-ieee-org/document/9154657

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Setting Guidelines for Electromagnetic Exposures and Research Needs
Barnes F, Greenebaum B. Setting Guidelines for Electromagnetic Exposures and Research Needs. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020 Jul;41(5):392-397. doi: 10.1002/bem.22267.
Abstract

Current limits for exposures to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) are set, based on relatively short-term exposures. Long-term exposures to weak EMF are not addressed in the current guidelines. Nevertheless, a large and growing amount of evidence indicates that long-term exposure to weak fields can affect biological systems and might have effects on human health. If they do, the public health issues could be important because of the very large fraction of the population worldwide that is exposed. We also discuss research that needs to be done to clarify questions about the effects of weak fields. In addition to the current short-term exposure guidelines, we propose an approach to how weak field exposure guidelines for long-term exposures might be set, in which the responsibility for limiting exposure is divided between the manufacturer, system operator, and individual being exposed.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32311139/
Excerpts
"Both IEEE and ICNIRP base their analyses on rigorous reviews of the scientific literature and on established firm evidence of health effects in humans. The present guidelines are based on acute exposures; to date both IEEE and ICNIRP have not found sufficient evidence to include health effects of long-term exposures at lower levels. However, over the last 20 years the evidence has become extremely strong that weaker EMF over the whole range for frequencies from static through millimeter waves can modify biological processes. There is now solid experimental evidence and supporting theory showing that weak fields, especially but not exclusively at low frequencies, can modify reactive free radical concentrations and that changes in radical concentration and that of other signaling molecules, such as hydrogen peroxide and calcium, can modify biological processes …"
"The evidence that weak radiofrequency (RF) and low-frequency fields can modify human health is still less strong, but the experiments supporting both conclusions are too numerous to be uniformly written off as a group due to poor technique, poor dosimetry, or lack of blinding in some cases, or other good laboratory practices. Based on recent studies by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) [SmithRoe et al., 2020] and the Ramazzini Foundation [Falcioni et al., 2018] as well as laboratory data, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has declared RF fields as possible human carcinogens [IARC, 2013]. A recent paper extends the NTP studies by evaluating genotoxicity in animals exposed to fields at or over the guideline limits and found DNA damage in Comet assays [SmithRoe et al., 2020]. Many other papers indicate similar results, but many negative results are also in the literature."

"PROPOSED APPROACH TO SETTING EXPOSURE LIMITS

From these and other lines of solid research, the guidelines for exposure could be revised. Increased emphasis on long-term exposures may require refining the concept of dose to more flexibly combine exposure time and field intensity or energy absorbed. Eventual guidelines might suggest limiting cell phone calls to X hours per day with exposure levels above Y W/m2, and for Z days per week exposure should be less than Y W/m2 to allow the body to reset its baseline."

"What is missing in the current guidelines or regulations are guidelines for long-term exposure to weak EMF…."

"Guidelines should be set at three levels: the individual user, local company, and national or international level…. External guidance, in terms of informed recommendations or at least analysis of various intensities and styles of usage from some agency such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) or NIH, would be useful.

Limits on the time for operations of base stations and exposures in adjacent living spaces are not controlled by the user and must be set by competent authorities, based on scientific evidence. It is likely to be difficult to specify times when exposures to RF signals are zero or below some limit. What will be needed is being able to say with some certainty that exposure below a given level has not been shown to cause changes in body chemistry above some level. A starting point might be current levels from TV and radio stations that are large enough to give signal-to-noise ratios around 20 dB (100-fold) with typical receiving systems. Currently, mean values for the population's exposure to these systems are estimated to be around 0.1 V/m and peak exposures range up to 2 V/m, which exceed current exposure limits for a small fraction of the population. Therefore, one starting point for exposure limits might be an average of 0.1 V/m, not based on research but on practicality, until further research results dictate either a lower or higher limit."

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Effects of 5G Wireless Communication on Human Health
Karaboytcheva M. Effects of 5G wireless communication on human health. European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS). Briefing document: PE 646.172. March 2020.
Summary
The fifth generation of telecommunications technologies, 5G, is fundamental to achieving a European gigabit society by 2025.
The aim to cover all urban areas, railways and major roads with uninterrupted fifth generation wireless communication can only be achieved by creating a very dense network of antennas and transmitters. In other words, the number of higher frequency base stations and other devices will increase significantly.
This raises the question as to whether there is a negative impact on human health and environment from higher frequencies and billions of additional connections, which, according to research, will mean constant exposure for the whole population, including children.
Whereas researchers generally consider such radio waves not to constitute a threat to the population, research to date has not addressed the constant exposure that 5G would introduce. Accordingly, a section of the scientific community considers that more research on the potential negative biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and 5G is needed, notably on the incidence of some serious human diseases. A further consideration is the need to bring together researchers from different disciplines, in particular medicine and physics or engineering, to conduct further research into the effects of 5G.
The EU's current provisions on exposure to wireless signals, the Council Recommendation on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz), is now 20 years old, and thus does not take the specific technical characteristics of 5G into account.
In this Briefing
  • Difference between 5G and current technology
  • Regulation of electromagnetic fields and 5G exposure
  • European Parliament Research on EMF and 5G effects on human health
  • Stakeholders' views
  • The road ahead for 5G
Open access paper: https://bit.ly/EUParl5G
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Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking technology under real-life conditions
Kostoff RN, Heroux P, Aschner M, Tsatsakis A. Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking technology under real-life conditions. Toxicology Letters. 323(1):35-40. May 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.01.020.



Highlights

• Identifies wide-spectrum of adverse health effects of non-ionizing non-visible radiation
• Most laboratory experiments were not designed to identify the more severe adverse effects reflective of real-life conditions
• Many experiments do not include the real-life pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal
• Vast majority of experiments do not account for synergistic adverse effects of other toxic stimuli with wireless radiation
• 5G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, but will have adverse systemic effects as well

Abstract

This article identifies adverse effects of non-ionizing non-visible radiation (hereafter called wireless radiation) reported in the premier biomedical literature. It emphasizes that most of the laboratory experiments conducted to date are not designed to identify the more severe adverse effects reflective of the real-life operating environment in which wireless radiation systems operate. Many experiments do not include pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal. The vast majority do not account for synergistic adverse effects of other toxic stimuli (such as chemical and biological) acting in concert with the wireless radiation. This article also presents evidence that the nascent 5G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, as commonly believed, but will have adverse systemic effects as well.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31991167

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Appeals that matter or not on a moratorium on the deployment of the fifth generation, 5G, for microwave radiation
Hardell L, Nyberg R. [Comment] Appeals that matter or not on a moratorium on the deployment of the fifth generation, 5G, for microwave radiation. Molecular and Clinical Oncology. Published online January 22, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.1984.

Abstract

Radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range of 30 kHz‑300 GHz is classified as a 'possible' human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 2011. The evidence has since then been strengthened by further research; thus, RF radiation may now be classified as a human carcinogen, Group 1. In spite of this, microwave radiations are expanding with increasing personal and ambient exposure. One contributing factor is that the majority of countries rely on guidelines formulated by the International Commission on Non‑Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a private German non‑governmental organization. ICNIRP relies on the evaluation only of thermal (heating) effects from RF radiation, thereby excluding a large body of published science demonstrating the detrimental effects caused by non‑thermal radiation. The fifth generation, 5G, for microwave radiation is about to be implemented worldwide in spite of no comprehensive investigations of the potential risks to human health and the environment. In an appeal sent to the EU in September, 2017 currently >260 scientists and medical doctors requested for a moratorium on the deployment of 5G until the health risks associated with this new technology have been fully investigated by industry‑independent scientists. The appeal and four rebuttals to the EU over a period of >2 years, have not achieved any positive response from the EU to date. Unfortunately, decision makers seem to be uninformed or even misinformed about the risks. EU officials rely on the opinions of individuals within the ICNIRP and the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR), most of whom have ties to the industry. They seem to dominate evaluating bodies and refute risks. It is important that these circumstances are described. In this article, the warnings on the health risks associated with RF presented in the 5G appeal and the letters to the EU Health Commissioner since September, 2017 and the authors' rebuttals are summarized. The responses from the EU seem to have thus far prioritized industry profits to the detriment of human health and the environment.

Excerpt
In conclusion, this article demonstrates that the EU has given mandate to a 13‑member, non‑governmental private group, the ICNIRP, to decide upon the RF radiation guidelines. The ICNIRP, as well as SCENIHR, are well shown not to use the sound evaluation of science on the detrimental effects of RF radiation, which is documented in the research which is discussed above (9,10,21‑24,54,55). These two small organizations are producing reports which seem to deny the existence of scientific published reports on the related risks. It should perhaps be questioned whether it is in the realm of protecting human health and the environment by EU and whether the safety of EU citizens and the environment can be protected by not fully understanding the health‑related risks.
Open access paper: https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/mco.2020.1984/download
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Spatial and Time Averaging Restrictions Within the Electromagnetic Exposure Safety Framework in the Frequency Range Above 6 GHz

Neufeld E, Samaras T, Kuster N. Discussion on Spatial and Time Averaging Restrictions Within the Electromagnetic Exposure Safety Framework in the Frequency Range Above 6 GHz for Pulsed and Localized Exposures. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Dec 30. doi: 10.1002/bem.22244.

Abstract
Both the current and newly proposed safety guidelines for local human exposure to millimeter-wave frequencies aim at restricting the maximum local temperature increase in the skin to prevent tissue damage. In this study, we show that the application of the current and proposed limits for pulsed fields can lead to a temperature increase of 10°C for short pulses and frequencies between 6 and 30 GHz. We also show that the proposed averaging area of 4 cm2 , that is greatly reduced compared with the current limits, does not prevent high-temperature increases in the case of narrow beams. A realistic Gaussian beam profile with a 1 mm radius can result in a temperature increase about 10 times higher than the 0.4°C increase the same averaged power density would produce for a plane wave. In the case of pulsed narrow beams, the values for the time and spatial-averaged power density allowed by the proposed new guidelines could result in extreme temperature increases.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31885092
Excerpts
.... In this letter, we look at limits, such as those currently proposed or recently approved for the revised ICNIRP guidelines and IEEE standard, and investigate whether such limits are consistent with the stated goals of the exposure safety frameworks of preventing excessive heating in the case of pulsed and/or localized radiation. In cases when they are not consistent, we discuss how consistency can be achieved. In line with the above mentioned safety standards and exposure guidelines, the presented analysis focuses exclusively on the magnitude of the tissue temperature increase as a risk factor and does not consider other aspects, such as the thermoelastic effect related to the rapidity of temperature increase.....
In conclusion, the results presented above demonstrate that, in the case of very short pulses, pulse‐duration‐independent limits imposed on transmitted energy density (fluence) alone cannot preclude the induction of high‐temperature increases in the skin. Pulse‐duration‐dependent limits should be applied also for pulses less than 1 s and possibly less than 30 GHz as well. Even though the amplifiers of the currently developed consumer devices will not allow the full exploitation of the limits of the guidelines, the guidelines should not implicitly rely on this, as they will be used to develop exposure assessment standards with the aim of ensuring safety of any future technology, e.g. IEC/IEEE 63195 [2018]. Accordingly, either assumption must be explicitly stated in the guidelines, or the limits should be adapted to be intrinsically safe. In the absence of limitations applied to the peak‐to‐average power ratio of pulses, it is possible to deliver to the body large amounts of energy within a very short time interval. For millimeter‐wave frequencies, where the absorption is superficial, this results in fast and dramatic temperature rises, as the step response function is proportional to the rapidly rising ... rather than the ... commonly encountered for deeper heating. As far as spatial averaging is concerned, it has been shown that an averaging area smaller than 4 cm2 should be introduced in order to avoid peak PDs in narrow beams [Neufeld and Kuster, 2018] that overheat the tissues. With increasing beam radius, e.g. at larger distances from the antenna(s), the tolerable averaging area increases rapidly, provided that there are no sharp exposure peaks. Duration‐independent limits on the fluence of pulses are not suitable. They should either be replaced by duration‐dependent fluence limits for pulses or by limits on the (temporal) peak exposure. In both cases, the limits should be set after taking narrow‐beam exposures into consideration. These limits will depend on the chosen spatial and temporal averaging schemes and the maximum temperature increase deemed acceptable. Forward‐looking knowledge about the technical needs and priorities of the industry could allow for selecting the balance between thresholds (averaging time and area, peak‐to‐average ratio, PD) to minimally impact the technological potential using the same limit‐setting framework.

