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Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
15.5.2022 19:44

MOBI-KIDS: Childhood Brain Tumor Risk & Mobile Phone Use Study





A critical analysis of the MOBI-Kids study of wireless phone use in childhood and adolescence and brain tumor risk
Lennart Hardell, Joel M. Moskowitz. A critical analysis of the MOBI-Kids study of wireless phone use in childhood and adolescence and brain tumor risk. Reviews on Environmental Health. May 5, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2022-0040.
Abstract

The MOBI-Kids case-control study on wireless phone use and brain tumor risk in childhood and adolescence included the age group 10–24 years diagnosed between 2010 and 2015. Overall no increased risk was found although for brain tumors in the temporal region an increased risk was found in the age groups 10–14 and 20–24 years. Most odds ratios (ORs) in MOBI-Kids were <1.0, some statistically significant, suggestive of a preventive effect from RF radiation; however, this is in contrast to current knowledge about radiofrequency (RF) carcinogenesis. The MOBI-Kids results are not biologically plausible and indicate that the study was flawed due to methodological problems. For example, not all brain tumor cases were included since central localization was excluded. Instead, all brain tumor cases should have been included regardless of histopathology and anatomical localization. Only surgical controls with appendicitis were used instead of population-based controls from the same geographical area as for the cases. In fact, increased incidence of appendicitis has been postulated to be associated with RF radiation which makes selection of control group in MOBI-Kids questionable. Start of wireless phone use up to 10 years before diagnosis was in some analyses included in the unexposed group. Thus, any important results demonstrating late carcinogenesis, a promoter effect, have been omitted from analysis and may underestimate true risks. Linear trend was in some analyses statistically significant in the calculation of RF-specific energy and extremely low frequency (ELF)-induced current in the center of gravity of the tumor. Additional case-case analysis should have been performed. The data from this study should be reanalyzed using unconditional regression analysis adjusted for potential confounding factors to increase statistical power. Then all responding cases and controls could be included in the analyses. In sum, we believe the results as reported in this paper seem uninterpretable and should be dismissed.

Summary

  • In our opinion, the results as reported in the MOBI-Kids paper seem uninterpretable and should be dismissed.
  • All brain tumor cases should have been included regardless of histopathology and anatomical localization.

  • Only surgical controls with suspected appendicitis were used. Yet, increased incidence of appendicitis has been postulated to be associated with RF radiation.

  • Start of wireless phone use up to 10 years before diagnosis was in some analyses included in the unexposed group. This would bias the ORs towards unity.

  • The results indicate an increased risk for tumors in the temporal brain region in spite of methodological issues based on low numbers in several categories.

  • Linear trend was in some analyses statistically significant in the calculation of RF-specific energy and ELF-induced current in the center of gravity of the tumor. Additional case-case analysis should have been performed.

  • The data from this study should be reanalyzed using unconditional regression analysis adjusted for potential confounding factors to increase the statistical power.

Finally, it is unfortunate that after such a major investment of resources that little can be learned at this time from the MOBI-Kids study about the risk of brain tumors from wireless phone use in young people. Since the study addresses an issue critical to public health and the majority of the funding was from the European Commission, the MOBI-Kids data set should be publicly archived making it available to the scientific community to enable the data to be re-analyzed using different assumptions and methods.

Open access paper: https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/reveh-2022-0040/html
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Feb 2, 2022

My Comments on the International MOBI-Kids Study

In December 2021, almost seven years after data collection was completed, the main outcome paper for the International MOBI-Kids study was finally published. This case-control study examined brain tumor risk from wireless phone use among young people 10-24 years of age (Castaño-Vinyals et al, 2022) (see abstract below).

Conducting a multinational epidemiologic study involving more than 50 scientists with data collected in 14 nations is a complex endeavor with a substantial risk of failure. Although the investigators made an exemplary effort to salvage the study via supplemental sub-studies and post-hoc analyses, after reviewing their paper, we believe they were unsuccessful in overcoming serious methodological problems. Hence, in our opinion, the data seem uninterpretable, and the study's results should be dismissed.

The authors of the MOBI-Kids study appear to agree with our assessment because they concluded in the paper's abstract:

"Further analyses suggest that the large number of ORs below 1 in this study is unlikely to represent an unknown causal preventive effect of Mobile phone exposure: they can be at least partially explained by differential recall by proxies and prodromal symptoms affecting phone use before diagnosis of the cases. We cannot rule out, however, residual confounding from sources we did not measure.

Overall, our study provides no evidence of a causal association between wireless phone use and brain tumours in young people. However, the sources of bias summarised above prevent us from ruling out a small increased risk."

Based upon our review of the research on brain tumor risk among adults who use mobile phones (Choi et al., 2020), we recommend that those who must use mobile phones should keep their use as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) and should follow safety guidelines. These guidelines especially apply to children and adolescents whose brains and bodies are still developing.

Specific concerns re: the MOBI-Kids study methodology

We believe there is an explanation for the many risk estimates less than 1 in the MOBI-Kids study. The study had substantially lower participation rates for controls (54%) than cases (72%) that likely biased brain tumor risk estimates downward. The investigators conducted a non-participation study to estimate the amount of this bias, but this study also had serious limitations (i.e., small sample sizes; differential participation rates) and likely underestimated the amount of selection bias in the current paper.

The original study design called for recruitment of 2,000 cases (Sadetzki et al., 2014). Due to problems with recruitment, the study managed to enroll only 898 cases. Moreover, the primary analyses in the outcome paper included only 671 cases with neuroepithelial brain tumors (NBT). Hence, the study had inadequate sensitivity (i.e., statistical power) to detect even a moderate-sized effect (let alone a small effect) from mobile phone use on brain tumor risk.

In a case-control study, controls should be selected that have equal risk for the study outcome as the cases. We question whether using youth diagnosed with appendicitis as controls constitutes a suitable choice for a study of cell phone users. Why didn't the study include a population-based control group like the INTERPHONE study which preceded it (Cardis et al., 2007)?

During the data collection period (2010-2015), many young people in this study may have used smart phones. Whereas earlier cellphones had antennas at the top of the phone, many smart phones have cellular transmission antennas in the bottom of the phones exposing the neck to the greatest radio frequency radiation, not the head. This may increase the risk of other tumors, especially thyroid gland tumors, but reduce the brain tumor risk.

Finally, ten or fewer years of mobile phone use may not be a sufficient amount of time before a mobile phone-related brain tumor is diagnosed in this young population. However, the CEFALO study (Aydin et al., 2011) of children's mobile use and brain tumor risk did find a significant dose-response relationship for the number of years of cellphone use in a subsample of participants with mobile phone operator (i.e. telephone company) data. The MOBI-Kids study also had mobile phone operator data on 25% of participants but did not report the outcome results for this subsample.

MOBI-Kids and CEFALO differed in important ways. MOBI-Kids used hospital controls whereas CEFALO selected controls from the general population. Whereas MOBI-Kids included only neuroepithelial brain tumors (NBT) in its primary analyses, CEFALO did not exclude any brain tumors. MOBI-Kids collected data years later when different cellular technology was popular, and mobile phone towers likely were located more proximal to users which may have resulted in less exposure to RFR emitted by cellphones. Although MOBI-Kids collected data in 14 countries, most of the data were from five countries, Spain, Italy, France, Israel, and Germany, and none was from the four CEFALO countries, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland.

In sum, it is unfortunate that after such a major investment of resources and time that little can be learned from the MOBI-Kids study about the risk of brain tumors from wireless phone use in young people. Since the study addresses an issue critical to public health and the majority of the funding was from the European Commission, the MOBI-Kids data set should be made available to the scientific community for secondary analysis to enable the data to be re-analyzed using different assumptions and methods.

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Wireless phone use in childhood and adolescence and neuroepithelial brain tumours: Results from the international MOBI-Kids study

Castaño-Vinyals G, Sadetzki S, Vermeulen R, Momoli F, Kundi M, Merletti F, Maslanyj M, Calderon C, Wiart J, Lee AK, Taki M, Sim M, Armstrong B, Benke G, Schattner R, Hutter HP, Krewski D, Mohipp C, Ritvo P, Spinelli J, Lacour B, Remen T, Radon K, Weinmann T, Petridou ET, Moschovi M, Pourtsidis A, Oikonomou K, Kanavidis P, Bouka E, Dikshit R, Nagrani R, Chetrit A, Bruchim R, Maule M, Migliore E, Filippini G, Miligi L, Mattioli S, Kojimahara N, Yamaguchi N, Ha M, Choi K, Kromhout H, Goedhart G, 't Mannetje A, Eng A, Langer CE, Alguacil J, Aragonés N, Morales-Suárez-Varela M, Badia F, Albert A, Carretero G, Cardis E. Wireless phone use in childhood and adolescence and neuroepithelial brain tumours: Results from the international MOBI-Kids study. Environ Int. 2021 Dec 30;160:107069. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.

Abstract

In recent decades, the possibility that use of mobile communicating devices, particularly wireless (mobile and cordless) phones, may increase brain tumour risk, has been a concern, particularly given the considerable increase in their use by young people. MOBI-Kids, a 14-country (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Spain) case-control study, was conducted to evaluate whether wireless phone use (and particularly resulting exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF)) increases risk of brain tumours in young people. Between 2010 and 2015, the study recruited 899 people with brain tumours aged 10 to 24 years old and 1,910 controls (operated for appendicitis) matched to the cases on date of diagnosis, study region and age. Participation rates were 72% for cases and 54% for controls. The mean ages of cases and controls were 16.5 and 16.6 years, respectively; 57% were males. The vast majority of study participants were wireless phones users, even in the youngest age group, and the study included substantial numbers of long-term (over 10 years) users: 22% overall, 51% in the 20-24-year-olds. Most tumours were of the neuroepithelial type (NBT; n = 671), mainly glioma. The odds ratios (OR) of NBT appeared to decrease with increasing time since start of use of wireless phones, cumulative number of calls and cumulative call time, particularly in the 15-19 years old age group. A decreasing trend in ORs was also observed with increasing estimated cumulative RF specific energy and ELF induced current density at the location of the tumour. Further analyses suggest that the large number of ORs below 1 in this study is unlikely to represent an unknown causal preventive effect of mobile phone exposure: they can be at least partially explained by differential recall by proxies and prodromal symptoms affecting phone use before diagnosis of the cases. We cannot rule out, however, residual confounding from sources we did not measure. Overall, our study provides no evidence of a causal association between wireless phone use and brain tumours in young people. However, the sources of bias summarised above prevent us from ruling out a small increased risk.

Highlights

• Increasing use of mobile technologies by young people is a topic of public health concern.

• MOBI-Kids studied brain tumour risk and wireless phone use (and EMF) in 14 countries.

• The study includes 899 brain tumour cases aged 10–24 years old and 1,910 controls.

• We have no evidence of a causal association between wireless phone use and brain tumours.

• Because of likely biases we cannot rule out a small increased risk.

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021006942?via%3Dihub

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February 18, 2021
When will we learn whether mobile phone use was associated with increased risk of brain tumors or neurological disorders in the Mobi-Kids study?
February 15 was #InternationalChildhoodCancerDay which reminded me that we have yet to see publication of the most important results from the Mobi-Kids Childhood Brain Tumor Risk & Mobile Phone Use Study.

This project is the largest case-control study to examine the risk of a young person developing brain cancer in relation to his/her exposure to electromagnetic fields and wireless radiation from mobile phones. This 14-nation case-control study was funded by the European Commission (EC) from March 2009 to February 2016. The EC contributed 58% of the total budget for this €6.1 million ($7.4 million) project. The EC funding for this 7-year project ended five years ago!
Was mobile phone use associated with increased risk of brain tumors or neurological disorders among these youth?

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Clinical presentation of young people (10-24 years old) with brain tumors: results from the international MOBI-Kids study
Angela Zumel-Marne et al.
Clinical presentation of young people (10-24 years old) with brain tumors: results from the international MOBI-Kids study. J Neurooncol. 2020 Apr;147(2):427-440. doi: 10.1007/s11060-020-03437-4. Epub 2020 Mar 3. DOI: 10.1007/s11060-020-03437-4.
Abstract

Introduction: We used data from MOBI-Kids, a 14-country international collaborative case-control study of brain tumors (BTs), to study clinical characteristics of the tumors in older children (10 years or older), adolescents and young adults (up to the age of 24).

Methods: Information from clinical records was obtained for 899 BT cases, including signs and symptoms, symptom onset, diagnosis date, tumor type and location.

Results: Overall, 64% of all tumors were low-grade, 76% were neuroepithelial tumors and 62% gliomas. There were more males than females among neuroepithelial and embryonal tumor cases, but more females with meningeal tumors. The most frequent locations were cerebellum (22%) and frontal (16%) lobe. The most frequent symptom was headaches (60%), overall, as well as for gliomas, embryonal and 'non-neuroepithelial' tumors; it was convulsions/seizures for neuroepithelial tumors other than glioma, and visual signs and symptoms for meningiomas. A cluster analysis showed that headaches and nausea/vomiting was the only combination of symptoms that exceeded a cutoff of 50%, with a joint occurrence of 67%. Overall, the median time from first symptom to diagnosis was 1.42 months (IQR 0.53-4.80); it exceeded 1 year in 12% of cases, though no particular symptom was associated with exceptionally long or short delays.

Conclusions: This is the largest clinical epidemiology study of BT in young people conducted so far. Many signs and symptoms were identified, dominated by headaches and nausea/vomiting. Diagnosis was generally rapid but in 12% diagnostic delay exceeded 1 year with none of the symptoms been associated with a distinctly long time until diagnosis.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136306/

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January 26, 2019
The MOBI-Kids project is the largest case-control study to examine the risk of a young person developing brain cancer in relation to his/her exposure to electromagnetic fields and wireless radiation from mobile phones.

The study was funded by the European Commission from March, 2009 to February, 2016. The EU contributed 58% of the total budget for this €6.1 million project.
Although the EU project ended three years ago, the authors have not yet published the most important outcomes from this study.
Following is the executive summary from the authors' final report to the European Commission:
Final Report Summary: MOBI-KIDS (Risk of brain cancer from exposure to radiofrequency fields in childhood & adolescence)
Executive Summary
"The overall objective of the current project was to assess the potential carcinogenic effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to radio frequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) from mobile telephones on tumours of the central nervous system.


In order to achieve this, the operational objectives were:
- To conduct a multinational epidemiological case-control study of brain tumours diagnosed in young people in relation to electro-magnetic fields (EMF) exposure from mobile telephones and other sources of RF in eight countries under the current grant, and, subject to funds being secured separately, in a number of non-European countries;

- To develop and validate improved indices of RF and extremely low frequency (ELF) exposure, and assess related uncertainties, for all subjects in the study;

- To analyse the relation between risk of brain tumours and exposures to RF and ELF from mobile phones and other relevant and important sources of exposure in young people's general environment.

The MOBI-KIDS project was conducted in 14 countries (Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Spain, The Netherlands) between 2010 and 2015. It used a case-control study design, recruiting 898 eligible cases aged 10 to 24 years old and 1 912 controls matched to the cases on reference date, study region and age.

Each participant completed a face-to-face interview that included information on socio-demographic factors; complete residential history; exposure to farm and domestic animals; mobile phone use; use of other wireless communication devices including cordless phones and Wi-Fi; exposure to other environmental and occupational sources of EMF; occupational history of the subject and his/her parents during the peri-conception, pregnancy and peri-natal period; occupational exposures to ionising radiation and chemicals; medical radiation exposure; medical history of the subject and mother and water and disinfection by-products exposure (the later only in 6 countries). Interviewers completed a questionnaire regarding responsiveness of the interviewee and quality of recall.

Validation studies were conducted, as well as various sub studies, to assess the validity and accuracy of the information collected and identify and characterise possible recall and selection biases which may affect the interpretation of study results. Extensive work went into characterising, modelling and validating ELF and RF exposure from different types of mobile and cordless phones, different communication systems and other environmental sources of EMF. The mobile and cordless phones ELF and RF algorithms, to estimate amount of exposure at the location of the tumour, have been completed and validated. Estimation of occupational and environmental exposures to EMF and other factors is underway.

Most brain tumours were of the neuroepithelial type mainly gliomas. Mean age of cases and controls at the reference date is 16.53 and 16.67 respectively with 56% of male participants. There were similar proportions of childhood (10-14) adolescent and young adult cases and controls. Tumour localisation was made by neuro radiologists in each country using standardised age-specific 3D grids for over 90% of cases. Validation of tumour localisation and of diagnosis is underway.
Among regular users of mobile phones, the mean time since start of mobile phone use was 6.2 years for controls, with high differences by age group: 3.2 years for the younger age group (10-14) and 9.2 years for the older age group (20-24), respectively; in the latter group, 37% of controls reported using a phone for 10 years or more. Average number of calls per month was 43 for cases and 49 for controls – with 5% of cases and 4% of controls making more than 10 calls per day on average –, and average hours per month talking on the mobile phone were 2.1 and 2.6 respectively – 4% of case and 3% of controls used the phone for calling more than 1 hour per month on average. In both indicators of mobile phone use, we observed an increasing trend in number of calls and average call time with age.

Analyses of the association between mobile phone use and brain tumour risk, as well as between estimated RF and ELF exposure at the location of the tumour and risk of brain tumour have been conducted and a publication is in preparation. Results however cannot be made public until publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal.
This is by far the largest epidemiological study on the effects of EMF on brain tumour risk in young people."
Funded by European Commission FP-7/Environment grant agreement: 226873Project start date: March 1, 2009Project end date: February 29, 2016 (closed project)Overall budget: € 6 078 765,80 EU contribution: € 3 499 748
More information: https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/89894/reporting/en
Grant Recipients



Feb 1, 2017
Research on the adverse effects of mobile phone radiation has focused on the radiofrequency (RF) emissions from cell phones and cordless phones and has ignored the effects of the extremely low frequency fields (ELF) produced by the phones. Yet ELF was labelled "possibly carcinogenic to humans" by the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer a decade earlier than RF.


The paper below indicates that the MOBI-Kids research team is studying the effects of exposure to ELF as well as RF on children's cancer risk from mobile and cordless phone use.