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5G mobile networks rated as "high impact" risk for insurance industry
in new Emerging Risk report from Swiss Re

Swiss Re, one of the world's leading providers of insurance and reinsurance, rated 5G as a "high impact" risk for the insurance industry that may affect property and casualty claims in more than 3 years.
Off the leash – 5G mobile networks
"5G – short for fifth generation – is the latest standard for cellular mobile communications. Providing ultrafast broadband connection with higher capacity and lower latency, 5G is not only heaven for your smartphone. It will enable wireless connectivity in real time for any device of the Internet of things (IoT), whether that be autonomous cars or sensor-steered factory. In doing so, it will allow decentralised seamless interconnectivity between devices. To allow for a functional network coverage and increased capacity overall, more antennas will be needed, including acceptance of higher levels of electromagnetic radiation. In some jurisdictions, the rise of threshold values will require legal adaptation. Existing concerns regarding potential negative health effects from electromagnetic fields (EMF) are only likely to increase. An uptick in liability claims could be a potential long-term consequence.
Other concerns are focused on cyber exposures, which increase with the wider scope of 5G wireless attack surfaces. Traditionally IoT devices have poor security features. Moreover, hackers can also exploit 5G speed and volume, meaning that more data can be stolen much quicker. A large-scale breakthrough of autonomous cars and other IoT applications will mean that security features need to be enhanced at the same pace. Without, interruption and subversion of the 5G platform could trigger catastrophic, cumulative damage. With a change to more automation facilitated by new technology like 5G, we might see a further shift from motor to more general and product liability insurance. There are also worries about privacy issues (leading to increased litigation risks), security breaches and espionage. The focus is not only on hacking by third parties, but also potential breaches from built-in hard- or software "backdoors." In addition, the market for 5G infrastructure is currently focussed on a couple of firms, and that raises the spectre of concentration risk. Potential impacts:
· Cyber exposures are significantly increased with 5G, as attacks become faster and higher in volume. This increases the challenge of defence.
· Growing concerns of the health implications of 5G may lead to political friction and delay of implementation, and to liability claims. The introductions of 3G and 4G faced similar challenges.
· Information security and national sovereignty concerns might delay implementation of 5G further, increasing uncertainty for planning authorities, investors, tech companies and insurers.
· Heated international dispute over 5G contractors and potential for espionage or sabotage could affect international cooperation, and impact financial markets negatively.
· As the biological effects of EMF in general and 5G in particular are still being debated, potential claims for health impairments may come with a long latency."
Source: Swiss Re. SONAR – New emerging risk insights. Zurich, Switzerland: Sustainability, Emerging and Political Risk Management, Swiss Re Institute, Strategy Development & Performance Management. May 2019. page 29.
https://www.swissre.com/institute/research/sonar/sonar2019.html

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5G Deployment
Blackman C, Forge S. 5G Deployment: State of Play in Europe, USA, and Asia. Study for the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies, European Parliament, Luxembourg, 2019.
Download the report at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2019/631060/IPOL_IDA(2019)631060_EN.pdf

Excerpts

"It is becoming clear that 5G [fifth generation cellular technology] will cost much more to deploy than previous mobile technologies (perhaps three times as much) as it is more complex and requires a denser coverage of base stations to provide the expected capacity. The European Commission has estimated that it will cost €500 billion to meet its 2025 connectivity targets, which includes 5G coverage in all urban areas.
As 5G is driven by the telecoms supply industry, and its long tail of component manufacturers, a major campaign is under way to convince governments that the economy and jobs will be strongly stimulated by 5G deployment. However, we are yet to see significant "demand-pull" that could assure sales. These campaign efforts are also aimed at the MNOs [mobile network operators] but they have limited capacity to invest in the new technology and infrastructure as their returns from investment in 3G and 4G are still being recouped.
The notion of a "race" is part of the campaign but it is becoming clear that the technology will take much longer than earlier generations to perfect. China, for instance, sees 5G as at least a ten-year programme to become fully working and completely rolled out nationally. This is because the technologies involved with 5G are much more complex. One aspect, for example, that is not well understood today is the unpredictable propagation patterns that could result in unacceptable levels of human exposure to electromagnetic radiation."
"Although lower frequencies, many in the UHF [ultra high frequency] range, are being proposed for the first phase of 5G networks, much higher radio frequencies are also projected in bands traditionally used for radars and microwave links. Whether this will transpire is still open to question. These frequencies are being commercially tested by some (e.g. by AT&T in the USA at 28 GHz [gigahertz]). The new bands are well above the UHF ranges, being either in centimetric (3-30 GHz) or in millimetric bands (30-300 GHz) and popularly branded "mmWave", but present technical challenges that are expensive to solve."
"Although many 5G networks currently being piloted will use the much lower bands, those upper frequencies being proposed for the future may offer propagation ranges only in the order of hundreds or even tens of metres. Higher frequency signals are also subject to more interference from weather – rain, snow, fog – and obstacles - wet foliage or buildings and their walls. This means that, at higher frequencies, indoor use may be problematic if based on through-wall or window penetration. Consequently, re-use of the existing UHF bands and also those just above in the 3-10 GHz range ("mid-range") are emphasised today, to give 5G signals greater range with fewer technical challenges."
"With higher frequencies and shortened ranges, base stations will be more closely packed into a given area to give complete coverage that avoids "not-spots". Ranges of 20-150 metres may be typical, giving smaller coverage areas per "small cell". A cell radius of 20 metres would imply about 800 base stations per square kilometre (or small area wireless access points (SAWAPs), the term used in the European Electronic Communications Code (EECC)). That contrasts with 3G and 4G which use large or "macro" cells. Traditionally they offer ranges of 2-15 km or more and so can cover a larger area but with fewer simultaneous users as they have fewer individual channels."
5G Electromagnetic Radiation and Safety
"Significant concern is emerging over the possible impact on health and safety arising from potentially much higher exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation arising from 5G. Increased exposure may result not only from the use of much higher frequencies in 5G but also from the potential for the aggregation of different signals, their dynamic nature, and the complex interference effects that may result, especially in dense urban areas.
The 5G radio emission fields are quite different to those of previous generations because of their complex beamformed transmissions in both directions – from base station to handset and for the return. Although fields are highly focused by beams, they vary rapidly with time and movement and so are unpredictable, as the signal levels and patterns interact as a closed loop system. This has yet to be mapped reliably for real situations, outside the laboratory.
While the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) issues guidelines for limiting exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (EMF), and EU member states are subject to Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC which follows ICNIRP guidelines, the problem is that currently it is not possible to accurately simulate or measure 5G emissions in the real world."
USA
"The USA is moving towards some form of rollout of mobile broadband as 5G but not necessarily in a holistic, well-orchestrated operation. It is more a set of ad hoc commercial manoeuvres. Some of these are simply rebranding existing LTE, rather than delivering novel networks. Re-use of the LTE spectrum in the UHF ranges (300 MHz to 3 GHz) is significant. The latter decision is probably warranted by its geography of large rural spaces and high density urban centres situated more on the coasts. Thus, the insistence for 5G on high centimetric bands (25–30 GHz and higher) is probably less justified than for the dense conurbations of Asia and the EU.
A significant challenge concerns the administrative local barriers to small cell rollout. The need for many small cells implies long delays and high costs. Local regulations continue to prevail despite the FCC's mandate on a light-touch regime and minimal permit costs. This has led to a wide divide between local and central government on the principles of having to obtain permission for rollout and the charges for that. Local administrations, especially in the larger municipalities, are at loggerheads with the FCC (Zima, 2018). Several court challenges are being made to the FCC mandate of August 2018 that overrides local objections to a "one-touch" regime."
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How Harmful is 5G?

Harald Schumann and Elisa Simantke. How harmful is 5G really? Der Tagesspiegel, Jan 15, 2019. (In German. For English translation email me at jmm@berkeley.edu.)
"5G should transfer huge amounts of data quickly. But it could also harm your health. Europe's governments ignore the danger."
Investigate Europe reports on the current state of the science and exposes the harmful roles that the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the World Health Organization's International EMF Project, and the EU Commission's Scientific Committee on New Health Risks (SCENIHR) have played in paving the way for the deployment of 5G without regard to health consequences.
Investigate Europe is a pan-European journalist team that researches topics of European relevance and publishes the results across Europe. The project is supported by several foundations, the Open Society Initiative for Europe, and readers' donations. Among the media partners for the report on 5G include "Newsweek Polska", "Diario de Noticias", "Il Fatto Quotidiano", "De Groene Amsterdamer", "Efimerida ton Syntakton", "Aftenbladet" and the "Falter". In addition to the authors, Crina Boros, Wojciech Ciesla, Ingeborg Eliassen, Juliet Ferguson, Nikolas Leontopoulos, Maria Maggiore, Leila Minano, Paulo Pena and Jef Poortmans contributed to this.

More about the project: https://www.investigate-europe.eu/publications/the-5g-mass-experiment/
https://www.tagesspiegel.de/gesellschaft/mobilfunk-wie-gesundheitsschaedlich-ist-5g-wirklich/23852384.html
Literature Reviews
5G Wireless Communication and Health Effects-A Pragmatic Review Based on Available Studies Regarding 6 to 100 GHz
Simkó M, Mattsson MO. 5G wireless communication and health effects-A pragmatic review based on available studies regarding 6 to 100 GHz. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Sep 13;16(18). pii: E3406. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16183406.

Abstract


The introduction of the fifth generation (5G) of wireless communication will increase the number of high-frequency-powered base stations and other devices. The question is if such higher frequencies (in this review, 6-100 GHz, millimeter waves, MMW) can have a health impact. This review analyzed 94 relevant publications performing in vivo or in vitro investigations. Each study was characterized for: study type (in vivo, in vitro), biological material (species, cell type, etc.), biological endpoint, exposure (frequency, exposure duration, power density), results, and certain quality criteria. Eighty percent of the in vivo studies showed responses to exposure, while 58% of the in vitro studies demonstrated effects. The responses affected all biological endpoints studied. There was no consistent relationship between power density, exposure duration, or frequency, and exposure effects. The available studies do not provide adequate and sufficient information for a meaningful safety assessment, or for the question about non-thermal effects. There is a need for research regarding local heat developments on small surfaces, e.g., skin or the eye, and on any environmental impact. Our quality analysis shows that for future studies to be useful for safety assessment, design and implementation need to be significantly improved.

Conclusions
Since the ranges up to 30 GHz and over 90 GHz are sparingly represented, this review mainly covers studies done in the frequency range from 30.1 to 65 GHz. In summary, the majority of studies with MMW exposures show biological responses. From this observation, however, no in-depth conclusions can be drawn regarding the biological and health effects of MMW exposures in the 6–100 GHz frequency range. The studies are very different and the total number of studies is surprisingly low. The reactions occur both in vivo and in vitro and affect all biological endpoints studied. There does not seem to be a consistent relationship between intensity (power density), exposure time, or frequency, and the effects of exposure. On the contrary, and strikingly, higher power densities do not cause more frequent responses, since the percentage of responses in most frequency groups is already at 70%. Some authors refer to their study results as having "non-thermal" causes, but few have applied appropriate temperature controls. The question therefore remains whether warming is the main cause of any observed MMW effects?
In order to evaluate and summarize the 6–100 GHz data in this review, we draw the following conclusions:
  • Regarding the health effects of MMW in the 6–100 GHz frequency range at power densities not exceeding the exposure guidelines the studies provide no clear evidence, due to contradictory information from the in vivo and in vitro investigations.
  • Regarding the possibility of "non-thermal" effects, the available studies provide no clear explanation of any mode of action of observed effects.
  • Regarding the quality of the presented studies, too few studies fulfill the minimal quality criteria to allow any further conclusions.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/18/3406
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EMF safety guidelines are fraudulent: The consequences for microwave frequency exposures and 5G
Pall M. Eight repeatedly documented findings each show that EMF safety guidelines do not predict biological effects and are, therefore fraudulent: The consequences for both microwave frequency exposures and also 5G. Second Edition, May 23, 2019.

Abstract

ICNIRP, US FCC, EU and other EMF safety guidelines are all based on the assumption that
average EMF intensities and average SAR can be used to predict biological effects and therefore safety. Eight different types of quantitative or qualitative data are analyzed here to determine whether these safety guidelines predict biological effects. In each case the safety guidelines fail and in most of these, fail massively. Effects occur at approximately 100,000 times below allowable levels and the basic structure of the safety guidelines is shown to be deeply flawed. The safety guidelines ignore demonstrated biological heterogeneity and established biological mechanisms. Even the physics underlying the safety guidelines is shown to be flawed. Pulsed EMFs are in most cases much more biologically active than are non-pulsed EMFs of the same average intensity, but pulsations are ignored in the safety guidelines despite the fact that almost all of our current exposures are highly pulsed. There are exposure windows such that maximum effects are produced in certain intensity windows and also in certain frequency windows but the consequent very complex dose-response curves are ignored by the safety guidelines. Several additional flaws in the safety guidelines are shown through studies of both individual and paired nanosecond pulses. The properties of 5G predict that guidelines will be even more flawed in predicting 5G effects than the already stunning flaws that the safety guidelines have in predicting our other EMF exposures. The consequences of these findings is that "safety guidelines" should always be expressed in quotation marks; they do not predict biological effects and therefore do not predict safety. Because of that we have a multi-trillion dollar set of companies, the telecommunication industry, where all assurances of safety are fraudulent because they are based on these "safety guidelines."

Open access paper: https://bit.ly/RFguidelinesPall190523

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5G Wireless Telecommunications Expansion: Public Health & Environmental Implications
Russell CL. 5G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications. Environmental Research. 2018 Aug;165:484-495. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.016.
Abstract

The popularity, widespread use and increasing dependency on wireless technologies has spawned a telecommunications industrial revolution with increasing public exposure to broader and higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data through a variety of devices and infrastructure. On the horizon, a new generation of even shorter high frequency 5G wavelengths is being proposed to power the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT promises us convenient and easy lifestyles with a massive 5G interconnected telecommunications network, however, the expansion of broadband with shorter wavelength radiofrequency radiation highlights the concern that health and safety issues remain unknown. Controversy continues with regards to harm from current 2G, 3G and 4G wireless technologies. 5G technologies are far less studied for human or environmental effects.
It is argued that the addition of this added high frequency 5G radiation to an already complex mix of lower frequencies, will contribute to a negative public health outcome both from both physical and mental health perspectives.
Radiofrequency radiation (RF) is increasingly being recognized as a new form of environmental pollution. Like other common toxic exposures, the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR) will be problematic if not impossible to sort out epidemiologically as there no longer remains an unexposed control group. This is especially important considering these effects are likely magnified by synergistic toxic exposures and other common health risk behaviors. Effects can also be non-linear. Because this is the first generation to have cradle-to-grave lifespan exposure to this level of man-made microwave (RF EMR) radiofrequencies, it will be years or decades before the true health consequences are known. Precaution in the roll out of this new technology is strongly indicated.
This article will review relevant electromagnetic frequencies, exposure standards and current scientific literature on the health implications of 2G, 3G, 4G exposure, including some of the available literature on 5G frequencies. The question of what constitutes a public health issue will be raised, as well as the need for a precautionary approach in advancing new wireless technologies.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29655646

Conclusion
Although 5G technology may have many unimagined uses and benefits, it is also increasingly clear that significant negative consequences to human health and ecosystems could occur if it is widely adopted. Current radiofrequency radiation wavelengths we are exposed to appear to act as a toxin to biological systems. A moratorium on the deployment of 5G is warranted, along with development of independent health and environmental advisory boards that include independent scientists who research biological effects and exposure levels of radiofrequency radiation. Sound regulatory policy regarding current and future telecommunications initiative will require more careful assessment of risks to human health, environmental health, public safety, privacy, security and social consequences. Public health regulations need to be updated to match appropriate independent science with the adoption of biologically based exposure standards prior to further deployment of 4G or 5G technology.
Considering the current science, lack of relevant exposure standards based on known biological effects and data gaps in research, we need to reduce our exposure to RF EMR where ever technically feasible. Laws or policies which restrict the full integrity of science and the scientific community with regards to health and environmental effects of wireless technologies or other toxic exposures should be changed to enable unbiased, objective and precautionary science to drive necessary public policies and regulation. Climate change, fracking, toxic emissions and microwave radiation from wireless devices all have something in common with smoking. There is much denial and confusion about health and environmental risks, along with industry insistence for absolute proof before regulatory action occurs (Frentzel-Beyme, 1994; Michaels 2008). There are many lessons we have not learned with the introduction of novel substances, which later became precarious environmental pollutants by not heeding warning signs from scientists (Gee, 2009). The threats of these common pollutants continue to weigh heavily on the health and well being of our nation. We now accept them as the price of progress. If we do not take precautions but wait for unquestioned proof of harm will it be too late at that point for some or all of us?
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935118300161

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Towards 5G Communication Systems: Are there Health Implications?
Di Ciaula A. Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications? Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Apr;221(3):367-375. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.01.011.
Highlights
• RF-EMF exposure is rising and health effects of are still under investigation. • Both oncologic and non-cancerous chronic effects have been suggested. • 5G networks could have health effects and will use MMW, still scarcely explored. • Adequate knowledge of RF-EMF biological effects is also needed in clinical practice. • Underrating the problem could lead to a further rise in noncommunicable diseases.
Abstract

The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance.