ELF exposure from mobile and cordless phones for the epidemiological MOBI-Kids study
Calderón C, Ichikawa H, Taki M, Wake K, Addison D, Mee T, Maslanyj M, Kromhout H, Lee AK, Sim MR, Wiart J, Cardis E. ELF exposure from mobile and cordless phones for the epidemiological MOBI-Kids study. Environ Int. 2017 Jan 23. pii: S0160-4120(17)30047-8. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.01.005. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

This paper describes measurements and computational modelling carried out in the MOBI-Kids case-control study to assess the extremely low frequency (ELF) exposure of the brain from use of mobile and cordless phones. Four different communication systems were investigated: Global System for Mobile (GSM), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) and Wi-Fi Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). The magnetic fields produced by the phones during transmission were measured under controlled laboratory conditions, and an equivalent loop was fitted to the data to produce three-dimensional extrapolations of the field. Computational modelling was then used to calculate the induced current density and electric field strength in the brain resulting from exposure to these magnetic fields. Human voxel phantoms of four different ages were used: 8, 11, 14 and adult. The results indicate that the current densities induced in the brain during DECT calls are likely to be an order of magnitude lower than those generated during GSM calls but over twice that during UMTS calls. The average current density during Wi-Fi VoIP calls was found to be lower than for UMTS by 30%, but the variability across the samples investigated was high. Spectral contributions were important to consider in relation to current density, particularly for DECT phones. This study suggests that the spatial distribution of the ELF induced current densities in brain tissues is determined by the physical characteristics of the phone (in particular battery position) while the amplitude is mainly dependent on communication system, thus providing a feasible basis for assessing ELF exposure in the epidemiological study. The number of phantoms was not large enough to provide definitive evidence of an increase of induced current density with age, but the data that are available suggest that, if present, the effect is likely to be very small.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28126406


May, 2016

According to the European Commission, the EU-funded project "Risk of brain cancer from exposure to radiofrequency fields in childhood and adolescence" (MOBI-Kids) was "closed" on Feb 29, 2016. The study will make an important contribution to assessing the association, if any, between electromagnetic field exposure due to use of mobile communication devices and the development of brain cancer in youth.


The last Mobi-Kids Consortium meeting was held February 16-17, 2016. The meeting was attended by investigators from 15 countries. Preliminary results from the study were discussed.

From December, 2010 through February, 2015, about 800 cases and 1,600 controls were interviewed for this study.

The project cost 6 million Euros with 3.5 million Euros from the European Commission.

June, 2014

My comments:

This is a difficult case-control study to undertake as it involves 14 nations and about 60 senior investigators. The original goal was to recruit 2,000 cases. The authors revised the original goal to 1,000 cases because recruitment of cases has been much more difficult than anticipated. As of June, 2014, only 686 cases were recruited, and 566 were interviewed. Only six more months remain for participant recruitment. Thus, even the reduced recruitment goal may be difficult to achieve.

I am concerned that the MOBI-Kids study will fail to have adequate statistical power to detect the association between EMF exposure and brain tumor risk. The CEFALO study of brain tumor risk in children was seriously under-powered with 352 cases (Aydin et al., 2011; https://bit.ly/1pW4ulA). The four nation CEFALO study found a 36% increased relative risk of brain tumors with any mobile phone use, but this was not statistically significant due to the small sample size (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.92 to 2.02) so the authors dismissed this overall finding. (See my supplementary comments below because CEFALO found some statistically significant evidence for increased brain tumor risk which the study authors also dismissed.)

Only four of the 58 authors of the MOBI-Kids study declared conflicts of interest (see below). The funding sources for this study are listed below. I will leave it to others to determine how much of the funding originated from industry and whether funneling the funds through intermediary organizations or agencies eliminated potential conflicts of interest.

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The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol: Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk

Sadetzki S, Langer CE, Bruchim R, Kundi M, Merletti F, Vermeulen R, Kromhout H, Lee A-K, Maslanyj M, Sim MR, Taki M, Wiart J, Armstrong B, Milne E, Benke G, Schattner R, Hutter H-P, Woehrer A, Krewski D, Mohipp C, Momoli F, Ritvo P, Spinelli J, Lacour B, Delmas D, Remen T, Radon K, Weinmann T, Klostermann S, Heinrich S, Petridou E, Bouka E, Panagopoulou P, Dikshit R, Nagrani R, Even-Nir H, Chetrit A, Maule M, Migliore E, Filippini G, Miligi L, Mattioli S, Yamaguchi N, Kojimahara N, Ha M, Choi K-H, Mannetje A', Eng A, Woodward A, Carretero G, Alguacil J, Aragones N, Suare-Varela MM, Goedhart G, Schouten-van Meeteren AAYN, Reedijk AAMJ and Cardis E (2014) The MOBI-Kids study protocol: challenges in assessing childhood and adolescent exposure to electromagnetic fields from wireless telecommunication technologies and possible association with brain tumor risk. Front. Public Health 2:124. Sep 23, 2014. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2014.00124.

Abstract

The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries.

The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10-24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges.

This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including:
(1) the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls;
(2) investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age range;
(3) conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements;
(4) investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and (5) assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies.

Our experience in thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people.

Open Access: https://bit.ly/1pVKGyS

Excerpts
The original expected number of cases in the target age range was of the order of 2,000. With the implementation of the study, however, it became apparent that the number of eligible cases is, in fact, much lower, in large part due to an underestimation of the number of midline tumors in the study population and, to a lesser extent, the failure of busy medical staff to notify eligible patients in some centers. In most centers, it is difficult to know exactly how many cases are ineligible as doctors/hospital staff will generally not inform study staff of ineligible cases. However, centers with access to detailed, reliable registry information or hospital records have excluded from one-third to more than one-half of cases due to an ineligible (midline) diagnosis. Table 1 indicates the revised expected number of eligible cases per year; the revised expected total number of cases to be included in MOBI-Kids is around 1,000, based on each center's length of time in the field and other factors such as number of participating hospitals and accessibility to eligible cases. Fortunately, the MOBI-Kids study still has sufficient statistical power despite the reduced number of cases (see Study Power below).

Study Power


As discussed above, despite our best efforts to reach the original expected sample size of approximately 2,000 cases, the revised projected number of case is just under 1,000. However, preliminary results on mobile phone use among controls indicate that 77 and 83% of males and females, respectively, were defined as ever using a mobile phone regularly (data not shown). In keeping with the INTERPHONE study, subjects who had used a mobile phone for <1 year were considered "never" regular users. Further, approximately 14% of all subjects in MOBI-Kids have used a mobile phone for 10 years or longer, the threshold for long-term use in INTERPHONE. As this was a higher proportion than originally expected, our power calculations were revised based on the updated expected number of subjects and updated exposure indicators. Assuming that 971 cases are included in matched analyses, the study has 79% power to detect an increased risk of 40% [the estimated increase in the risk of glioma seen in the highest decile of phone use in INTERPHONE (10)], assuming 10% have used a mobile phone for 10 years or longer; power increases to 90% assuming 15% are "long-term" mobile phone users.
Conclusion

In spite of its challenges, the advantages of MOBI-Kids include its large sample size – it will be the largest study to date on this topic in young people – covering 14 participating countries. Subjects are being identified and recruited in a time period in which mobile phone use in young people has become more prevalent, thus, increasing the statistical power and overall representativeness and generalizability of the results. In addition, MOBI-Kids includes extensive exposure assessment work and validation studies using both historical provider records and SMPS to counteract potential recall bias. Despite the various challenges faced by the study team (which have implications for other epidemiological studies), our experience thus far in developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results contributing to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communication technologies among young people.
Conflict of Interest Statement

Daniel Krewski has conducted contract work for the federal government of Canada (specifically, the Public Health Agency of Canada and Industry Canada) involving systematic review and summary of scientific information on potential health effects of radiofrequency fields. Malcolm R. Sim – wife had shares of Cell Phone Company. Masao Taki's department received a grant to support numerical modeling work under a university–industry partnership. Joe Wiart works at Whist Laboratory funded by Orange. None of this funding was used to support the research described in this paper. The other authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Funding: the research leading to these results has received funding from by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013) under grant agreement number 22687 3 – the MOBI-Kids project. International coordination of the project is partly supported by a grant from the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (MICCIN). Australia: Australian participation in MOBI-Kids is supported by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council with a five-year research grant (grant number: 546130 and Chief Investigators are: Malcolm R. Sim, Bruce Armstrong, Elizabeth Milne, and Geza Benke). Austria: Austrian participation in MOBI-Kids is partly supported by a grant from the Ministry of Science. Canada: Canadian participation in MOBI-Kids is supported by a university–industry partnership grant from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), with the Canadian Wireless Telecommunications Association (CWTA) serving as the industrial partner. CWTA provides technical information on wireless telecommunications in Canada and facilitates access to billing records from Canadian network operators, but has no involvement in the design, conduct, analysis, or interpretation of the MOBI-KIDS study. Health Canada has also provided financial support to facilitate coordination between Canadian and international MOBI-Kids investigators. Daniel Krewski is the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Chair in Risk Science at the University of Ottawa. France: this project received funds from the French National Agency for Sanitary Safety of Food, Environment and Labour (ANSES, contract FSRF 2008-3), French National Cancer Institute (INCa), Pfizer Foundation and League against cancer. Germany: the German branch of MOBI-Kids is supported by the Federal Office for Radiation Protection. Greece: Greek participation is partially supported by ELKE (Special Account for Research Grants of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens) and GGET (General Secretariat for Research and Technology). India: MOBI-Kids India is supported by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS). Italy: Ministry of Health RF-2009-1546284. Japan: Japanese participation in MOBI-Kids is supported by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. Korea: MOBI-Kids Korea is financially supported by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (MSIP), Korea in the ICT R&D Program. New Zealand: MOBI-Kids New Zealand is supported by grants from Cure Kids New Zealand and the New Zealand Health Research Council. Spain: Spanish participation is partially supported by the Spanish Health Research Fund (FIS PI10/02981), the Andalusian Consejeria de Salud (PI-0317/2010) and Conselleria de Sanitat, Generalitat Valenciana under grant number 025/2010. The Netherlands: Dutch participation in MOBI-KIDS is partly supported by The Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development (ZonMw) within the program Electromagnetic Fields and Health Research under grant number 85800001, and by the ODAS foundation, a private foundation supporting activities in the field of pediatric oncology and visual disabilities.
--
MOBI-Kids Key Facts
Study Design (https://bit.ly/1ycxo9o):
Fourteen participating nations: Australia, Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Netherlands, New Zealand, and Spain.

Diagnostic period: May, 2010 through December, 2014.

Participation rates (to date) (https://bit.ly/1CYvnO7):
78-83% of cases and 60-69% of controls.

Main characteristics of 566 cases and 1074 controls (thru June, 2014) (https://bit.ly/1BXvbfr):
Sex: 55% male, 45% female.

Years of age: 40% 10-14; 35% 15-19; 24% 20-24.

Most of the cases came from six countries: Spain (145), Italy (106), Germany (71), Israel (65) , France (63), or Greece (42). The eight other countries have so far only contributed 2 to 23 cases each.

----

'Cellphones Don't Increase Kids' Cancer Risk' Study Flawed, Experts Say
Natalie Wolchover, LiveScience, July 28, 2011


"It's a very peculiar paper and even more peculiar that it's published in a journal sponsored by the National Cancer Institute," Joel Moskowitz, director of the Center for Family and Community Health at the University of California-Berkeley, told Life's Little Mysteries. A red flag, he said, is that the research was funded in part by the cellphone industry, and some of the investigators also do other industry-funded research.

In Moskowitz's opinion, the conclusions drawn by study leader Martin Röösli, an environmental epidemiologist at the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, and his colleagues were biased to downplay concerns about cellphone use among children and adolescents.



In a response sent to the media, Moskowitz pointed out what he considers several flaws in Röösli's logic, starting with how little cellphone use (one call per week) counted as "regular." This parameter flooded the pool of truly regular cellphone users with almost-non-users, he said, skewing the results. "Such a loose definition of regular use would be expected to reduce the association between cellphone use and tumor risk," Moskowitz wrote. [FAQ: Cellphone Radiation and Brain Cancer]

When a subset of the data corresponding only to heavy cellphone users is analyzed, he pointed out, the results become much more striking. From the journal's paper itself: "[There] was a highly significant association between the time since first subscription and brain tumor risk. Children who used cellphones for at least 2.8 years were more than twice as likely to have a brain tumor than those who never regularly used cellphones." The authors went on to state: "As compared to never regular users, those who used cellphones for 4 or more years based on phone company records were 3.7 to 4.0 times more likely to have brain tumors, and those who made 2,638 or more calls were 2.9 to 4.8 times more likely to have brain tumors."

https://www.livescience.com/15290-cellphones-increase-kids-cancer-risk-study-flawed-experts.html

---
MOBI-Kids Original Post (May 10, 2013)

Brain tumors are the second most common cancer in young people under 20 years of age. The incidence has been increasing recently. (1)

CEFALO, a small, four-country, case-control study of brain tumors in children, found in a subgroup for whom phone company data were available that brain tumor risk was related to the number of years the children had a mobile phone subscription. The study found elevated risks (though not statistically significant) for children who used mobile phones in three of the four countries (Denmark, Sweden and Switzerland), but not in Norway or overall. The study had 352 young people 7-19 years of age with brain tumors and 646 healthy young people. (2)


In a case-control study, persons who have developed a disease are identified and their past exposure to potential etiological factors is compared to persons who do not have the disease. (1)

MOBI-KIDS is a large, 16-country, case-control study that will evaluate the association between mobile phone and other communication technology use, other environmental exposures, and the risk of brain tumors in young people. MOBI-KIDS will include about 2.000 young people 10-24 years of age with brain tumors and about 4.000 healthy young people. Results will be available in 2015/2016. (3)


Just like the INTERPHONE study which examined brain tumors in adults, Canada is participating in the MOBI-KIDS study, but the U.S. is not. (4)

Why has the U.S. failed to participate in these international studies? Why does the U.S. fund so little research on the health risks of exposure to electromagnetic radiation?

https://www.mbkds.com/home



References

(1) Frequently Asked Questions | MOBI-KIDS. https://www.mbkds.com/frequently-asked-questions-0

(2) Aydin D., et al. Mobile phone use and brain tumors in children and adolescents: a multicenter case-control study.J Natl Cancer Inst. 2011 Aug 17;103(16):1264-76. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djr244. Epub 2011 Jul 27. https://jnci.oxfordjournals.org/content/103/16/1264.long

(3) Welcome | MOBI-KIDS: Study on Communication Technology, Environment, and Brain Tumours in Young People. https://www.mbkds.com/home

(4) Partners | MOBI-KIDS. https://www.mbkds.com/list-of-partners

--


Revital Bar-Sade Bruchim, Ph.D.,
Fieldwork Coordinator, Mobi-Kids Israel
May 12, 2015

"Another paper published by Prof. Sadetzki and Prof. Cardis in 2011 entitled: "Indications of possible brain-tumor risk in mobile-phone studies: should we be concerned?" (Occup Environ Med. 2011 Mar;68(3):169-71), discusses the main issues in the interpretation of the findings reported in published studies of brain tumors in relation to mobile-phone use, particularly the largest of these, Interphone, and their potential public-health implications.

The authors concluded that while more studies are needed to confirm or refute these results, indications of an increased risk in high- and long-term users from Interphone and other studies are of concern.

Since more than 4 billion people, including children, using mobile phones even a small risk at the individual level could eventually result in a considerable number of tumors and become an important public-health issue.

The authors suggested that until definitive scientific answers are available, simple and low-cost measures, such as the use of text messages, hands-free kits and/or the loud-speaker mode of the phone should be used to reduce exposure to the brain from mobile phones."


https://www.crealradiation.com/index.php/en/news-about-mobi-kids-project/feature-of-the-month-israel

--

Assessment of extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure from GSM mobile phones


Calderón C, Addison D, Mee T, Findlay R, Maslanyj M, Conil E, Kromhout H, Lee AK, Sim MR, Taki M, Varsier N, Wiart J, Cardis E. Assessment of extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure from GSM mobile phones. Bioelectromagnetics. 2014 Apr;35(3):210-21. doi: 10.1002/bem.21827.
Abstract
Although radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones have received much attention, relatively little is known about the extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields emitted by phones. This paper summarises ELF magnetic flux density measurements on global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phones, conducted as part of the MOBI-KIDS epidemiological study. The main challenge is to identify a small number of generic phone models that can be used to classify the ELF exposure for the different phones reported in the study. Two-dimensional magnetic flux density measurements were performed on 47 GSM mobile phones at a distance of 25 mm. Maximum resultant magnetic flux density values at 217 Hz had a geometric mean of 221 (+198/-104) nT. Taking into account harmonic data, measurements suggest that mobile phones could make a substantial contribution to ELF exposure in the general population. The maximum values and easily available variables were poorly correlated. However, three groups could be defined on the basis of field pattern indicating that manufacturers and shapes of mobile phones may be the important parameters linked to the spatial characteristics of the magnetic field, and the categorization of ELF magnetic field exposure for GSM phones in the MOBI-KIDS study may be achievable on the basis of a small number of representative phones. Such categorization would result in a twofold exposure gradient between high and low exposure based on type of phone used, although there was overlap in the grouping.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24203762
Excerpts
From the perspective of the main epidemiological study, thus far the data suggest the most favourable grouping to be based on distinguishing bar phones for given manufacturers and flip/slide phones. The proposed a priori grouping approach is relatively easy to apply and when adopted will result in a reasonable twofold exposure gradient between high and low exposure based on type of phone used.
Because the ELF signal has a burst-like waveform, harmonic components are also an important factor. The relative importance of the harmonics can be considered in terms of the wellestablished biophysical mechanism of electrical stimulation of nervous tissue, which forms the basis for the exposure guidelines of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection [ICNIRP, 2010].
The study demonstrates that the phones emit magnetic flux densities at 217 Hz and associated harmonics, and could contribute substantially to ELF exposure in the general population. It is therefore not unreasonable to include a measure of this exposure in epidemiological studies assessing the potential risk of EMF exposure and brain tumor, particularly for young people, for whom the time weighted average exposure, over lifetime, may be greater than in adults.

Due to the technological advancements in mobile telecommunications during the study period of interest (2000–2013), it will also be necessary to assess 2.5–3.5 G phones; Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) and Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) phones as well as the 2G phones.

Conflicts of interest: Prof. Masao Taki's department received a grant to support numerical modeling work under a university-industry partnership. Whist Lab is funded by France Telecom. None of this funding was used to support the research described in this paper.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
11.5.2022 21:41

Featured News Stories


Ahmad El Hajj. Will 5G Kill Me? When Telecom Politics Become a Deadly Sin. Inside Telecom (International Telecoms Business Magazine), May 4, 2022.
"What is the safe exposure time to these radiations? What is the safe distance between a person and a transmitting antenna? What are safe transmission power levels? Why haven't safety guidelines been updated for some time? Why are the opinions of some scientists been disregarded? Can telecom tower radiations clearly cause cancer or other devastating effects?"
Lyle Laver. Raise the Roof. The National Business Post, Mar 29, 2022.
"It is great to have immediate access in our mobile world, but at what cost? Should we "raise the roof" on this issue and 'put it up to 11?' Certainly, that is what the WIA and the FCC are doing right now; and the longer we wait, the more we will see this infrastructure devalue our neighborhoods, homes and health. These electromagnetic fields will only grow in strength and frequency."
Barbara Koeppel. Federal Court Instructs FCC to Review Electromagnetic Radiation Standards. The Washington Spectator, Mar 9, 2022.
"For 25 years ... the Federal Communications Commission has refused to revise the regulations it set in 1996 that address what level of radiation from cell phones should be considered safe."
Daniel Forbes. Oregon Health Authority Condemned by Scientists For Scrubbing Report on Wireless Hazards in Schools. The Washington Spectator, May 24, 2021.
Oregon's public health agency issued a shoddy, biased report on the potential harm to 600,000 schoolkids from wireless devices in classrooms.
Dariusz Leszczynski. 5G is testing the limits of trust. Medium, Apr 13, 2021.