In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW).

Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics.

Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402696


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Effects of Millimeter Waves Radiation on Cell Membrane - A Brief Review
Ramundo-Orlando A. Effects of millimeter waves radiation on cell membrane - A brief review. J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves. 2010; 30 (12): 1400-1411.
Abstract
The millimeter waves (MMW) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, extending from 30 to 300 GHz in terms of frequency (corresponding to wavelengths from 10 mm to 1 mm), is officially used in non-invasive complementary medicine in many Eastern European countries against a variety of diseases such gastro duodenal ulcers, cardiovascular disorders, traumatism and tumor. On the other hand, besides technological applications in traffic and military systems, in the near future MMW will also find applications in high resolution and high-speed wireless communication technology. This has led to restoring interest in research on MMW induced biological effects. In this review emphasis has been given to the MMW-induced effects on cell membranes that are considered the major target for the interaction between MMW and biological systems.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10762-010-9731-z
Excerpts
"Several studies on the effects induced by millimeter radiation on biological systems have been reported in the literature. Diverse effects have been observed on cell free systems, cultured cells, isolated organs of animals and humans. The subject has been extensively reviewed by Motzkin [17] and more recently by Pakhomov [3]. At the cellular level these effects are mainly on the membrane process and ion channels, molecular complexes, excitable and other structures. Many of these effects are quite unexpected from a radiation penetrating less than 1 mm into biological tissues [3, 18, 19]. However none of the findings described in the above reviews has been replicated in an independent laboratory, thus they cannot be considered as established biological effects."
"…a large number of cellular studies have indicated that MMW may alter structural and functional properties of membranes (Table 2)."
Conclusion
"In this review emphasis has been given to the low-level MMW effects on cell membranes. Above all, it should be mentioned that the reported effects are of a non-thermal character, that is, the action of radiation does not produce essential heating of the biological system or destroy its structure. In this context it appears that no permanent structural change of lipid bilayer could arise under low level (less than 10 mW/cm2) millimeter waves irradiation.
On the other hand, MMW radiation may affect intracellular calcium activities, and, as a consequence, several cellular and molecular processes controlled by Ca2+ dynamics themselves. The effects of MMW radiation on ion transport may be the consequence of a direct effect on membrane proteins as well as on phospholipid domain organization. Water molecules seem to play an important role in these biological effects of MMW radiation. Unfortunately, detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating physiological responses to MMW exposure remain largely unknown.
Usually the search at a molecular level is simpler if we can reduce the complexity of our biological samples. This is the case for cell membranes by using model systems. They can be formed by a simple lipid bilayer without interfering components and they give independence from biological activity that can create complication in searching for electromagnetic fields bioeffects. The emphasis is on the search for molecular mechanisms of the membrane effect induced by MMW with different frequencies and power density. Furthermore, replication studies are needed including good temperature control and appropriate internal control samples. It is also advantageous if the future studies are multidisciplinary, invoking an integration of high quality exposure and effects methodologies.
Clearly a significant amount of accurate experimental work is still required in order to fully understand the interactions between MMW radiation and cell membrane."


Research Papers (updated 12/21/2023)
Evaluation of mitochondrial stress following ultraviolet radiation and 5G radiofrequency field exposure in human skin cells
Patrignoni L, Hurtier A, Orlacchio R, Joushomme A, Poulletier de Gannes F, Lévêque P, Arnaud-Cormos D, Revzani HR, Mahfouf W, Garenne A, Percherancier Y, Lagroye I. Evaluation of mitochondrial stress following ultraviolet radiation and 5G radiofrequency field exposure in human skin cells. Bioelectromagnetics. 2023 Dec 19. doi: 10.1002/bem.22495.

Highlights

  • A 24 h exposure to a 5G signal at 3.5 GHz was able to statistically significantly alter the mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human skin fibroblasts (decrease at 1 W/Kg) and in human keratinocytes after UV-B irradiation (increase at 0.25 and 1 W/kg).

  • A 24 h exposure to a 5G signal at 3.5 GHz was not able to alter cell viability, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential in human skin cells, either alone or after UV-B irradiation.

  • Further studies on 3D or in vivo skin models would be needed to conclude about a possible effect of 5G 3.5 GHz signal on ROS production.

Abstract
Whether human cells are impacted by environmental electromagnetic fields (EMF) is still a matter of debate. With the deployment of the fifth generation (5G) of mobile communication technologies, the carrier frequency is increasing and the human skin becomes the main biological target. Here, we evaluated the impact of 5G-modulated 3.5 GHz radiofrequency (RF) EMF on mitochondrial stress in human fibroblasts and keratinocytes that were exposed for 24 h at specific absorption rate of 0.25, 1, and 4 W/kg. We assessed cell viability, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and membrane polarization. Knowing that human skin is the main target of environmental ultraviolet (UV), using the same read-out, we investigated whether subsequent exposure to 5G signal could alter the capacity of UV-B to damage skin cells. We found a statistically significant reduction in mitochondrial ROS concentration in fibroblasts exposed to 5G signal at 1 W/kg. On the contrary, the RF exposure slightly but statistically significantly enhanced the effects of UV-B radiation specifically in keratinocytes at 0.25 and 1 W/kg. No effect was found on mitochondrial membrane potential or apoptosis in any cell types or exposure conditions suggesting that the type and amplitude of the observed effects are very punctual.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/38115173/
Excerpts
To our knowledge, only a few published articles have examined the effects of 5G technology in experimental studies (EMF-Portal, 2022) at the specific band of 3.5 GHz. Among these, the exposure of zebrafish embryos at specific absorption rate (SAR) of 8.27 W/kg induced depressed sensorimotor function, abnormal behavioral responses, and variations in the expression of genes related to metabolic function in adult zebrafish (Dasgupta et al., 2020, 2022). In Drosophila melanogaster, 3.5 GHz exposure enhanced the expression of heat shock, oxidative stress, and humoral immunity system genes leading to fly developmental promotion (Wang et al., 2022). In addition, long-term exposure resulted in alterations of the expression of circadian clock genes resulting in improvement of sleep duration (Wang et al., 2021). Exposure of diabetic and healthy rats brains revealed an increase in appetite, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress (Bektas et al., 2022). Finally, no effect on anxiety-like behavior, but a SAR-dependent increase in different oxidative stress parameters were found in the guinea pig auditory cortex (Yang et al., 2022). Unfortunately, all these studies are highly heterogeneous in terms of endpoints, biological systems, and SAR levels, making it impossible to draw firm conclusions about the effects of 3.5 GHz signals on human health. It is also essential to indicate that all these studies used either an unmodulated or a GSM-modulated 3.5 GHz signal, but none of them used a 5G-modulated signal. In addition, none of the above-mentioned studies addressed the skin or other superficial tissues as relevant targets. Actually, since the penetration of the RF-EMF into the tissues decreases as the frequency increases, and given the large amount of water in the skin (Christ et al., 2006; Feldman et al., 2009), this tissue is susceptible to absorb most of the RF-EMF power when exposed to the 5G highest frequency ranges, that is, at 3.5 GHz and even more at 26 GHz.​...
Exposure of cells to 5G-modulated signals at 3.5 GHz was performed using an innovative reverberation chamber (RC) (Orlacchio et al., 2023), that is, an electrically large cavity made of metallic walls where a homogeneous field distribution was achieved through random mechanical stirring of the field components (Hill, 1998). This is particularly convenient in bioelectromagnetic experiments to ensure a highly homogeneous exposure level regardless of the samples location within the exposure system (Capstick et al., 2017; Ito & Bassett, 1983). In this study, a cell culture incubator (150 L; BINDER Gmbh), was converted into an RC to guarantee 24 h in vitro exposure under controlled biological conditions (37°C, 5% CO2, and 95% humidity). A detailed description of the system schematically represented in Figure 1a was given in (Orlacchio et al., 2023). The main components are reported hereafter. A printed patch antenna was used to deliver 5G-modulated 3.5 GHz signal in the chamber. A metallic stirrer composed of eight rectangular blades (8 × 10 × 1 cm3) was mounted on a 30 cm mast to continuously rotate through a motorized precision rotation stage (PRM1/MZ8; Thorlabs Inc.) driven via a K-Cube dc servo controller (KDC101; Thorlabs). The continuous rotation modified the boundary conditions during exposure allowing to achieve a homogeneous and isotropic averaged EMF within the samples (Serra et al., 2017)....
We report here some effects of 5G-modulated RF-EMF at 3.5 GHz on human skin cells, either alone in human fibroblasts, or after exposure to UV-B radiations in human keratinocytes. The effects were found nonlinear in relation to the SAR level and their amplitude did not exceed 30% compared to sham (fibroblasts) or to UV-B radiation (keratinocytes). Interestingly, we found no correlation with any change in the UV-B-induced mitochondrial membrane potential or apoptosis, suggesting that the RF-EMF increase in UV-B-induced ROS production was not enough to additionally impact neither mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis nor necrosis. To further determine whether these effects could lead to any protective effect or increase UV-B harmful bioeffects, it would be interesting to evaluate the activation of the cell's antioxidant response, that is, superoxide dismutase, glutathione, or glutathione peroxidase expression level or activity. It will also be of importance to assess whether the presence of ROS can induce end-products, such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal that is produced by lipid peroxidation in cells, either in skin's organoids (Sun et al., 2021) or in skin in vivo, as we previously assessed in the sera of rats exposed to a CW 2.45 GHz signal (7 h/day for 30 days, 0.16 W/kg whole-body SAR) (De Gannes et al., 2009). These approaches would indeed be more representative of the skin complexity and take into account the interaction among the different skin cells.

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RF exposure from ten 5G beamforming cell towers (3.6 GHz band) in Germany
Kopacz T, Bornkessel C, Wuschek M. Consideration of current mobile phone antenna technology when determining HF-EMF exposure - project 3619S82463. Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). Nov-2022. Report number(s): BfS-RESFOR-208/22. URN(s): urn:nbn:de:0221-2022112435660.
The report is in German with an English-language executive summary (see below).

Abstract (Google translation)

This research project deals with the metrological recording and analysis of immissions from 5G base stations with beamforming antennas in the 3.6 GHz band. As a basis, measurement methods for determining current, typical and maximum possible immissions were proposed, which suitably take into account the time-varying radiation behavior of the antennas. The maximum possible immissions can be determined either by extrapolation based on the difference in antenna gain between traffic and broadcast beams at the measuring point or by direct measurement when the maximum immission is provoked using a 5G terminal device. Immission measurements at 100 systematically selected measuring points in the vicinity of ten 5G beamforming base stations in the 3.6 GHz band resulted in maximum immissions between 0.2% (0.15 V/m) and 28.9% (17.6 V/m m) the field strength limit of the 26th BImSchV (median 4.7% or 2.9 V/m). The instantaneous immissions without provoked traffic were between 0.04% (0.03 V/m) and 1.1% (0.67 V/m) of the field strength limit value (median 0.08% or 0.05 V/m) and the emissions during typical use (ARD live stream) are only slightly higher, between 0.04% (0.03 V/m) and 1.3% (0.8 V/m) of the field strength limit value (median 0.2% or 0.12V/m). The visibility conditions between the place of immission and the 5G antenna have a major influence on the size of the immission, since significant attenuation also occurs in the 3.6 GHz band due to vegetation. The dependence on the vertical angle between the point of immission and the antenna observed in GSM, UMTS and LTE base stations has changed in the 5G beamforming base stations examined in such a way that the immissions are no longer highest at small but at larger vertical angles. len. If the beam does not act at the point of immission, but is shifted azimuthally or radially by a few tens of meters in the cell, the measurements carried out here showed an average immission reduction of 7.5 dB compared to a direct alignment of the beam to the point of immission. Long-term measurements showed that users were only active sporadically at the time of the measurements. Even with targeted provoked typical use, the 6-minute mean value of the field strength at most points could only be significantly raised above the detection limit of the measuring device by downloading a large file. Immission peaks were usually very limited in time.
Open access paper: https://doris.bfs.de/jspui/handle/urn:nbn:de:0221-2022112435660
Summary

The aim of this research project is the measurement-based assessment and analysis of RF-EMF exposure caused by beamforming base station antennas (massive MIMO antennas) used for 5G in the 3.6 GHz band. Suitable measurement methods for determining instantaneous, typical and maximum possible exposure levels are proposed as a basis.
The extrapolation to maximum possible exposure to 5G is based on the measurement of the field strength of the SS/PBCH block (SSB), which is part of the signaling and is radiated periodically. The measurement can be carried out in frequency-selective or code-selective domain. In the case of frequency-selective measurement, care must be taken to ensure that the correct RMS value is recorded. In case a laboratory spectrum analyzer is used, this is done by applying an RMS detector in combination with an observation time, which is adapted to the 5G symbol duration for each recording point. In the case of the Narda SRM-3006 field strength meter, averaging is performed by a video filter with a suitable bandwidth. For code-selective measurements, the Secondary Synchronization Signal (SSS) is decoded as part of the SSB and its field strength is determined. The code-selective measurement is preferable to the frequency-selective measurement because it is the only way to measure the cell-specific SSB field strength and not only the sum field strengths of all present 5G cells. Code-selective measurement values are also independent of the traffic superimposing the SSB in time.