"ICNIRP's guidelines, in addition to being set to prevent only thermal effects, are also based only on short-term, acute exposures ... there is very little research on long-term chronic exposures... applying ICNIRP guidelines to long-term exposures is based on an assumption of safety and not on the scientific evidence."

Devra Davis. Why I'm challenging the FCC about antiquated safety standards for wireless devices. The Washington Times, Feb 23, 2021.

"In 1996, Congress decided the FCC should have the primary responsibility for protecting the public from radiation exposure even though it has no health expertise and typically sides with phone companies rather than citizens. That was a mistake..."
Barbara Koeppel. Wireless Hazards. The Washington Spectator, Dec 28, 2020.
"If you think your cellphone is safe, have you considered why you believe that? Is it a fact or is it based on carefully crafted messages that you've read or heard?"
Joel Moskowitz. Regulators Steamroll Health Concerns as the Global Economy Embraces 5G. The Washington Spectator. 46(9):6, September 2020. ISSN 0887-428X.

"The FCC, however, has been "short on science" for more than two decades...."

Tom Butler. On the Clear Evidence of the Risks to Children from Non-Ionizing Radio Frequency Radiation: The Case of Digital Technologies in the Home, Classroom and Society. Cork, Ireland: University College Cork. 33 pp.

Christopher Ketcham. Is 5G Going to Kill Us All? The New Republic, May 8, 2020.

"A new generation of superfast wireless internet is coming soon. But no one can say for sure if it's safe."
Louis Slesin. The Lies Must Stop Disband ICNIRP: Facts Matter, Now More Than Ever. Microwave News, Apr 9, 2020.

"The public has been fed lies and half-truths about the health effects of RF/microwave radiation for as long as I have been involved, since the 1970s."

International EMF Alliance. Misconception of 5G. Unpublished letter submitted to Scientific American, Nov 7, 2019.

This letter rebuts David Robert Grimes' article that attacks, "We Have No Reason to Believe 5G is Safe." The Grimes article has been removed from the Scientific American website.

Louis Slesin. Will WHO Kick Its ICNIRP Habit? Non-Thermal Effects Hang in the Balance. Microwave News, Nov 4, 2019.

After 8 years of work, the WHO is reopening its review of RF radiation health effects. This investigative report exposes ties between the WHO EMF Project, the ICNIRP, and the telecom industry.

Joel Moskowitz. We Have No Reason to Believe 5G is Safe. Scientific American, Oct 17, 2019.

"we should support the recommendations of the 250 scientists and medical doctors who signed the 5G Appeal that calls for an immediate moratorium on the deployment of 5G and demand that our government fund the research needed to adopt biologically based exposure limits that protect our health and safety."

Simon Hill. Is cell phone radiation actually dangerous? We asked some experts. Digital Trends, Sep 25, 2019.

"The ... standards that are in place, which haven't changed since 1996, were set based on when animal behavior changed ... If we can't draw conclusions about the NTP study, why is this earlier animal research still the basis of our safety limits?"

Joe Mahr. Lawsuit filed against Apple, Samsung after Chicago Tribune tests cellphones for radiofrequency radiation. Chicago Tribune, Aug 29, 2019.

Sam Roe. We tested popular cellphones for radiofrequency radiation. Now the FCC is investigating. Chicago Tribune, Aug 21, 2019.

The paper's year-long investigation found some of the most popular cell phones, including Apple iPhones, emit radiation that exceeds government (FCC) safety limits

Sam Roe. Testing cellphones for radiofrequency radiation: How we did it. Chicago Tribune, Aug 21, 2019.

Joel Moskowitz. 5G Health Risks. BBC Radio 5, May 30, 2019 (9 minute news segment).

The deployment of 5G in the United Kingdom today has generated great concern among the public. This is a brief overview of the health risks from exposure to 5G millimeter waves.

Devra Davis. 5G: The Unreported Global Threat. Medium, May 18, 2019.

Major mainstream newspapers commonly ignore the substantial body of science pinpointing wireless radiation and 5G hazards detailed in journalistic investigations.
Investigate Europe. Mobile phones and health: Is 5G being rolled out too fast? Computer Weekly, April, 2019.

Countries are deploying 5G at breakneck speed to gain a competitive edge, but scientists have concerns about effects on public health and are calling for a precautionary approach.
Markham Heid. Are AirPods and Other Bluetooth Headphones Safe? Medium, Mar 7, 2019.
Numerous scientific publications have shown that EMF affects living organisms at levels well below international and national guidelines including cancer, neurological disorders, and DNA damage.
Investigate Europe. The 5G mass experiment. Jan 13, 2019.

In a series of news stories, a team of investigative journalists examines the risks of 5G deployment.
"
it could also harm your health. Europe's governments ignore the danger."

Hiawatha Bray. Could your cellphone's electromagnetic field make you sick? Boston Globe, Jan 17, 2019.

The Massachusetts Department of Public Health may be withholding information about possible health risks posed by cellphones and other wireless technologies.
Ronald Melnick, Ph.D. There's a clear cell phone-cancer link, but FDA is downplaying it. The Hill, Nov 13, 2018.

Dr. Melnick was the senior toxicologist who led the design of the National Toxicology Program cell phone radiation studies.

Joyce Nelson. 5G Corporate Grail: Smart cities/dumb people? Watershed Sentinel, Nov 5, 2018.

"There's a lot of hype about 5G, the fifth-generation wireless technology that is being rolled out in various "5G test beds" in major cities ...But it's hard to see why we should be excited."

Annelie Fitzgerald. Mobile Phone Cover-up? Gov't advisory body disbanded – inaccurate and misleading conclusions remain. TruePublica (UK), Oct 17, 2018.
UK disbanded advisory group on non-ionizing radiation (AGNIR) after group issued inaccurate assessment of wireless radiation science subject to conflicts of interest. Public Heath England still relies on AGNIR report.
Martin Röösli. Mobile phone radiation may affect memory performance in adolescents. Medical Xpress. July 20, 2018.

Radio frequency radiation may have adverse effects on memory performance of specific brain regions exposed during mobile phone use.


Ronnie Cohen. Do cellphones cause cancer? Government study reveals 'stunningly important findings. Newsweek, July 19, 2018.

Current cellphone safety regulations are based on a premise that is now arguably false: that cellphone radiation can cause harm only by heating tissue.
Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie. The inconvenient truth about cancer and mobile phones.The Guardian, July 14, 2018.

We dismiss claims about mobiles being bad for our health – but is that because studies showing a link to cancer have been cast into doubt by the industry?

Reynard Loki. Our cellphone addiction is turning wireless tech into an invisible weapon that's destroying wildlife. Salon, July 14, 2018.

Electromagnetic radiation from Wi-Fi and cell towers poses a "credible risk" to birds, mammals, insects and plants
Lynne Peeples. Should cell phone providers warn customers of health risks? Berkeley says yes. McClatchy News Washington Bureau, July 11, 2018.

Although the scientific community has not reached consensus, the California health department said research indicates long-term, extensive cellphone use may affect health.

Lynne Peeples. Wireless industry using First Amendment as a cudgel in its battle against safety warnings. Fair Warning, July 11, 2018.

Complete version of the article. News websites published the McClatchy version.

Louis Slesin. "'Clear evidence' of cell phone cancer risk, say leading pathologists." Microwave News, April 9, 2018.

Why the peer review panel and NTP interpreted the same animal data differently.

Mark Hertsgaard and Mark Dowie. "How big wireless made us think that cell phones are safe: A special investigation." The Nation, March 29, 2018.

The disinformation campaign—and massive radiation increase—behind the 5G rollout.

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
11.5.2022 02:02

STORYLINE vs. REST-OF-THE-STORY: Brain cancer incidence, cellphone use, and trends data


July 5, 2016 (links updated May 10, 2022)
Many countries monitor brain cancer incidence using cancer registries which document the number of new cases diagnosed each year. Although brain cancer is rare--about 24,000 cases will be diagnosed in the U.S. this year--the lifetime risk is between 1 in 200 and 1 in 250. Three peer-reviewed, published case-control studies suggest that the risk may double after 10 years of heavy cellphone use. Only 35% of brain cancer patients survive for 5 or more years. Some scientists argue that brain cancer incidence has been stable over time so one need not worry about the findings from these controlled studies. However, the facts tell a different story.



This one-page fact sheet can be downloaded from https://bit.ly/StoryLineVsRestofStory
Also see:

Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising in the US: The Role of Cell Phone & Cordless Phone Use
The Incidence of Meningioma, a Non-Malignant Brain Tumor, is Increasing in the U.S.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
10.5.2022 20:34

5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?


See the bottom of this page for additional resources.

5G Spectrum Allocation
5G (fifth-generation cellular) technology employs low-band (less than 1 gigahertz [GHz]), mid-band (1-6 GHz), and high-band radio frequencies (more than 6 GHz). In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has allocated "low-band" spectrum at 0.6-0.8 GHz (e.g., 600-850 MHz), "mid-band" spectrum in the 2.5-4.0 GHz range, and 11 GHz of "high-band" frequencies including licensed spectrum from 24-28 GHz and 37-47 GHz, as well as unlicensed spectrum from 64-71 GHz which is open to all wireless equipment manufacturers.
Allocation of radio frequency spectrum for 5G varies by country. The biologic and health effects associated with exposure to 5G radiation depend on the carrier frequency in addition to other factors.
Biological and Health Effects of 5G
There has been essentially no research on the biologic or health effects of 5G. According to EMF-Portal, an archive that contains more than 35,000 publications on electromagnetic fields, of the 375 studies on 5G, only 6 have been medical/biological studies (as of May 10, 2022).

A closer look at these studies, however, finds that although they employed carrier frequencies used in 5G, none of these studies modulated the signal as required by 5G or used other critical features of 5G technology (e.g., massive MIMO, phased arrays, beamforming) that are likely to mediate the nature and extent of biological or health effects observed from exposure.
--


Expert reveals 5G risks

Lyn McLean, Director, EMR Australia PL, April 8, 2022

"Frequencies used in Telecommunications – An Integrated Radiobiological Assessment"

By Yuri G. Grigoriev, translated by ORSAA [Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association Inc (www.orsaa.org)]

The book can be downloaded for free: https://bit.ly/GrigorievBook (198 page pdf)

One of the world's leading authorities on wireless radiation has documented the risks of 5G radiation in "the first book on 5G that outlines the potential dangers of 5G technology, both in Russia and overseas."

The book, written by Professor Yuri Grigoriev shortly before his death, was recently translated into English by the Oceania Radiofrequency Scientific Advisory Association (ORSAA) and can now be downloaded for free.

Many countries (including Australia) base their radiation standards on Guidelines developed by the International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the book, Prof Grigoriev points out that ICNIRP is not necessarily a credible body, and its members are not impartial scientists. The ICNIRP Guidelines, he believes, are inadequate because they are only designed to protect people from the heating effects of radiation. But even this, they don't do properly.

[Note: In the U.S., the radio frequency radiation guidelines adopted by the FCC are similar to those of ICNIRP.]

Among the problems with these guidelines are that:

  • they don't prevent unacceptable increases in temperature

  • they don't restrict the intensity of spikes of radiation

  • a person would have to hold a 5G mobile phone 8 cm from their head or body to comply with them.

Grigoriev says 'ICNIRP members persist in arguing that the thousands of peer-reviewed studies that have found biological or medical consequences from chronic exposure to non-thermal EMF levels are insufficient to warrant stricter safety regulations.'

Grigoriev refers to studies showing harmful effects of 5G millimetre waves (MMWs). They include:

  • demyelination of nerve cells

  • changes to cell membranes, including changes to ion channels

  • inhibition of cell cycle progression

  • changes to levels of enzyme and proteins in the brain's hippocampus

  • double-strand breaks in DNA

  • effects on reproduction

  • changes to the sensitivity of the skin

  • effects on peripheral and central nervous systems

  • effects on the hypothalamus and pituitary glands and changes to cortisol and testosterone hormones

  • changes to heart rate

  • changes to immune function

  • degranulation of mast cells in the skin (that can cause allergic-type symptoms).

Grigoriev says that individuals react differently to exposure, and this can make it difficult for observers to draw conclusions and can lead to errors in assessing the impacts of radiation.

He writes, "From our evaluation of the results of preliminary studies on the possible impacts on the health of the population of the 5G MMW-exposures alone …, we consider it reasonable to expect the following adverse effects: impacts on normal functioning in the critical organs of the skin and eyes; mediated systemic reactions in the body as a whole; and, most notable, impacts to the nervous and immune systems."

Grigoriev refers to calls by doctors, scientists and administrations in different countries to halt the roll-out of 5G until it can be demonstrated to be safe. He says, 'Irradiation of the human population by MMWs without the appropriate precautionary standards is clearly immoral – in the same way as conducting or observing an experiment would be, when it has the possibility of developing pathological processes; eg, according to the notion: 'Wait and see … then we will be able to establish proper standards.' Of course, by then, it will be too late!"


Professor Yuri G. Grigoriev (PhD, DMedSci) 1925-2021
  • Chief Scientific Officer, Laboratory of Radiobiology and Hygiene of Non-Ionizing Radiation, Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of the Federal Medical Biological Agency (Russia)
  • Academician, Academy of Electro-Technical Sciences (Russia)
  • Deputy Chair, Bureau of Radiobiology, Russian Academy of Sciences
  • Member of the WHO Advisory Committee (International EMF Project)
  • Member of the Russian Scientific Commission on Radiation Protection
  • Member of the Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
  • Member of the International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety
==
Mar 24, 2022 5G Observatory Quarterly Report 13 - Up to October 2021
Valdani Vicari & Associati (VVA), PolicyTracker, LS telcom AG. European Commission Study on "European 5G Observatory phase III." CNECT/2021/OP/0008: 1-135. 2021.
Excerpts
  • In the richest nations like the USA, Japan, South Korea and China, commercial 5G services have been in operation for a couple of years, and 5G is now spreading to less developed countries.
  • The USA has assigned the most mmWave (millimeter wave) spectrum: four bands in total, compared to one in some of the EU and none in China.
  • It is important to note that most of the figures collected on the number of 5G base stations are provided by governments, but in some cases such as the USA and Japan, they are based on market research estimates. It is possible that some market-based estimates are not entirely up to date or accurate.
Open access report: https://5gobservatory.eu/wp-content/uploads/2021/11/5G-Obs-PhaseIII_Quarterly-report-13_final-version-11112021.pdf

==
Possible health effects on the human brain by various generations of mobile telecommunication: a review based estimation of 5G impact
Hiie Hinrikus, Tarmo Koppel, Jaanus Lass, Hans Orru, Priit Roosipuu, Maie Bachmann. Possible health effects on the human brain by various generations of mobile telecommunication: a review based estimation of 5G impact. Int J Radiat Biol. 2022 Jan 7;1-48. doi: 10.1080/09553002.2022.2026516.

Abstract

Purpose: The deployment of new 5G NR technology has significantly raised public concerns in possible negative effects on human health by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF). The current review is aimed to clarify the differences between possible health effects caused by the various generations of telecommunication technology, especially discussing and projecting possible health effects by 5G. The review of experimental studies on the human brain over the last fifteen years and the discussion on physical mechanisms and factors determining the dependence of the RF EMF effects on frequency and signal structure have been performed to discover and explain the possible distinctions between health effects by different telecommunication generations.

Conclusions: The human experimental studies on RF EMF effects on the human brain by 2G, 3G and 4G at frequencies from 450 to 2500 MHz were available for analyses. The search for publications indicated no human experimental studies by 5G nor at the RF EMF frequencies higher than 2500 MHz. The results of the current review demonstrate no consistent relationship between the character of RF EMF effects and parameters of exposure by different generations (2G, 3G, 4G) of telecommunication technology. At the RF EMF frequencies lower than 10 GHz, the impact of 5G NR FR1 should have no principal differences compared to the previous generations. The radio frequencies used in 5G are even higher and the penetration depths of the fields are smaller, therefore the effect is rather lower than at previous generations. At the RF EMF frequencies higher than 10 GHz, the mechanism of the effects might differ and the impact of 5G NR FR2 becomes unpredictable. Existing knowledge about the mechanism of RF EMF effects at millimeter waves lacks sufficient experimental data and theoretical models for reliable conclusions. The insufficient knowledge about the possible health effects at millimeter waves and the lack of in vivo experimental studies on 5G NR underline an urgent need for the theoretical and experimental investigations of health effects by 5G NR, especially by 5G NR FR2.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34995145/
Excerpts
Experimental human in vivo studies at radiofrequency range 0.01-300 GHz published in peer-reviewed journals in the last fifteen years (2007–2021) were eligible, including all types of telecommunication signals and pulse-modulated radiofrequency radiation.

Altogether 73 publications were included in the review.

According to investigated parameters, the studies were divided into four categories: resting electroencephalography (EEG), sleep EEG and sleep quality, event related potentials (ERP) and cognition-behavior and brain metabolism. Statistically significant changes in an investigated parameter between sham and exposed conditions were considered as an effect.

Table 2 presents the studies that report the RF EMF effect or no effect at different signal structures and frequencies.

No clear interdependency between the generation of telecommunication technology and the character of RF EMF effects becomes evident from Table 2. All categories of the reported statistically significant effects as well as no effects include exposure from various generations of telecommunication systems and different RF EMF frequencies.


The rate of studies reporting effect is 78.6% at 450 MHz, 66.7% at 900 MHz, 43.6% at 1800 MHz, and 57.1% at 2450 MHz. The rate of positive findings is maximal, 78.6%, at 450 MHz band and minimal, 43.8%, at 1800 MHz band. However, along with the possible regular frequency dependent trend, the decrease could be related to other factors: differences in signal structures and varying number of experiments at different frequencies. The difference between results at 450 MHz and 1800 MHz can be partly related to the character of applied exposure: at 450 MHz remarkable part of studies have used meander-like pulse-modulated, not telecommunication signals like RF EMF exposure.
The rate of studies reporting effect is 33.3% at TETRA, 63.6% at GSM, 46.2% at WCDMA, 80% at LTE and 20% at WiFi signals. These numbers should be taken with caution due to the small number of studies, especially at LTE, WiFi and TETRA signals. Some trends can be mentioned: the rate of studies reporting RF EMF effect is higher than 50% at LTE and GSM signals, lower than 50% at WCDMA and TETRA signals and minimal at WiFi signals. This trend is not in accordance with the possible dependence on the used radiofrequency and needs explanation based on the characteristic behavior of the used signals.