The usage of beamforming in the 3.6 GHz band, i.e. the time-varying radiation pattern of the base station antenna, poses a great challenge to the exposure assessment with regard to determining the maximum exposure: In the case of multiple SSBs, these are sequentially radiated into different areas of the cell by the broadcast beams. However, the physical downlink shared channel (PDSCH), which is causing maximum exposure at the measurement point, is radiated via the traffic beams. The radiation characteristics of the traffic and broadcast beams can differ significantly. These differences must be considered by the extrapolation procedure individually for each measurement point depending on its location in the cell. However, this requires that the used antenna patterns of traffic and broadcast beams and the current settings are provided for the corresponding frequency bands by the network operators. Investigations in this research project have shown that this extrapolation procedure works reliably for measurement points having line-of-sight to the base station antenna.

An alternative to the extrapolation to maximum possible exposure is the immediate measurement while maximum exposure is provoked using a 5G user equipment, which is located in the vicinity of the measurement point and is allocated as many resources of the base station as possible by means of an FTP download. In this way, radiation with maximum possible EIRP towards the measurement point is forced. Given the complexity of required data for the extrapolation procedure, this method is a recommendable alternative as the current network utilization in the 3.6 GHz band is very low. However, due to the higher market penetration of 5G terminals expected in the medium term, it is questionable whether it can still be applied reliably in the future.
In the course of the measurements, exposure levels were determined at each ten systematically selected measurement points in the vicinity of ten 5G base stations with massive MIMO antennas in the 3.6 GHz band. On the one hand, the "instantaneous exposure" experienced at the measurement time without provoked utilization of the radio cell and on the other hand the "typical exposure" (i.e. the exposure occurring during a typical use case (TV live streaming)) as well as the "maximum exposure" during provoked utilization of the radio cell were determined. Maximum exposure was investigated by immediate measurement while a 5G user equipment was provoking maximum exposure in the vicinity of the measurement point. In addition to typical exposure levels in case a traffic beam was aligned with the measurement point, for more than half of the measurement points, the typical exposure was determined in case the traffic beam was displaced either horizontally of radially into another area of the cell. Furthermore, the instantaneous and maximum exposure levels to GSM, LTE and LTE/5G-DSS (Dynamic Spectrum Sharing, passive antennas) were determined at each two measurement points in the vicinity of five base stations.

The highest maximum exposure level determined (no. of measurement points n = 96) amounts to 28.9 % (17.7 V/m) of the German safety limits given by the 26th Ordinance Implementing the Federal Immission Control Act (26. BImSchV), which are equal to the reference levels given in ICNIRP 1998 and 2020. The lowest maximum exposure level is 0.2 % (0.15 V/m). Thus, there is a very large range of more than 40 dB. For measurement points with line-of-sight (LOS) to the 5G antenna (n = 56), the range is significantly lower at 27 dB. The mean maximum exposure level over all measurement points is 9.3 % of the reference levels (5.7 V/m, averaged over power) and the median is 4.7 % (2.9 V/m). Compared to the results of the previous studies on LTE and UMTS, the frequency distribution of the maximum exposure levels experiences a broadening towards higher values. However, it should be noted, that in this project only systematically selected measurement points were chosen which tended to have LOS to the antenna and thus above-average exposure levels, whereas the measurement points in the previous studies were also selected randomly.

The highest typical exposure level caused by TV streaming (n = 97) is 1.3 % of the reference levels (0.8 V/m) and the lowest 0.04 % (0.03 V/m, detection threshold of the measuring device), which means that the real typical exposure levels could be even lower at some points. The range is nearly 30 dB both for measurement points with line-of-sight (LOS, n = 57) and without line-of-sight (NLOS, n = 40) to the 5G antenna. Evaluated over all measurement points, the range is only slightly higher at a little more than 30 dB. The mean typical exposure level over all measurement points is 0.4 % of the reference levels (0.27 V/m, averaged over power) and the median is 0.2 % (0.12 V/m).

For the instantaneous exposure levels without provoked utilization of the radio cell (n = 100), the maximum is 1.1 % of the reference levels (0.67 V/m) and the minimum is 0.04 % (0.03 V/m, detection threshold of the measurement device). According to typical exposure levels, the real instantaneous exposure could also be even lower at some points. Over all measurement points, the found range of 29 dB is similar to that of the typical exposure levels. At measurement points without line-of-sight to the antenna (NLOS, n = 40), the range of 22 dB is lower compared to measurement points with line-of-sight to the antenna (LOS, n = 60, 27 dB), which is presumably due to the fact that in NLOS cases, measured values in the order of the magnitude of the detection limit frequently occurred. This can be also observed in the frequency distribution of the measured instantaneous exposure levels, where very low values strongly dominate.
Due to the currently very low network load in the 3.6 GHz band, the measured instantaneous exposure levels are for the most part very close to the theoretically estimated minimum exposure (0.01 % to 0.4 % of the reference levels), which is present when the base station is in idle mode. However, this also demonstrates that an idle 5G base station generates only very low exposure levels. Even typical use cases of a user equipment in the vicinity of the measurement point evoke exposure levels, which are still well below the maximum value. A comparison of the median values of maximum and instantaneous exposure levels shows a difference of 34.5 dB (i.e., a factor of 3,450 with respect to the power). The individual difference factors at the single measurement points ranged between about 7 dB and 48 dB. Only at six of the 96 measurement points, the difference factor was less than 20 dB.
At ten measurement points in the vicinity of five 5G base stations, the instantaneous as well as the maximum exposure values to all mobile radio services (GSM, LTE, LTE/5G-DSS and 5G in the 3.6 GHz band) and frequency bands operated at the base stations were determined. TETRA-BOS was not installed at any of the sites. Furthermore, UMTS was no longer in operation at any of the sites. At all measurement points, the exposure to other mobile radio services (GSM, LTE and LTE/5G-DSS) dominates over the instantaneous as well as the typical 5G exposure. At nine out of ten measurement points, the instantaneous exposure to at least one frequency band of GSM, LTE or LTE/5G-DSS is also higher than the instantaneous as well as the typical exposure to 5G (this applies to both the field strength as well as the percent-age of the reference levels). Only at one measurement point, the highest field strength occurs with typical 5G usage. However, due to the lower reference level, the highest percentage of the reference levels is caused by LTE signals in the 800 MHz band. For the maximum exposure, there is no consistent result: at six out of ten measurement points (each both measurement points around three of five 5G sites), the sum of the maximum exposures to other mobile radio services dominates. At the remaining four measurement points (each both measurement points around two of five 5G sites), the maximum exposure is dominated by 5G. However, the difference factors exhibit a wide range with values between -19 dB (i.e., 5G exposure dominates) and 7 dB (i.e., exposure to other mobile radio services dominates). The maximum exposure levels to 5G at these ten measurement points were in the range of 0.7 % (0.4 V/m) to 25.5 % (15.5 V/m).

The statistical evaluation of the levels of the three different 5G exposure types ("instantaneous", "typical", "maximum") taking into account the location of the outdoor measurement points in relation to the 5G antenna shows that it is obviously not justified to use the distance between the measurement point and the base station antenna as the sole decisive criterion for the assessment of the exposure level. One reason for this is that in this range of distances, the exposure level is strongly influenced by the side lobes and nulls of the vertical antenna pattern. Due to the ability of beamforming antennas to change their direction of the main lobe in the vertical domain, the distance range, in which measurement points are located only in the region of the side lobes will be reduced, but no prediction can be done on this without knowing the actual settings of the base station (vertical scanning range). For a certain distance between measurement point and the base station antenna, the range of the measured exposure levels amounts up to 30 dB. A significant influence on the exposure levels is observed in the line-of-sight conditions between the measurement point and the 5G antenna. At the relatively high frequencies around 3.6 GHz, buildings and even vegetation have a strong attenuation on the propagating waves. However, it should be mentioned that for some non-line-of-sight measurement points, which were covered by a reflected or an edge-diffracted beam, the resulting exposure levels were comparable to exposure levels at measurement points with line-of-sight to the antenna at similar distances. The impact of the vertical angle between base station antenna and the measurement point on the resulting exposure to 5G massive MIMO antennas has changed compared to the results of similar measurements on mobile radio services with passive antennas. Obviously, it can no longer be assumed that the exposure levels at smaller vertical angles (< 10°) are in general higher than those at large vertical angles. For the investigated base stations, on average, the highest maximum exposure levels occurred even in the vertical angle range between 15° and 20°. The orientation of the beam has a significant influence on the resulting exposure. In addition to the typical exposure, while a user equipment was provoking cell load in the vicinity of the measurement point, further measurements of the typical exposure were carried out under the constraint that the active user equipment was no longer close to the measurement point, but at a greater distance of several tens of meters from it, which resulted in an azimuthal or radial displacement of the radiated traffic beam with respect to the location of the measurement point. The displacement of the beam resulted in a median reduction of the exposure levels of around 7.5 dB. The results show that, in areas of the radio cell that are not in the main lobe of the radiated beam, the exposure is on average lower. However, due to reflections and transmission via side lobes, the exposure is still measurable despite the alignment to a different location in the cell.
Long-term measurements at in total five differently located measurement points over each 24 hours around an urban and a rural 5G site in the 3.6 GHz band showed that users were active only very sporadically, which can be observed by very few peaks of the instantaneous exposure. However, the subsequently calculated 6-minute moving average of the exposure is barely affected by the exposure peaks occurring only for a short time. Most of the time, the measured instantaneous exposure at most of the measurement points was low enough to not exceed the detection threshold of the measurement device. When a typical data traffic case in the cell was provoked by a user equipment in the vicinity of the measurement point, the six-minute average exposure could only be significantly increased when downloading a large file of 1 GB. Other use cases such as surfing or video streaming generated only sporadic field strength peaks, but occurred so rarely that they did not significantly affect the six-minute aver-age exposure. The magnitude of the field strength peaks was strongly depending on the location of the measurement point. At an indoor measurement point on the upper floor immediately opposite from the base station antenna, the exposure amounted up to 9.0 % of the reference levels (5.5 V/m). At measurement points in larger distances or at higher vertical angles to the base station antenna, the exposure was clearly lower with values up to around 0.2 % of the reference levels (0.1 V/m).
Open access paper: https://doris.bfs.de/jspui/handle/urn:nbn:de:0221-2022112435660

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Sven Kuehn, Serge Pfeifer, Beyhan Kochali, Niels Kuster. Modelling of Total Exposure in Hypothetical 5G Mobile Networks for Varied Topologies and User Scenarios. Final Report of Project CRR-816. A report on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). IT'IS Foundation, Zurich. 24 June 2019.
Executive Summary

In January 2019, the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) mandated the IT'IS Foundation to evaluate the total human exposure in hypothetical 5G mobile networks for varied topologies and user scenarios to identify factors that would minimize the total exposure of the population. In this study, total exposure is defined as the combined exposure from network base stations, the user's own device, as well as bystanders' mobile devices.

The influence of various factors on total exposure in mobile communication networks (as defined above) was modeled and analyzed with the help of the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Total exposure is described as the local peak specific absorption rate (SAR) spatially averaged over any 10 g of tissue mass (psaSAR10g) averaged over a period of 6 minutes. The unit psaSAR10g was chosen because it defines the governing basic restriction for wireless exposure as the whole-body average SAR limits (wbaSAR) are intrinsically met if the limits of local exposure are satisfied. The averaging duration of 6 minutes constitutes the internationally accepted averaging time to prevent thermal hazards at frequencies below 6 GHz as instant values have little justification. However, it should be noted that some regulators define shorter averaging time periods, e.g., the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of 100 s.

In a first step, we analyzed the tissue-specific exposure as a function of frequency. The preliminary dosimetric study showed that exposure of the human brain to the 3.6 GHz band, that has been recently added to the Swiss mobile communication frequencies, is reduced by a factor of >6 for the tissue averaged SAR when compared to mobile network operation at <1 GHz. This reduction is due to the smaller penetration depth at higher frequencies. This conclusion, however, does not apply to exposed tissues close to the surface or skin (eyes, testicles, etc.) when the peak SAR in this tissue is evaluated. The peak SAR in the grey matter remains in approximately the same order of magnitude ( 3 dB) over all frequencies but the area of high exposure is reduced at 3.6 GHz.

In a second step, we used data measured in 4G systems and analyzed the latest mobile network standards to extrapolate the exposures for various 5G network scenarios. These measured data were also used to extrapolate the exposure to the future development of data usage in 5G networks.

Specifically, we analyzed the effect on the total exposure of (i) the network topology by varying the cell size and amount of indoor coverage in the network, as well as the usage of (ii) an individual's own device, and (iii) devices of close bystanders.

The results – based on simulations of more than 200 different exposure scenarios – reveal that, for all user types, except for non-users (including passive mobile phone users and users dominantly using downlink data traffic, e.g., video streaming), total exposure is dominated by the person's own mobile device. Compared to non-users, the exposure is increased (i) for light users (with 100 MByte uplink data per day) by 6 – 10 dB (or a factor of 4 to 10), (ii) for moderate users (with 1 GByte uplink data per day) by 13 – 25 dB (or a factor of 20 to >300), and (iii) for heavy users by 15 – 40 dB (or a factor of 30 to >10000). Further, the results show that peak exposure of non-users is not defined by exposure to base stations but by exposure to mobile devices of close bystanders in urban areas resulting in 6 dB (or a factor of 4) higher exposure than from a nearby base station antenna.