Conclusions

In the current review, the experimental investigations on RF EMF effects on human EEG, ERP, cognition and behavior were analyzed at the exposure conditions typical for the 2G, 3G and 4G generations of mobile telecommunication technology at frequencies from 450 to 2500 MHz. The search for publications indicated no studies on human EEG, ERP, cognition and behavior by 5G nor at RF EMF frequencies higher than 2500 MHz.

The results of the current review demonstrate no consistent relationship between the character of RF EMF effects and parameters of exposure by different generations (2G, 3G, 4G) of mobile telecommunication technology. The following trends can be mentioned:

  1. Various generations of telecommunication technology seem to contribute to similar effects. There is no special frequency nor signal structure related to a specific effect.

  2. Some decrease in the rate of studies reporting effects with the increase of RF EMF frequency can be declared. However, due to the small number of studies, especially at higher frequencies (≥2 GHz), the results need to be considered with caution.

The existing knowledge about the mechanisms underlying RF EMF effects allows us to formulate the following conclusions:

  1. The dielectric polarization, a physical reason behind the RF EMF effects, decreases with the frequency of RF EMF. The electric permittivity is relatively stable at frequencies over 0.1 and 10 GHz, but decreases fast at frequencies higher than 10 GHz. At frequencies higher than 10 GHz, the effects related to the dielectric polarization become small. The scarce data about the RF EMF effects at frequencies higher than 10 GHz provide insufficient knowledge to clarify the possible interaction mechanisms.

  2. The theory of parametric excitation could explain the impact of the signal structure. The presence of the low-frequency components lower than 1000 Hz in the spectrum of RF EMF exposure (2G-5G) is an important factor to give rise to the RF EMF effects on the nervous system. The RF EMF effects are most probably caused by the telecommunication systems with low-frequency components lower than 100 Hz (4G, 5G FR1, 5G FR2).

Currently, there are no data about RF EMF effects caused by 5G telecommunication systems. Combining data of experimental results with existing knowledge in the mechanisms of RF EMF effects, the conclusions about the possible 5G effects can be derived:

  1. At the RF EMF frequencies lower than 10 GHz, the impact of 5G NR FR1 should have no principal differences compared to the previous generations. The frequencies used in 5G are even higher and the penetration depths of the fields are smaller, therefore the effect is rather lower than at previous generations.

  2. The low-frequency components in the 5G NR FR1 RF EMF spectrum are similar to these of 4G. Therefore, the possible health effects should have the same level.

  3. At the RF EMF frequencies higher than 10 GHz, the mechanism of the effects might change and the impact of 5G NR FR2 becomes unpredictable.

  4. The possible health effects caused by 5G NR FR2 are not limited to the impact on skin but can be widened by the excitation of nervous system.

  5. Existing knowledge about the mechanism of RF EMF effects at millimeter waves lacks sufficient experimental data and theoretical models for reliable conclusions.

The insufficient knowledge about the possible health effects at millimeter waves and the lack of in vivo experimental studies on 5G NR underline an urgent need for the theoretical and experimental investigations of health effects by 5G NR, especially by 5G NR FR2.

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Health Effects of 5G Base Station Exposure: A Systematic Review
Tasneem Sofri, Hasliza A Rahim, Mohamedfareq Abdulmalek, Khatijahhusna Abd Rani, Mohd Hafizi Omar, Mohd Najib Mohd Yasin, Muzammil Jusoh, Ping Jack Soh. Health Effects of 5G Base Station Exposure: A Systematic Review. IEEE Access. Dec 30, 2021. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2021.3139385.

Abstract

The Fifth Generation (5G) communication technology will deliver faster data speeds and support numerous new applications such as virtual and augmented reality. The additional need for a larger number of 5G base stations has sparked widespread public concerns about their possible negative health impacts. This review analyzes the latest research on electromagnetic exposure on humans, with particular attention to its effect on cognitive performance, well-being, physiological parameters, and Electroencephalography (EEG). While most of their results indicated no changes in cognitive function, physiological parameters, or overall well-being, the strength of the EEG alpha wave is noticed to vary depending on various aspects of cognitive functions. However, the available studies have not investigated the health effects resulting from exposure from the 5G mobile phone and base station antennas from 700 MHz to 30 GHz on the cognitive performance, well-being subjective symptoms, human physiological parameters, and EEG of adults. There is a need for such research regarding this current emerging technology. Such studies are significant in determining whether 5G technology is indeed safe for humans.

Conclusion

This work presents an analysis of exposure studies conducted using signals from 400 MHz to 1750 MHz (for 4G). From this analysis, the following conclusions are made:
• Most of the studies in literature using 2G/3G/4G showed no effects and no consistency in how exposure to these signals affected the cognitive, physiological parameters, well-being, and EEG of the volunteers.
• Most research on human cognition, physiological parameters, and well-being so far have focused on the impacts of GSM900/GSM1800/UMTS/4G MPs, GSM900/GSM1800/UMTS BSs, DECT, and Wi-Fi exposures.

• There is an absence of studies reporting the effects of 5G (700 MHz, 3.5 GHz, or 28 GHz) BS signals on adults in terms of cognitive performance, well-being, or physiological markers (heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature).

Figure 9 and 10 illustrated the possible flowchart and schematic diagram to study the effects of 5G BS exposure signals for sub-6 GHz and mmWave bands (of up to 30 GHz) to human subjects. Data from such a study will be useful in explicitly determining the significance signal exposure from 5G BS on human health, considering their much closer proximity to users.

Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9665755
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Health Council of the Netherlands and evaluation of the fifth generation, 5G, for wireless communication and cancer risks
Lennart Hardell. Health Council of the Netherlands and evaluation of the fifth generation, 5G, for wireless communication and cancer risks. World J Clin Oncol 2021; 12(6): 393-403 doi: 10.5306/wjco.v12.i6.393.
Abstract

Currently the fifth generation, 5G, for wireless communication is about to be rolled out worldwide. Many persons are concerned about potential health risks from radiofrequency radiation. In September 2017, a letter was sent to the European Union asking for a moratorium on the deployment until scientific evaluation has been made on potential health risks (https://www.5Gappeal.eu). This appeal has had little success. The Health Council of the Netherlands released on September 2, 2020 their evaluation on 5G and health. It was largely based on a World Health Organization draft and report by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, both criticized for not being impartial. The guidelines by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection were recommended to be used, although they have been considered to be insufficient to protect against health hazards (https://www.emfscientist.org). The Health Council Committee recommended not to use the 26 GHz frequency band until health risks have been studied. For lower frequencies, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines were recommended. The conclusion that there is no reason to stop the use of lower frequencies for 5G is not justified by current evidence on cancer risks as commented in this article. A moratorium is urgently needed on the implementation of 5G for wireless communication.

Core Tip: In this comment, guidelines for radiofrequency radiation are discussed in relation to a recent evaluation by the Health Council of the Netherlands. The Committee recommends that for the deployment of 5G the frequency band 26 GHz should not be used. For lower frequencies, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines are recommended. However, these guidelines are not based on an objective evaluation of health risks, which is discussed in this paper.
Conclusion
In conclusion regarding cancer, current scientific evidence clearly demonstrates an increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma for use of mobile and/or cordless phones. In this review other tumor types and health endpoints are not discussed. The increased risk for brain and head tumors is based on human cancer epidemiology studies and is supported by similar tumor types found in animal studies. In fact, these animal studies confirmed the earlier results in case-control studies on increased tumor risk for use of wireless phones (both mobile and cordless phones). Mechanistic aspects on carcinogenesis come from laboratory findings on, e.g., the increase of reactive oxygen species[5] and DNA damage[4]. The current evaluation by the Health Council of the Netherlands is based on a WHO draft and SSM report. It also recommends using ICNIRP guidelines, considered to be insufficient to protect against health hazards, such as cancer, by the majority of the scientists in this field (https://www.emfscientist.org). The report does not represent a thorough, balanced, objective, and up-to-date evaluation of cancer risks and other hazardous effects from RF radiation. It is also strikingly contradictory as it concludes that serious health effects such as cancer and birth defects are "possible." Yet it has no objection to the roll-out of 5G and recommends that later studies are performed to study health outcomes such as cancer and birth defects. Thus, no lessons are learned from existing observations on increased cancer risks[49]. The conclusion by the Commission that there is no reason to stop the use of lower frequencies for 5G up to 3.5 GHz because of no "proven adverse health effects," merely reflects the biased conclusions by ICNIRP dominated groups. Thus that conclusion must be dismissed, and new guidelines for previous and new frequencies must be established considering the new technology, the different propagation pattern for 5G, and increased RF radiation. A moratorium is urgently required on the implementation of 5G for wireless communication[13]. Ultimately, wired solutions are preferred.