While a reduction of the mobile cell size leads to a reduction in total exposure by a factor of 2 to 10 for people actively using their mobile devices, this might also lead to a small increase by a factor of 1.6 in total exposure of non-users due the generally increased incident signal levels from the surrounding base stations.

Similarly, the exposure of active users can be reduced by a factor of 4 to 600 by increasing the indoor network coverage. Yet, in line with the results for the mobile cell sizes, increased indoor coverage will also lead to increased exposure of non-users by a factor of 2 to 10. This increase, however, starts at a level 1000 times lower than the typical total exposure of active users.

The results of this study show that the personal mobile device is the dominant exposure source for active mobile network users. Besides a person's own usage behavior, total exposure is also closely linked to the network infrastructure. Generally speaking, a network with a lower path loss, i.e., smaller cells and additional indoor coverage, helps to reduce total exposure. The exposure per transmitted bit is reduced by a factor of <3 by the increased spectral efficiency of the 5G technology, and the reduced penetration depth associated with the new bands at 3.5 – 3.8 GHz.

The results presented above are limited due to the network data that has been used and the definition of total exposure as stated in this report. Furthermore, it only considers time-averaged (6 min) and not instant exposures. This study does not consider (i) the effect of upcoming massive MIMO systems in 5G networks, (ii) alternative data transmission links, for instance the use of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), and (iii) millimeter wave frequencies in 5G mobile networks.
Conclusions
The results of this study show that the absorption of energy by the human brain, resulting from exposure to the 3.6 GHz band newly added to the Swiss mobile communication frequencies, is reduced by a factor >6 for the tissue averaged SAR when compared to mobile networks operating at <1 GHz, and by a factor of >2 when compared to the frequency bands at 1.8 – 2GHz. For deep brain regions, the reduction is much larger.
The reduced exposure for these regions is due to lower penetration depths at higher frequencies. Close to the surface (eyes, testicles, etc.) the exposure can be higher. At the most exposed surface of the grey matter, the values remain approximately 3 dB over all frequencies whereas the area of high exposure is reduced.
More than 200 Monte Carlo simulated exposure scenarios have been analyzed to evaluate total human exposure in 5G Networks for different topologies and user scenarios. The results show that for all users (except non-users), the total exposure is dominated by a person's own mobile device. Compared to a non-user, the exposure is increased for a light user (with 100 MByte uplink data per day) by 6 – 10 dB (or by a factor 4 to 10), for a moderate user (with 1 GByte uplink data per day) by 13 – 25 dB (or by a factor of 20 to >300), and for a heavy user by 25 – 40 dB (or a factor of 300 to >10000). The peak exposure of non-users is further not defined by exposure to surrounding base stations but by mobile devices of close bystanders in urban areas, resulting in 6 dB (or a factor of 4) higher exposure than from a nearby base station antenna.

Reducing the diameter of the mobile cell leads to a decreased overall exposure by a factor of 2 to 10 for people who actively use their mobile devices. At the same time, the reduction in cell size might lead to a small increase by a factor <2 in exposure for non-users. The exposure of active users can be reduced by factors ranging from 4 to 600 by increasing indoor network coverage which, in turn, will be linked to increased exposure of non-users by a factor of 2 to 10. However, such an increase is by a factor 1000 lower than the typical exposure of active users. The results of this study are limited due to the network data that has been used and the definition of total exposure as stated earlier in this report. This study does not consider (i) the effect of upcoming massive MIMO and multi-user MIMO systems in 5G networks, (ii) alternative data transmission links – for instance the use of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and (iii)millimeter wave frequencies in 5G mobile networks.

In summary, the results of this study show that the user's own mobile device is the dominant source of exposure for the population of active mobile network users. Besides personal usage patterns, totl exposure is also closely linked to the network infrastructure. Generally speaking, a network that decreases the path loss by means of smaller cells and additional indoor coverage will help to reduce the total exposure of the population.

https://www.bafu.admin.ch/dam/bafu/en/dokumente/elektrosmog/externe-studien-berichte/modelling-of-total-exposure-in-hypothetical-5g-mobile-networks-for-varied-topologies-and-user-scenarios.pdf.download.pdf/Modelling%20of%20Total%20Exposure%20in%20Hypothetical%205G%20Networks%20-%20Schlussbericht.pdf
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El-Hajj AM, Naous T. Radiation Analysis in a Gradual 5G Network Deployment Strategy. 2020 IEEE 3rd 5G World Forum (5GWF), Bangalore, India IEEE, 2020: 448-453, ISBN 9781728173009. (Austin, TX simulation)

Abstract

In a world where many overlapping 2G, 3G, and 4G electromagnetic radiation sources already exist, concerns regarding the potential increase in these radiation levels following the roll-out of 5G networks are growing. The deployment of 5G is expected to increase power density levels drastically, given the limitations of mmWave communications that impose a notably higher number of base stations to cover a given area of interest. In this paper, we propose a gradual deployment strategy of a 5G network for a small area in downtown Austin, Texas, using the already existing 4G LTE sites of the area. The radiated power density of the proposed 5G network is then analyzed according to several electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure limits and compared to the radiation levels of the same area where only the LTE network is present. Simulation results for the selected area demonstrate the significant increase in radiation levels resulting from the addition of 5G cell towers.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9221314
For the frequency range of 2 to 300 GHz, the IEEE C95.1-2019 standard [18] specifies a limit power density value of 10 W/m2 in restricted environment and 50 W/m2 in unrestricted environments. These correspond to an averaging time of 30 minutes. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) 2020 guidelines for limiting exposure to electromagnetic fields [19] specify the general public exposure limit at 10 W/m2 for frequencies between 2 and 300 GHz with the averaging time being 30 minutes. Similar limits are specified by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in [20] where a restriction of 10 W/m2 for the general public has been set. In contrast, the institute for building biology and sustainability (IBN) in Germany have specified the exposure limit to be less than 0.1 W/m2 in their 2015 Standard of Building Biology Measurement Technique (SBM-2015) [21], which is a million-fold lower than what is specified by the aforementioned guidelines. This suggests that negative health effects can occur at levels much lower than 10
W/m2. Finally, the Chinese ministry of health [22] have set the power density exposure limit to 0.1 W/m2.This paper presented an analysis of the radiation levels in a deployed 5G network in an urban outdoor environment. Under the constraints of exposure limits, several challenges face the design and planning of such radiation aware 5G networks. Cell ranges need to be reduced to comply with the maximum allowed radiated power, requiring the densification of small cells in small areas and making it more costly to deploy these radiation-aware 5G networks. Although in this work we considered the maximum allowed EIRP prior to network deployment, results showed power density levels that do not satisfy all the exposure limits set by several sources. In this regard, a positive impact can be imposed by radiation-aware 5G networks on several levels. On a governmental level, the exposure limits for the power density need to be revised using today's data and approaches to bridge the gap between the thresholds specified by the different institutes and commissions. On a technological and scientific level, the radiation exposure constraint can open the door for innovative 5G solutions targeted to limit the health risks and economic barriers associated with this problem. This work can be extended by developing an analytical framework to efficiently rank and rate different cell allocation alternatives to minimize the potential radiations given a carefully chosen list of key performance indicators.

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Absorption of 5G radiation in brain tissue as a function of frequency, power and time
David H. Gultekin, Peter H. Siegel. Absorption of 5G radiation in brain tissue as a function of frequency, power and time. IEEE Access. Published online June 12, 2020. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3002183.
Abstract
The rapid release of 5G wireless communications networks has spurred renewed concerns regarding the interactions of higher radiofrequency (RF) radiation with living species. We examine RF exposure and absorption in ex vivo bovine brain tissue and a brain simulating gel at three frequencies: 1.9 GHz, 4 GHz and 39 GHz that are relevant to current (4G), and upcoming (5G) spectra. We introduce a highly sensitive thermal method for the assessment of radiation exposure, and derive experimentally, accurate relations between the temperature rise (ΔT), specific absorption rate (SAR) and the incident power density (F), and tabulate the coefficients, ΔT/ΔF and Δ(SAR)/ΔF, as a function of frequency, depth and time. This new method provides both ΔT and SAR applicable to the frequency range below and above 6 GHz as shown at 1.9, 4 and 39 GHz, and demonstrates the most sensitive experimental assessment of brain tissue exposure to millimeter-wave radiation to date, with a detection limit of 1 mW. We examine the beam penetration, absorption and thermal diffusion at representative 4G and 5G frequencies and show that the RF heating increases rapidly with frequency due to decreasing RF source wavelength and increasing power density with the same incident power and exposure time. We also show the temperature effects of continuous wave, rapid pulse sequences and single pulses with varying pulse duration, and we employ electromagnetic modeling to map the field distributions in the tissue. Finally, using this new methodology, we measure the thermal diffusivity of ex vivo bovine brain tissue experimentally.
Summary
In this paper, we present for the first time, a simple, highly accurate test system for measuring the temperature rise and the specific absorption rate in tissue samples and liquid or gel simulants as a function of frequency, RF exposure power and time – pulsed and CW. We use this set up to make, and compare, carefully calibrated measurements of bovine brain tissue and a gel simulant, Triton X and water, at both 4G (1.9 GHz) and newly allocated 5G frequency bands (4 GHz - 39 GHz). We show the effects of beam concentration, focusing, absorption and heat diffusion at all three frequencies and delineate a linear range over which we can derive highly accurate coefficients (ΔT/ΔF and Δ(SAR)/ΔF) that can be used to predict the temperature rise and the specific absorption rate at prescribed depths and exposure times within the tissue or gel at power levels that go down to detectable limits (<1 mW). This method may be used to evaluate a wide range of RF radiation sources, tissues and simulants.
We also note that the impact of relatively modest incident RF power (1 W) and short exposure times (6 minutes CW and 30 second pulsed) at 39 GHz using a single mode waveguide source for the exposure, results in extremely large power density (16.5 kW/m2) and temperature rise (> 60°C for CW, > 35°C for 30 s pulse) in both bovine brain tissue and gel. This same temperature rise can be expected on skin (which has very similar dielectric properties) when such large surface power densities are present in very close proximity to the RF source or antenna, perhaps emanating from millimeter-wave base stations, handsets, or wireless-enabled appliances or kiosks. Although, current safety limits of 28.76 and 143.8 W/m2 for power density in unrestricted (public) and restricted (occupational) environments, respectively should prevent such exposures, the resulting limits on RF power generation of only 1.7 to 8.5 mW from a directional RF source, such as our waveguide at 39 GHz, in the vicinity, will greatly limit the application potential for any such communications system.
In the USA, the FCC and FDA are overseeing the implementation of millimeter wave technology in the public realm and more studies are needed to help guide the science, technology and policy. Our experimental method can provide threshold temperature and SAR values for both occupational and public exposures to millimeter waves with surface power densities from 16.5 W/m2 to 16.5 kW/m2 and exposure times from 1 second to 30 minutes.
Finally, we use our new data and this RF method to derive a thermal diffusivity coefficient for the ex vivo bovine brain tissue that is consistent with our prior measurements using an MRI. This is the first time that the thermal diffusivity of ex vivo bovine brain tissue has been directly measured by this thermal RF method [47, 50, 51, 70].
Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9115853
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A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on the Measurement of the Electromagnetic Field Level Radiated by 5G Base Stations

Adda S, Aureli T, D'elia S, Franci D, Grillo E, Migliore MD, Pavoncello S, Schettino F, Suman R. A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on the Measurement of the Electromagnetic Field Level Radiated by 5G Base Stations. IEEE Access 2020. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2998448.
Abstract
This paper presents some theoretical considerations and experimental results regarding the problem of maximum power extrapolation for the assessment of the exposure to electromagnetic fields radiated by 5G base stations. In particular the results of an extensive experimental campaign using an extrapolation procedure recently proposed for 5G signal is discussed and experimentally checked on a SU-MIMO signal. The results confirm the effectiveness of the extrapolation technique. Starting from an analysis (that represents a further novel contribution of this paper) on the impact of Spatial Division Multiple Access techniques used in 5G on the measurement of EMF level, some indications of possible extension of the technique to the highly complex MU-MIMO case are also given.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9103530
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Adverse Impacts of 5G Downlinks on Human Body
Nasim I, Kim S. Adverse Impacts of 5G Downlinks on Human Body. 2019 SoutheastCon. Huntsville, AL. 11-14 April 2019. DOI: 10.1109/SoutheastCon42311.2019.9020454
Abstract

The increasing demand for higher data rates and uninterrupted reliable service have made the frequency spectrum above 6 GHz a very promising candidate for future wireless communications because of its massive amount of raw bandwidth and extremely high data transfer capabilities. However, increasing concerns of communications at high frequencies on human health have gained international alarm that suggests more research before it is deployed successfully. In this context, this paper aims to investigate the human electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from fifth-generation (5G) downlink communications and compare its impacts with the present cellular technologies considering the features that the 5G systems will likely adopt. Our simulation results suggest that while the impacts from 5G beamforming communications cross the regulatory borders at downlinks for a very short range between base stations (BSs) and user equipment (UE), the exposure level remains on a high throughout the entire network compared to the present systems. Also, this paper urges for more research on the exposure level from future communications to determine any possible threats below the existing guidelines. This paper also highlights the significance of considering SAR for the measurement of exposure compliance in downlinks.
Excerpt
... this paper urges the regulatory authorities to set SAR guidelines for 5G systems at far-field exposure also for frequencies above 6 GHz. Also, the minimum AP-UE [access point - user equipment] distance should be maintained at least 6 m [meters] for 5G and further space should be left for a conservative operation regarding human safety.
Conclusions
This paper has highlighted the significance of the human EMF exposure issue in the downlink of a cellular communications system. This paper measured the exposure level in terms of PD and SAR and compared them to those calculated in the 3.9G and 4G specifications. Distinguished from the prior art that studied uplinks only, this paper has found that the downlinks of a 5G can also yield a higher level of emissions in terms of SAR compared to concurrent cellular systems. Our results emphasized that this increase stems from more highly concentrated EMF energy per downlink RF beam due to the use of larger phased arrays within small cells of a 5G network. However, only skin effects are being taken into consideration for simplicity. This paper has also suggested the minimum AP-UE distance for human safety in cellular communications at high frequencies such as 28 GHz. To this end, this paper urges to investigate any possible threats at the exposure level shown in this work for future 5G systems before it is finally globalized.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9020454
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A Survey on Electromagnetic Risk Assessment and Evaluation Mechanism for Future Wireless Communication Systems
Jamshed MA, Heliot F, Brown T. A Survey on Electromagnetic Risk Assessment and Evaluation Mechanism for Future Wireless Communication Systems. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology. May 20, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/JERM.2019.2917766

Abstract

The accurate measurement of electromagnetic exposure and its application is expected to become more and more important in future wireless communication systems, given the explosion in both the number of wireless devices and equipment radiating electromagnetic-fields (EMF) and the growing concerns in the general public linked to it. Indeed, the next generation of wireless systems aims at providing a higher data rate, better quality of service (QoS), and lower latency to users by increasing the number of access points, i.e. densification, which in turn will increase EMF exposure. Similarly, the multiplication of future connected devices, e.g. internet of things (IoT) devices, will also contribute to an increase in EMF exposure. This paper provides a detailed survey relating to the potential health hazards linked with EMF exposure and the different metrics that are currently used for evaluating, limiting and mitigating the effects of this type of exposure on the general public. This paper also reviews the possible impacts of new wireless technologies on EMF exposure and proposes some novel research directions for updating the EMF exposure evaluation framework and addressing these impacts in future wireless communication systems. For instance, the impact of mmWave or massive-MIMO/beamforming on EMF exposure has yet to be fully understood and included in the exposure evaluation framework.

Conclusions

A thorough survey on exposure risk assessment, evaluation, limitation and mitigation for current and future wireless devices and equipment have been provided in this paper. From the human health point of view, it seems that the possibility of brain tumor is still the main cause of concerns related to the extensive use of wireless devices, even though the effects of EMF exposure is now being investigated in new parts of the body (e.g. eyes). Meanwhile, with the advent of 5G, more efforts are now been made to understand the thermal and non-thermal effects of mmWave exposure on the human body. When it comes to the evaluation of EMF exposure, we have presented the most common evaluation frameworks and metrics that are utilized in wireless communications to measure the exposure. We have also explained how new more generic metrics have been defined by combining existing metrics to better reflect the exposure of large geographical areas and have argued that a generic metric for measuring the individual exposure would also be of interest. We have also reviewed the existing exposure guidelines and have explained how they can be updated for better reflecting the true nature of EMF exposure, i.e. by better taking into account the duration of exposure. Finally, we have provided some views on how key 5G enabling technologies such as densification, massive MIMO and mmWave will impact the EMF exposure in the near future; for instance, the dense deployment of small cells and IoT devices is very likely to increase the overall ambient exposure. We also believe that there could be some technical opportunities in 5G to increase the exposure awareness of wireless system users and to let them decide if they want to reduce it at the cost of, for instance, a lower QoS.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8718293
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Assessment of Maximally Allowable Power-Density Averaging Area for EMF Exposure above 6 GHz
Neufeld E, Carrasco E, Murbach M, Balzano Q, Christ A, Kuster N. Theoretical and numerical assessment of maximally allowable power-density averaging area for conservative electromagnetic exposure assessment above 6 GHz. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Dec;39(8):617-630. doi: 10.1002/bem.22147.
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to determine a maximum averaging area for power density (PD) that limits the maximum temperature increase to a given threshold for frequencies above 6 GHz. This maximum area should be conservative for any transmitter at any distance >2 mm from the primary transmitting antennas or secondary field-generating sources. To derive a generically valid maximum averaging area, an analytical approximation for the peak temperature increase caused by localized exposure was derived. The results for a threshold value of 1 K temperature rise were validated against simulations of a series of sources composed of electrical and magnetic elements (dipoles, slots, patches, and arrays) that represented the spectrum of relevant transmitters. The validation was successful for frequencies in which the power deposition occurred superficially (i.e., >10 GHz). In conclusion, the averaging area for a PD limit of 10 W/m2 that conservatively limits the temperature increase in the skin to less than 1 K at any distance >2 mm from the transmitters is frequency dependent, increases with distance, and ranges from 3 cm2 at <10 GHz to 1.9 cm2 at 100 GHz. In the far-field, the area depends additionally on distance and the antenna array aperture. The correlation was found to be worse at lower frequencies (<10 GHz) and very close to the source, the systematic evaluation of which is part of another study to investigate the effect of different coupling mechanisms in the reactive near-field on the ratio of temperature increase to incident power density. The presented model can be directly applied to any other PD and temperature thresholds.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30383885
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The Human Skin as a Sub-THz Receiver - Does 5G Pose a Danger to It or Not?

Betzalel N, Ben Ishai P, Feldman Y. The human skin as a sub-THz receiver - Does 5G pose a danger to it or not? Environ Res. 2018 May;163:208-216.
Highlights

• The sweat duct is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band, reflectance depends on perspiration.
• We outline the background for non-thermal effects based on the structure of sweat ducts.
• We have introduced a realistic skin EM model and found the expected SAR for the 5G standard.


Abstract

In the interaction of microwave radiation and human beings, the skin is traditionally considered as just an absorbing sponge stratum filled with water. In previous works, we showed that this view is flawed when we demonstrated that the coiled portion of the sweat duct in upper skin layer is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band.

Experimentally we showed that the reflectance of the human skin in the sub-THz region depends on the intensity of perspiration, i.e. sweat duct's conductivity, and correlates with levels of human stress (physical, mental and emotional). Later on, we detected circular dichroism in the reflectance from the skin, a signature of the axial mode of a helical antenna. The full ramifications of what these findings represent in the human condition are still unclear. We also revealed correlation of electrocardiography (ECG) parameters to the sub-THz reflection coefficient of human skin. In a recent work, we developed a unique simulation tool of human skin, taking into account the skin multi-layer structure together with the helical segment of the sweat duct embedded in it. The presence of the sweat duct led to a high specific absorption rate (SAR) of the skin in extremely high frequency band.
In this paper, we summarize the physical evidence for this phenomenon and consider its implication for the future exploitation of the electromagnetic spectrum by wireless communication. Starting from July 2016 the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has adopted new rules for wireless broadband operations above 24 GHz (5 G). This trend of exploitation is predicted to expand to higher frequencies in the sub-THz region. One must consider the implications of human immersion in the electromagnetic noise, caused by devices working at the very same frequencies as those, to which the sweat duct (as a helical antenna) is most attuned.
We are raising a warning flag against the unrestricted use of sub-THz technologies for communication, before the possible consequences for public health are explored.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29459303

Excerpt

The need for high data transmission rates, coupled with advances in semiconductor technology, is pushing the communications industry towards the sub-THz frequency spectrum. While the promises of a glorious future, resplendent with semi-infinite data streaming, may be attractive, there is a price to pay for such luxury. We shall find our cities, workspace and homes awash with 5 G base stations and we shall live though an unprecedented EM smog. The benefits to our society of becoming so wired cannot ignore possible health concerns, as yet unexplored. There is enough evidence to suggest that the combination of the helical sweat duct and wavelengths approaching the dimensions of skin layers could lead to non-thermal biological effects. Such fears should be investigated and these concerns should also effect the definition of standards for the application of 5G communications.


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On Measuring Electromagnetic Fields in 5G Technology
Pawlak R, Krawiec P, Żurek J. On measuring electromagnetic fields in 5G technology. IEEE Access. 7: 29826-29835. March 5, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2902481

Abstract

At the awakening of the new 5G network as the network of services, issues related to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) will become one of the key aspects for the cost-effective establishment of the 5G infrastructure. The new 5G services will meet the rigorous demand for bandwidth through the implementation of a large number of densely located base stations operating in the millimeter-wave range. Introduction of new emission sources, working in parallel with already existing 2G/3G/4G mobile technologies, raises concerns about exceeding the admissible EMF exposure limits. This paper analyzes issues and challenges related to EMF measurements in 5G technology, which are crucial for the assessment of EMF compliance with regulatory limits. We point out that the existing methodologies, dedicated to EMF measurements in 2G, 3G, and 4G networks, are not suitable for 5G. The reason is the use of new techniques, such as massive MIMO and precise beamforming together with higher frequency bands so that the existing measurement methods can lead to significantly overestimated results when they will be applied to 5G networks. Such results, in conjunction with the restrictive legislation on the EMF limits that apply in some countries, may have the negative impact on 5G network deployment, making it difficult to achieve the intended 5G network capabilities. We also propose an alternative method of EMF exposure assessment that is based on calculations and simulations and allows obtaining an accurate estimation of the EMF distribution in the 5G environment.

Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8660395


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Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Assessment for Future 5G Networks
Persia S, Carciofi C, Barbiroli M, Volta C, Bontempelli D, Anania G. Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure assessment for future 5G networks. IEEE 29th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2018. IEEE, 2018. doi:10.1109/PIMRC.2018.8580919

Abstract

The fifth generation of mobile network (5G) will relay not only on the expansion of existing fourth (4G) Long Term Evolution (LTE) network, but thanks to the introduction of new radio access in the millimetre wave bands will allow to meet new requirements in terms of connectivity and capacity. Specifically, 5G network will be characterized by the use of new spectrum at higher frequencies with a very large number of antenna elements deployment. As a consequence, the RF EMF (Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field) compliance assessments with the regulatory requirements for human exposure for the installation permission needs to be revised accordingly. In this work, a Country case (Italy), where a more restrictive regulatory framework than the ICNIRP Guidelines is applied, has been analysed to investigate the impact of the restrictive approach on the future 5G mobile networks roll-out.

Conclusions

The EMF evaluations of existing cellular networks has been analysed in this work in order to highlight how restrictive regulatory framework than International Guidelines can affect 5G and future network deployment. Italy case study is considered as an example, due to its restrictive regulation to verify if it can permit an efficient 5G roll-out. This consideration has been confirmed by evaluations of the trend of saturated sites from 2010 to 2017 in Italy. Simulations demonstrate that in Italy the strong development expected for the evolution of 4G networks and, in the perspective of 5G systems, can be threatened with the stringent constraints imposed by the current regulatory framework for exposure to electromagnetic fields.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8580919


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Derivation of Safety Limits for 5G RF Exposure Based on Analytical Models & Thermal Dose
Neufeld E, Kuster N. Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose. Health Phys. 2018 Sep 21. 705-711. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000930.

Abstract

Extreme broadband wireless devices operating above 10 GHz may transmit data in bursts of a few milliseconds to seconds. Even though the time- and area-averaged power density values remain within the acceptable safety limits for continuous exposure, these bursts may lead to short temperature spikes in the skin of exposed people. In this paper, a novel analytical approach to pulsed heating is developed and applied to assess the peak-to-average temperature ratio as a function of the pulse fraction α (relative to the averaging time T; it corresponds to the inverse of the peak-to-average ratio). This has been analyzed for two different perfusion-related thermal time constants (τ1 = 100 s and 500 s) corresponding to plane-wave and localized exposures. To allow for peak temperatures that considerably exceed the 1 K increase, the CEM43 tissue damage model, with an experimental-data-based damage threshold for human skin of 600 min, is used to allow large temperature oscillations that remain below the level at which tissue damage occurs. To stay consistent with the current safety guidelines, safety factors of 10 for occupational exposure and 50 for the general public were applied. The model assumptions and limitations (e.g., employed thermal and tissue damage models, homogeneous skin, consideration of localized exposure by a modified time constant) are discussed in detail.

The results demonstrate that the maximum averaging time, based on the assumption of a thermal time constant of 100 s, is 240 s if the maximum local temperature increase for continuous-wave exposure is limited to 1 K and α ≥ 0.1. For a very low peak-to-average ratio of 100 (α ≥ 0.01), it decreases to only 30 s. The results also show that the peak-to-average ratio of 1,000 tolerated by the International Council on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30247338


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Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink
Nasim I, Kim S. Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink. Submitted on 10 Nov 2017 to IEEE International Communications Conference. arXiv:1711.03683v1.

Abstract
While cellular communications in millimeter wave (mmW) bands have been attracting significant research interest, their potential harmful impacts on human health are not as significantly studied. Prior research on human exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields in a cellular communications system has been focused on uplink only due to the closer physical contact of a transmitter to a human body. However, this paper claims the necessity of thorough investigation on human exposure to downlink RF fields, as cellular systems deployed in mmW bands will entail (i) deployment of more transmitters due to smaller cell size and (ii) higher concentration of RF energy using a highly directional antenna. In this paper, we present human RF exposure levels in downlink of a Fifth Generation Wireless Systems (5G). Our results show that 5G downlink RF fields generate significantly higher power density (PD) and specific absorption rate (SAR) than a current cellular system. This paper also shows that SAR should also be taken into account for determining human RF exposure in the mmW downlink.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1711.03683


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Implications of EMF exposure limits on output power levels for 5G devices above 6 GHz

Colombi D, Thors B, Törnevik C. Implications of EMF exposure limits on output power levels for 5G devices above 6 GHz. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters. 14:1247-1249. 04 February 2015. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2015.2400331.
Abstract
Spectrum is a scarce resource, and the interest for utilizing frequency bands above 6 GHz for future radio communication systems is increasing. The possible use of higher frequency bands implies new challenges in terms of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure assessments since the fundamental exposure metric (basic restriction) is changing from specific absorption rate (SAR) to power density. In this study, the implication of this change is investigated in terms of the maximum possible radiated power (P max ) from a device used in close proximity to the human body. The results show that the existing exposure limits will lead to a non-physical discontinuity of several dB in P max as the transition is made from SAR to power density based basic restrictions. As a consequence, to be compliant with applicable exposure limits at frequencies above 6 GHz, P max might have to be several dB below the power levels used for current cellular technologies. Since the available power in uplink has a direct impact on the system capacity and coverage, such an inconsistency, if not resolved, might have a large effect on the development of the next generation cellular networks (5G).
Conclusion
Above 6 GHz for FCC and 10 GHz for ICNIRP, EMF exposure limits are defined in terms of free-space power density rather than SAR. It was shown that at the transition frequency where the exposure metric changes, the maximum radiated power to meet compliance with ICNIRP and FCC EMF limits, for a device used in close proximity of the body, presents a strong discontinuity (in the order of 6 dB for the investigated case). This discrepancy has no scientific basis and is due to inconsistencies in the exposure limits. As a consequence, the estimated maximum output power in uplink for devices operating at frequencies above 6-10 GHz is about 18 dBm and 15 dBm for ICNIRP and FCC, respectively. These figures were obtained by numerical simulations of a canonical dipole at frequencies up to 70 GHz. It was shown that for more directive antennas, the maximum available power can be substantially lower. For the IEEE limits, the incongruity at the transition frequency is less evident. This is because the IEEE PD limits make use of a larger averaging area than the ICNIRP and FCC limits. The IEEE limits, however, have not yet been adopted in any national regulations.
With a growing interest for utilizing frequency bands above 6 GHz for mobile communications, it is important that the inconsistencies at the transition frequency from SAR to PD based basic restrictions are timely solved. If not, the observed discrepancy might have a large impact on the development of future mobile communication networks. We therefore encourage the relevant standardization organizations and regulatory authorities responsible for defining EMF exposure limits to address this issue.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7031364

Expert Opinions

May 20, 2019

5G: The Unreported Global Threat

Devra Davis, PhD, Medium, May 18, 2019

https://medium.com/@devradavis/5g-the-unreported-global-threat-717c98c9c37d

--
Aug 18, 2017 (Updated Sep 27, 2017)
Scientists and Physicians Oppose
"Small Cell" Antenna Bill (Calif. SB 649)

I have been hearing from scientists around the world who are deeply concerned about the deployment of fifth generation (5G) wireless technology without adequate research on the health effects of exposure to this type of radio frequency radiation.

Following is a sample of letters sent to California Governor Brown asking him to veto SB 659, a "small cell" antenna bill written by the cellular industry that paves the way for deployment of 5G wireless technology across the state.

Professor Beatrice Golomb, MD, PhD, a professor of medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Golomb's letter begins with the following warning:
"I urge in the strongest terms that you vigorously oppose California SB 649.
If this bill passes, many people will suffer greatly, and needlessly, as a direct result.
This sounds like hyperbole. It is not.
My research group at UC San Diego alone has received hundreds of communications from people who have developed serious health problems from electromagnetic radiation, following introduction of new technologies. Others with whom I am in communication, have independently received hundreds of similar reports. Most likely these are a tip of an iceberg of tens or perhaps hundreds of thousands of affected person. As each new technology leading to further exposure to electromagnetic radiation is introduced – and particularly introduced in a fashion that prevents vulnerable individuals from avoiding it – a new group become sensitized to health effects. This is particularly true for pulsed signals in the radiowave and microwave portion of the spectrum, the type for which the proposed bill SB 640 will bypass local control."
In the letter, Dr. Golomb summarizes the research on the effects of exposure to radio frequency radiation and advocates for "safer, wired and well shielded technology – not more wireless."
Appended to the letter are 360 references to the scientific literature.
The letter can be downloaded at: https://bit.ly/SB649Golomb822.

Professor Martin Pall, PhD, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences at Washington State University, explains in his letter to the Governor his peer-reviewed research which has documented ...
"exquisite sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the voltage sensors in each cell, such that the force impacting our cells at the voltage sensor has massive impact on the biology in the cells of our bodies."
"This new understanding [1-7] means we can debunk the claims of the wireless industry that there cannot be a mechanism for effects produced by these weak EMFs. The 20 years plus of industry propaganda claims are false. Rather the thousands of studies showing diverse health impacts of these EMFs can be explained. We now have a mechanism, one that is supported by both the biology and the physics, both of which are pointing in exactly the same direction."
"5G will be much more active in activating the VGCCs and producinghealth impacts because of its rapid absorption by materials in the body, because of its very rapid pulsations and because of the huge number antennae they are planning to put up, at least 200 times the number of antennae from all current cell phone towers. What this means is that the impacts on the outer one to two inches of our bodies will be massive."

His letter discusses the potential health impacts on humans and on agriculture with exposure to 5G radiation.

The letter can be downloaded at: https://bit.ly/SB649Pall


Dr. Michael Lipsett, MD, JD, a retired public health physician with extensive experience in environmental health, mentions in his letter the recent demand for a 5G moratorium by more than 180 scientists and physicians and the study of cell phone radiation conducted by the National Toxicology Program.

He points out that while individuals can take precautions to reduce their exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted by wireless devices, this is not feasible with exposure from cell antennas. He notes that ...
"laboratory and human health investigations designed and conducted by independent researchers have reported associations linking exposure to radiation from cell phones or similar devices with multiple adverse effects (e.g., headaches, impacts on brain function, memory, learning and sleep; decreased sperm counts and quality) as well as with DNA damage and tumors of the brain and nervous system."
"Potential health impacts of wireless communication have been ignored or obscured for decades by the telecommunications industry, which has implied that cell phones and other devices are safe because they comply with federal safety standards. However, these standards were established more than 20 years ago and were based on assumptions that have since been called into question by health research studies. The push to establish a 5G network, exemplified by SB 649, is based on a similarly unproven assumption: i.e., that round-the-clock exposure to 5G frequencies will not affect human health or the environment.
Establishment of a 5G network will be irreversible, as will the pattern of near-universal exposure of California residents to high-frequency, as-yet-untested 5G electromagnetic radiation."
The letter can be downloaded at: https://bit.ly/LipsettSB649.

--
June 23, 2017


EMF Scientist Appeal Advisors Call for Moratorium on Policies
for 5G "Small Cell" Antennas

The advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal submitted a letter to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in opposition to a proposed change in FCC rules that would allow rapid deployment of 5th generation (5G) wireless infrastructure throughout the nation. A copy of the Appeal was appended to the letter.
5G involves transmission of millimeter waves which operate at much higher frequencies than currently used for cellular transmission (30 to 300 gigahertz). Because the range of these signals is limited (i.e., less than a football field), hundreds of thousands of new "small cell" antennas will be required in the U.S. The wireless industry wants to install these not-so-small cellular antennas on existing public utility poles.
The FCC intends to streamline the approval of these antennas which would further undermine the regulatory authority of cities and states over cell towers.
Meanwhile the wireless industry is lobbying for legislation in many states across the country that would limit local authority over cell antenna deployment.
Due to the concern that the FCC's new rules will result in increased exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), the Appeal's advisors oppose the new rules and call for a "public health review of the growing body of scientific evidence that includes reports of increasing rates of cancer and neurological diseases that may be caused by exposure to EMF from wireless sources."
The Appeal reflects the concerns of 225 EMF experts from 41 nations about the impact of EMF exposure on public health. All of the experts who signed this appeal have published research in peer-reviewed scientific journals about the biologic or health effects of EMF.
According to the Appeal's signatories, current national and international EMF exposure guidelines are obsolete and inadequate to protect human health and the environment. The FCC's radio frequency guidelines were adopted in 1996.
The letter (dated June 9, 2017) is signed by the five advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal: Drs. Martin Blank, Magda Havas, Henry Lai, and Joel Moskowitz, and Elizabeth Kelley.
For more information:
FCC filing detail (June 9, 2017)
FCC letter submitted by Advisors to International EMF Scientist Appeal
FCC submission: International EMF Scientist Appeal

International EMF Scientist Appeal Official Website
International EMF Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields and Wireless Technology
--
May 8, 2017

A 5G Wireless Future: Will it give us a smart nation or contribute to an unhealthy one?
Dr. Cindy Russell, The (SCCMA) Bulletin, Jan/Feb 2017
Safety testing for 5G is the same as other wireless devices. It is based on heat. This is an obsolete standard and not considering current science showing cellular and organism harm from non-thermal effects. There is a large gap in safety data for 5G biological effects that has been demonstrated in older studies including military.
Recommendations
1. Do not proceed to roll out 5G technologies pending pre-market studies on health effects.
2. Reevaluate safety standards based on long term as well as short term studies on biological effects.
3. Rescind a portion of Section 704 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 which preempts state and local government regulation for the placement, construction, and modification of personal wireless service facilities on the basis of the environmental effects so that health and environmental issues can be addressed.
4. Rescind portions of The Spectrum Act which was passed in 2012 as part of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act, which strips the ability city officials and local governments to regulate cellular communications equipment, provides no public notification or opportunity for public input and may potentially result in environmental impacts.
5. Create an independent multidisciplinary scientific agency tasked with developing appropriate safety regulations, pre-market testing and research needs in a transparent environment with public input.
6. Label pertinent EMF information on devices along with appropriate precautionary warnings.
Dr. Russell provides a brief review of the research on millimeter wave bioeffects in this article: https://bit.ly/5GRussell.

--

Aug 17, 2016 (Updated Aug 19)

5G cellular technology will employ much higher frequency microwaves than current cell phone technologies: 2G, 3G, and 4G. These microwaves, known as millimeter waves, won't penetrate building materials like the current technology which is why industry may need one cell antenna base station for every 12 homes.
But millimeter waves can affect your eyes and penetrate your skin.

When the Los Angeles Times reporter contacted me for the story below, I did a quick search and found several recently published articles examining biological effects of millimeter waves (see references below). This form of microwave radiation is most likely to affect our skin and neuronal cells in the upper dermis.

Moreover, widespread adoption of 5G cellular technology in the U.S. may have profound effects on our ecosystem by altering bacteria, possibly creating harmful bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics.

History has proved that we cannot trust the FCC and the FDA to protect our health from microwave radiation exposure.


I submitted an open letter to the FCC in July calling for "an independent review of the biologic and health research to determine whether the RF standards should be modified before allowing additional spectrum to be used for new commercial applications."

Moreover, the FCC has ignored the 800-plus submissions that call upon the agency to adopt rigorous radio frequency standards to protect the public's health. Instead the agency maintains its 20-year old exposure guidelines that control only for heating or thermal risks. The FDA has ignored the thousands of studies that find nonthermal biologic effects, and the human studies that find a wide range of health effects including increased cancer risk and reproductive harm from exposure to low intensity microwaves.
In my opinion, precaution is warranted before unleashing 5G technology on the world. I suspect most of the 221 scientists who signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal (referenced in the article below), would support this assertion.

However, more research is also needed as specific characteristics of the millimeter waves (e.g., pulsing, modulation) to be employed in 5G cellular technology may be more important than the frequency or intensity of the waves in terms of biologic and health effects. The research funding must be independent of industry as conflicts of interest have been found to undermine the science in this field.
For an unbiased summary of the partial findings of the National Toxicology Program study of cancer risk from 2G cell phone radiation, see https://www.saferemr.com/2016/05/national-toxicology-progam-finds-cell.html.
--
Low-intensity millimeter waves used for pain therapy have side effects
The Russians have pioneered millimeter wave therapy (MWT) using low intensity millimeter waves to reduce pain including headaches, joint pain, and postoperative pain.

Although the following review paper documents some positive effects from short-term exposure to MWT, the authors note that there are side effects including fatigue, sleepiness, and paresthesia (an abnormal sensation, tingling or pricking ["pins and needles"] caused by pressure on or damage to peripheral nerves).
"We conclude that there is promising data from pilot case series and small-scale randomized controlled trials for analgesic/hypoalgesic effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves in frequency range 30–70 GHz. Large-scale randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of this non-invasive therapeutic technique are necessary."
"In the studies reviewed the authors did not report any health-related side effects of MWT. Slight paresthesias, previously mentioned in several case reports and non-controlled case series (10,11), appeared in almost 50% of patients in studies where the effects of MWT were carefully described (21,27,28,31). The paresthesias were of short duration and reported as pleasant ('warmth') or neutral. General fatigue and sleepiness during the treatment sessions in almost 80% of the patients was a rather desirable side effect of MWT, as also described in previous reviews on biomedical effects of MWT (10,11,21,27,28)."
From: Usichenko TI, Edinger H, Gizhko VV, Lehmann C, Wendt M, Feyerherd F. Low-intensity electromagnetic millimeter waves for pain therapy. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Jun;3(2):201-7. URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1475937/
Little research is available on long-term exposure to millimeter waves (see below). Most of the studies referred to in this review paper did not modulate or pulse the carrier waves which will be required for information-carrying millimeter waves employed in 5G technologies. Prior research suggests that such waves will be more biologically active than pure sine waves.

Additional Resources (Updated 3/13/2022)
D. B. Deaconescu, A. M. Buda, D. Vatamanu, S. Miclaus. The Dynamics of the Radiated Field Near a Mobile Phone Connected to a 4G or 5G Network. Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res. 12(1):8101–8106, Feb. 2022.
ANFR (France). Study of the 5G contribution to exposure of the general public to electromagnetic waves: Preliminary Report. Dec 2021.

Sally Beare. How green is 5G? Envirotec Magazine, Nov 2021.
Sam Aerts, Kenneth Deprez, Davide Colombi, Matthias Van den Bossche, Leen Verloock, Luc Martens, Christer Törnevik, Wout Joseph. In Situ Assessment of 5G NR Massive MIMO Base Station Exposure in a Commercial Network in Bern, Switzerland. Appl. Sci. 11(8): 3592. 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083592.
Kyuri Kim, Young Seung Lee, Nam Kim, Hyung-Do Choi, Dong-Jun Kang, Hak Rim Kim, Kyung-Min Lim. Effects of Electromagnetic Waves with LTE and 5G Bandwidth on the Skin Pigmentation In Vitro. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 26;22(1):E170. doi: 10.3390/ijms22010170.
El-Hajj AM, Naous T. Radiation analysis in a gradual 5G network deployment strategy. 2020 IEEE 3rd 5G World Forum (5GWF), Bangalore, India IEEE, 2020: 448-453, ISBN 9781728173009. (Austin, TX simulation)
Koh TH, Choi JW, Seo M, Choi H-D, Kim KH. Factors affecting risk perception of electromagnetic waves from 5G network base stations. Bioelectromagnetics. 31 August 2020. Open access paper.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety. 5G Research from the EMF-Portal Archive: 133 papers and presentations. Apr 1, 2020.
Lin JC. Telecommunications health and safety: US FCC affirms its current safety limits for RF radiation and 5G wireless. Radio Science Bulletin 2019; 2019 (371): 87-89.
Lin JC. Health Safety Guidelines and 5G Wireless Radiation [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine. 23(1):10-17. Jan. 2022, doi: 10.1109/MMM.2021.3117307.
Pujol F, Manero C, Ropert S, Enjalbal A, Lavender T, Jervis V, Rudd R, Marcus JS. Study on using millimetre waves bands for the deployment of the 5G ecosystem in the Union: Final Report. A study prepared for the European Commission. doi: 10.2759/703052. 2019.

Mehdizadeh AR, Mortazavi SMJ. Editorial. 5G technology: Why should we expect a shift from RF-induced brain cancers to skin cancers? J Biomed Phys Eng. 2019.
"In summary, although 5G technology brings new risks, it should be noted that regarding mobile phone use and cancer, the level of exposure is a factor that really matters."

The essential 5G glossary of key terms and phrases
Michaela Goss, Tech Target, Aug 12, 2019

Senator Blumenthal Raises Concerns on 5G Wireless Technology Health Risks at Senate Hearing
U.S. Senate Commerce Committee Hearing, Feb 6, 2019 (5 minute video)
"We're kind of flying blind here so far as health and safety is concerned."

Is 5G Harmful for Humans and the Environment? Kashyap Vyas, Interesting Engineering, Jan 27, 2019
U.S. Senator Blumenthal briefing on possible health risks posed by 5G wireless technology Congressional news briefing, Connecticut Network, Dec 3, 2018 (22 minute video)

Congressional letter to FCC Commissioner requesting evidence for safety of 5G
Richard Blumenthal, Anna G. Eshoo, Dec 3, 2018

Resistance to 5G: Roadblock to a High Tech Future or Warning of a Serious Health Risk? Conan Milner, Epoch Times, November 9, 2018
The roll out of 5G wireless service is 'a massive health experiment,' public health expert warns as cell companies install 800,000 towers across the US
Natalie Rahhal, Daily Mail, May 29, 2018

The 5G telecommunication technology--emitted millimeter waves: Lack of research on bioeffects
Dariusz Leszczynski, PhD, Presentation at 5th Asian & Oceanic IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection, Melbourne, Australia, May 22, 2018

NEPA rollback now official for small wireless projects
Sobczyk N, GreenWire, May 3, 2018

5G: Great risk for EU, U.S. and International Health! Compelling Evidence for
Eight Distinct Types of Great Harm Caused by Electromagnetic Exposures and the Mechanism that Causes Them
Martin L. Pall, PhD, undated

5G and Internet of Things: A Trojan Horse
Paul Héroux, PhD, The Green Gazette, Mar 27, 2018

Residents worried about small cell safety have been waiting years for federal guidance
Ryan Barwick, Center for Public Integrity, Mar 2, 2018
5G Cell Service Is Coming. Who Decides Where It Goes?
Allan Holmes, New York Times, Mar 2, 2018


'Tsunami of data' could consume one fifth of global electricity by 2025
The Guardian, Dec 11, 2017

California: Bill to ease permits for cellular antennas could impact health
Tracy Seipel. Mercury News (San Jose, CA), Aug 31, 2017
Is 5G technology dangerous? Early data shows a slight increase of tumors in male rats exposed to cellphone radiation Jim Puzzanghera, Los Angeles Times, Aug 8, 2016
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
29.3.2024 20:35

Featured News Stories


Devra Davis. Why did NIH abruptly halt research on the harms of cell phone radiation? The Hill, Feb 1, 2024.
"In a shocking reversal, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) of the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences has quietly disclosed that it will stop studying the biological or environmental impacts of cell phone radiofrequency radiation."

Louis Slesin. Paul Brodeur: The Original Microwave Pioneer. Microwave News, Oct 9, 2023.
"Brodeur got the facts right. Electromagnetic radiation can do more than simple heating. This has been known—but denied—for decades. As for links to cancer, they have grown stronger over the years .... he was right about a cover-up. It continues today."
Peter Elkind. What to Know About Cellphone Radiation. ProPublica, Jan 4, 2023. ProPublica recently examined how the federal government, based on quarter-century-old standards, denies that cellphones pose any risks. This guide answers some of the most common questions people ask about cellphone radiation.
Peter Elkind. How the FCC Shields Cellphone Companies From Safety Concerns. ProPublica, Nov 10, 2022.
A major exposé of the FCC's negligence and complicity with the telecom industry .... "The wireless industry is rolling out thousands of new transmitters amid a growing body of research that calls cellphone safety into question. Federal regulators say there's nothing to worry about — even as they rely on standards established in 1996."
Ahmad El Hajj. Will 5G Kill Me? When Telecom Politics Become a Deadly Sin. Inside Telecom (International Telecoms Business Magazine), May 4, 2022.
"What is the safe exposure time to these radiations? What is the safe distance between a person and a transmitting antenna? What are safe transmission power levels? Why haven't safety guidelines been updated for some time? Why are the opinions of some scientists been disregarded? Can telecom tower radiations clearly cause cancer or other devastating effects?"
Lyle Laver. Raise the Roof. The National Business Post, Mar 29, 2022.
"It is great to have immediate access in our mobile world, but at what cost? Should we "raise the roof" on this issue and 'put it up to 11?' Certainly, that is what the WIA and the FCC are doing right now; and the longer we wait, the more we will see this infrastructure devalue our neighborhoods, homes and health. These electromagnetic fields will only grow in strength and frequency."
Barbara Koeppel. Federal Court Instructs FCC to Review Electromagnetic Radiation Standards. The Washington Spectator, Mar 9, 2022.
"For 25 years ... the Federal Communications Commission has refused to revise the regulations it set in 1996 that address what level of radiation from cell phones should be considered safe."
Anne Brice. Moskowitz: Cellphone radiation is harmful, but few want to believe it. Berkeley News, July 1, 2021.
" there are strong parallels between what the telecom industry has done and what the tobacco industry has done, in terms of marketing and controlling messaging to the public."

Daniel Forbes. Oregon Health Authority Condemned by Scientists For Scrubbing Report on Wireless Hazards in Schools. The Washington Spectator, May 24, 2021.
Oregon's public health agency issued a shoddy, biased report on the potential harm to 600,000 schoolkids from wireless devices in classrooms.
Dariusz Leszczynski. 5G is testing the limits of trust. Medium, Apr 13, 2021.

"ICNIRP's guidelines, in addition to being set to prevent only thermal effects, are also based only on short-term, acute exposures ... there is very little research on long-term chronic exposures... applying ICNIRP guidelines to long-term exposures is based on an assumption of safety and not on the scientific evidence."

Devra Davis. Why I'm challenging the FCC about antiquated safety standards for wireless devices. The Washington Times, Feb 23, 2021.

"In 1996, Congress decided the FCC should have the primary responsibility for protecting the public from radiation exposure even though it has no health expertise and typically sides with phone companies rather than citizens. That was a mistake..."
Katie Alvord. Is Wireless Technology an Environmental Health Risk? Society of Environmental Journalists. Jan 6, 2021.
"Those concerned say thousands of studies conclude that RFR can hurt us at levels well below those microwave ovens used for cooking."
Barbara Koeppel. Wireless Hazards. The Washington Spectator, Dec 28, 2020.
"If you think your cellphone is safe, have you considered why you believe that? Is it a fact or is it based on carefully crafted messages that you've read or heard?"
Joel Moskowitz. Regulators Steamroll Health Concerns as the Global Economy Embraces 5G. The Washington Spectator. 46(9):6, September 2020. ISSN 0887-428X.

"The FCC, however, has been "short on science" for more than two decades...."

Tom Butler. On the Clear Evidence of the Risks to Children from Non-Ionizing Radio Frequency Radiation: The Case of Digital Technologies in the Home, Classroom and Society. Cork, Ireland: University College Cork. 33 pp.

Christopher Ketcham. Is 5G Going to Kill Us All? The New Republic, May 8, 2020.

"A new generation of superfast wireless internet is coming soon. But no one can say for sure if it's safe."
Louis Slesin. The Lies Must Stop Disband ICNIRP: Facts Matter, Now More Than Ever. Microwave News, Apr 9, 2020.

"The public has been fed lies and half-truths about the health effects of RF/microwave radiation for as long as I have been involved, since the 1970s."

International EMF Alliance. Misconception of 5G. Unpublished letter submitted to Scientific American, Nov 7, 2019.

This letter rebuts David Robert Grimes' article that attacks, "We Have No Reason to Believe 5G is Safe." The Grimes article has been removed from the Scientific American website.

Louis Slesin. Will WHO Kick Its ICNIRP Habit? Non-Thermal Effects Hang in the Balance. Microwave News, Nov 4, 2019.

After 8 years of work, the WHO is reopening its review of RF radiation health effects. This investigative report exposes ties between the WHO EMF Project, the ICNIRP, and the telecom industry.

Joel Moskowitz. We Have No Reason to Believe 5G is Safe. Scientific American, Oct 17, 2019.

"we should support the recommendations of the 250 scientists and medical doctors who signed the 5G Appeal that calls for an immediate moratorium on the deployment of 5G and demand that our government fund the research needed to adopt biologically based exposure limits that protect our health and safety."

Simon Hill. Is cell phone radiation actually dangerous? We asked some experts. Digital Trends, Sep 25, 2019.

"The ... standards that are in place, which haven't changed since 1996, were set based on when animal behavior changed ... If we can't draw conclusions about the NTP study, why is this earlier animal research still the basis of our safety limits?"

Joe Mahr. Lawsuit filed against Apple, Samsung after Chicago Tribune tests cellphones for radiofrequency radiation. Chicago Tribune, Aug 29, 2019.

Sam Roe. We tested popular cellphones for radiofrequency radiation. Now the FCC is investigating. Chicago Tribune, Aug 21, 2019.

The paper's year-long investigation found some of the most popular cell phones, including Apple iPhones, emit radiation that exceeds government (FCC) safety limits

Sam Roe. Testing cellphones for radiofrequency radiation: How we did it. Chicago Tribune, Aug 21, 2019.

Joel Moskowitz. 5G Health Risks. BBC Radio 5, May 30, 2019 (9 minute news segment).

The deployment of 5G in the United Kingdom today has generated great concern among the public. This is a brief overview of the health risks from exposure to 5G millimeter waves.

Devra Davis. 5G: The Unreported Global Threat. Medium, May 18, 2019.

Major mainstream newspapers commonly ignore the substantial body of science pinpointing wireless radiation and 5G hazards detailed in journalistic investigations.
Investigate Europe. Mobile phones and health: Is 5G being rolled out too fast? Computer Weekly, April, 2019.

Countries are deploying 5G at breakneck speed to gain a competitive edge, but scientists have concerns about effects on public health and are calling for a precautionary approach.
Markham Heid. Are AirPods and Other Bluetooth Headphones Safe? Medium, Mar 7, 2019.
Numerous scientific publications have shown that EMF affects living organisms at levels well below international and national guidelines including cancer, neurological disorders, and DNA damage.
Investigate Europe. The 5G mass experiment. Jan 13, 2019.

In a series of news stories, a team of investigative journalists examines the risks of 5G deployment.
"
it could also harm your health. Europe's governments ignore the danger."

Hiawatha Bray. Could your cellphone's electromagnetic field make you sick? Boston Globe, Jan 17, 2019.

The Massachusetts Department of Public Health may be withholding information about possible health risks posed by cellphones and other wireless technologies.
Ronald Melnick, Ph.D. There's a clear cell phone-cancer link, but FDA is downplaying it. The Hill, Nov 13, 2018.

Dr. Melnick was the senior toxicologist who led the design of the National Toxicology Program cell phone radiation studies.

Joyce Nelson. 5G Corporate Grail: Smart cities/dumb people? Watershed Sentinel, Nov 5, 2018.

"There's a lot of hype about 5G, the fifth-generation wireless technology that is being rolled out in various "5G test beds" in major cities ...But it's hard to see why we should be excited."

Annelie Fitzgerald. Mobile Phone Cover-up? Gov't advisory body disbanded – inaccurate and misleading conclusions remain. TruePublica (UK), Oct 17, 2018.
UK disbanded advisory group on non-ionizing radiation (AGNIR) after group issued inaccurate assessment of wireless radiation science subject to conflicts of interest. Public Heath England still relies on AGNIR report.
Martin Röösli. Mobile phone radiation may affect memory performance in adolescents. Medical Xpress. July 20, 2018.

Radio frequency radiation may have adverse effects on memory performance of specific brain regions exposed during mobile phone use.


Ronnie Cohen. Do cellphones cause cancer? Government study reveals 'stunningly important findings. Newsweek, July 19, 2018.

Current cellphone safety regulations are based on a premise that is now arguably false: that cellphone radiation can cause harm only by heating tissue.
Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie. The inconvenient truth about cancer and mobile phones.The Guardian, July 14, 2018.

We dismiss claims about mobiles being bad for our health – but is that because studies showing a link to cancer have been cast into doubt by the industry?

Reynard Loki. Our cellphone addiction is turning wireless tech into an invisible weapon that's destroying wildlife. Salon, July 14, 2018.

Electromagnetic radiation from Wi-Fi and cell towers poses a "credible risk" to birds, mammals, insects and plants
Lynne Peeples. Should cell phone providers warn customers of health risks? Berkeley says yes. McClatchy News Washington Bureau, July 11, 2018.

Although the scientific community has not reached consensus, the California health department said research indicates long-term, extensive cellphone use may affect health.

Lynne Peeples. Wireless industry using First Amendment as a cudgel in its battle against safety warnings. Fair Warning, July 11, 2018.

Complete version of the article. News websites published the McClatchy version.

Louis Slesin. "'Clear evidence' of cell phone cancer risk, say leading pathologists." Microwave News, April 9, 2018.

Why the peer review panel and NTP interpreted the same animal data differently.

Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie. "How big wireless made us think that cell phones are safe: A special investigation." The Nation, March 29, 2018.

The disinformation campaign—and massive radiation increase—behind the 5G rollout.
Timothy Schoechle. "Reinventing Wires: The Future of Landlines and Networks." National Institute for Science, Law & Public Policy. 2018.
The U.S. should invest in hard-wired telecom infrastructure to support economic growth, bridge the digital divide & diminish risks to security, privacy, public health & the environment.

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