Open access paper: https://www.wjgnet.com/2218-4333/full/v12/i6/393.htm

--Related Posts
Regulators Steamroll Health Concerns as the Global Economy Embraces 5G (Washington Spectator)
"We Have No Reason to Believe 5G is Safe" (Scientific American)
Scientific American Created Confusion about 5G's Safety: Will They Clear It Up? (includes "5G, Public Health and Uncomfortable Truths")

5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health Effects5G Wireless Technology: Cutting through the Hype
Scientists and Doctors Demand Moratorium on 5GGovernment Accountability Office (GAO) 2020 Report on 5G5G and Health (Netherlands Health Council)European Parliament: 5G Health Effects and Environmental Impact
ICNIRP's Exposure Guidelines for Radio Frequency Fields
Worldwide Radio Frequency Radiation Exposure Limits versus Health Effects
Cell Tower Health EffectsElectromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS)
Physicians for Safe TechnologyEnvironmental Health TrustMicrowave News
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Health Safety Guidelines and 5G Wireless Radiation [Health Matters]
James C. Lin. Health Safety Guidelines and 5G Wireless Radiation [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine. 23(1):10-17. Jan. 2022, doi: 10.1109/MMM.2021.3117307.
Abstract
The rollout of 5G cellular communication technology is well underway worldwide. The advocates of 5G mobile technology hail it as a faster and more secure technology than its predecessor, 3G and 4G systems. The major enabling infrastructure uses millimeter-wave (mm-wave) and phased-array technology to achieve line-of-sight directivity, high data rates, and low latency. A central vulnerability or security threat is that it may allow spying on users. Nevertheless, this is a system architecture and technology or regulatory issue but not a biological effect or health safety matter.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9632507
My note: James C. Lin, Professor Emeritus in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Illinois Chicago. Dr. Lin is one of the most renowned scientists who has studied the biological interactions of wireless radiation. He is a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Since 2006 he has been the Editor-in-Chief of the Bioelectromagnetics journal published on behalf of the Bioelectromagnetics Society (BEMS), an international organization of biological and physical scientists, physicians and engineers. In a prior article, Dr. Lin, an ICNIRP Commission member from 2004-2016, accused the organization of groupthink: "The simultaneous penchant to dismiss and criticize positive results and the fondness for and eager acceptance of negative findings are palpable and concerning."

Like several previous articles that Dr. JC Lin wrote for IEEE Microwave Magazine, the abstract is biased toward risk minimization so read the paper or the following excerpts.

Excerpts
Low-band 5G starts at roughly 400 MHz and uses existing or previous 3G or 4G frequencies or newly opened frequencies to operate; the latter, for example, may overlap with the existing 4G band. The 5G rollout began with midband, which includes popular frequencies between 3 and 4 GHz. However, primary 5G technological advances are associated with high-band 5G, which promises performance bandwidth as high as 20 GHz, and multiple-input, multiple-output strategies using 64–256 antennas at short distances and offering performances up to 10 times better than the current 4G networks."
"For health safety matters, it is not apparent whether the biological responses to high-band 5G radiations would be akin to earlier generations or low-band 5G radiations, given the distinctive characteristics of mm-wave and its interaction with the complex structure and composition of pertinent, superficial biological cells and tissues such as the cornea of the eye and nerve-rich human skin, the large, protective organ of the body."
"The two most widely promulgated RF health safety guidelines or standards have recently published revisions of their respective 1998 and 2005 versions [1], [2]. The updated International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and IEEE standards appear to cater to industry wishes; they are strongly linked to thermal effects associated with measurable temperature elevations. Also, the updates seem to have been synchronized to accommodate the 5G rollout."
"To date, there has not been a single reported epidemiological study that investigated mm-waves and their potential health effects.
Thus, although there are roughly 100 published laboratory investigations of all types, and the reported biological responses are inconsistent in their association between biological effects and mm-wave exposure. Indeed, the types of reported laboratory investigations are small, limited, and diverse, considering the wide, 5G, mm-wave frequency domain. The jury on biological effects or health impacts is still out on 5G mm-waves. Moreover, there is a lack of ongoing, controlled laboratory investigations...."
"If the entities responsible for safety recommendations believe what appears to be their position concerning experimental results from rats from the NIEHS/NTP that a whole-body temperature rise of 1 °C is carcinogenic, then the safety factors of 50 adopted for the public or 10 for workers would be marginal for their stated purpose and practically meaningless from the perspective of "safety" protection (more so above 6 GHz)."
"As shown in Table 1, for mm-waves, the referenced local-tissue-temperature rise in the head, torso, and limbs of humans is 5 °C. This level of temperature rise would bring the tissue temperature from a normal value of 37 °C to a hyperthermic 42 °C. A 42 °C tissue temperature is known to be cytotoxic, with exponential cell-killing capacities. It is used as the basis for clinical cancer therapy in hyperthermia treatment for cancer protocols [14]–[16]. The recently updated safety recommendations provide a reduction factor of 10 for the public's safety and a reduction factor of two in the case of workers. In this situation, the efficacy of these updated safety recommendations is borderline, and the updated recommendations are meaningless from the perspective of safety protection.

In summary, the safety recommendation updates were based primarily on limiting the tissue-heating potentials of RF radiation to elevate body temperatures. There are significant anomalies in the recently updated safety recommendations. Moreover, aside from the aforementioned anomalies, the existing scientific data are too limited—especially at mm-wavelengths—to make a reliable assessment or conclusion with any certainty. Some of the updated safety recommendations are marginal, questionable, and lack scientific justification from the perspective of safety protection."

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5G Cellular Standards. Total Radiobiological Assessment of the Danger of Planetary Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure to the Population (in Russian)Y.G. Grigoriev, A.S. Samoylov. 5G-cellular standards. Total radiobiological assessment of the danger of planetary electromagnetic radiation exposure to the population. G384; М.: SRC — FMBC, Moscow, 2020.
Abstract

The book discusses the implementation of the 5G-standard in the cellular communication system. 5G-technology works with millimeter waves (MMW) with simultaneous distribution of the IoT (Internet of Things) program — Internet connection between «things», both for home use, and other objects, for example, in transport, in production. MMW are easily shielded. Given this, only the skin and sclera of the eyes will be affected.
A new radiobiological approach to hazard assessment of the 5G-standard is presented. The significance of radiobiological criteria and the degree of risk are considered, taking into account the appearance of new critical organs and the load on existing critical organs and systems during lifetime exposure to EMF in the population. This point of view of the authors is used to assess the total radiobiological danger of planetary electromagnetic radiation exposure to the population.
Ways of possible reduction of the electromagnetic load on the population are suggested.

Relevance of the book by L.A. Ilyin, RAS academician
Both in Russia and in countries abroad, there have been active discussions over the past few years about a promising proposal for optimizing cellular communications — the planetary introduction of a new 5G-standard that will guarantee fast transmission of a large amount of data. For this purpose, millimeter waves (MMW) will be used.
The techno-economic advantage of this offer is obvious and widely reported by the media in many countries. However, the degree of danger of this type of electromagnetic radiation to public health and the environment remains unclear.
Unfortunately, the appeals of scientists and medical professionals to the UN and the European Union about the need for preliminary medical and biological research before implementing the 5G-standard remain beyond real implementation. A number of countries refuse to place the 5G-standard on their territory.

Book by Yu.G. Grigoriev and A.S. Samoylov "5G-CELLULAR STANDARD. TOTAL RADIOBIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE DANGER OF PLANETARY ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION EXPOSURE TO THE POPULATION" considers the implementation of the 5G-standard in the cellular communication system. Unlike existing wireless technologies 2G, 3G and 4G, which use electromagnetic fields of the radio frequency range, the 5G-standard works with millimeter waves with simultaneous distribution of the IoT (Internet of Things) program — Internet communication between "objects", both for home use and other objects, for example, in transport and in production.
For stable delivery of MMW to the entire territory of our planet, Earth satellites are used. It is planned to launch 4,425 satellites for the implementation of the universal Internet access program, but there are already 800 satellites in space under this program. It should be noted that there are currently several thousand satellites in orbit, which is of great concern to astronomers and the security service of manned space flights in Russia.
In fact, the entire population will be trapped for life in the electromagnetic grid of millimeter waves and no one will be able to avoid their impact.

MMW are easily shielded. Naturally, to cover a certain area with a millimeter cell, you will need to increase the number of base stations (BS). For example, with a cell radius of only 20 meters, you will need about 800 base stations per square kilometer and located 3-5 meters from the consumer. This is in sharp contrast, for example, with 3G and 4G-standards, which use large cells and have ranges from 2 to 15 km or more.

Given that MMW is absorbed in biotissues at a depth of up to 2 mm, only the skin and sclera of the eyes will be affected by them. Therefore, the authors rightly believe that when assessing the risk of MMV, it is necessary to take into account the appearance of new critical organs — the skin and eyes. The skin is a very complex biostructure, has a large number of receptors and is actually a "bio-relay" between the external environment and the functional state of the body.
Naturally, the introduction of 5G-technology raises new questions. First, the technical part of providing this type of communication. A significantly larger number of micro-antenna base station antennas per unit area with satellite support is needed. Second, there is a lack of a consistent methodology for hygienic rationing. Third, there are only assumptions about possible biological effects in the lifetime impact of MMW on populations and ecosystems. There are no data on possible bioeffects with constant exposure to MMW on the skin and sclera of the eyes. Targeted research is still not carried out both in Russia and abroad.

There are different perspectives on the assessment of the dangers of this new technology. The International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assess the hazard only by adding the absorbed dose to existing standards. This is a small addition, and therefore the existing FCC and ICNIRP standards, approved in 1996, are not being revised. International standards, despite criticism from the scientific community and the European Union, have remained unchanged for more than 20 years.
The authors of the reviewed book consider this approach erroneous, because in this case, the radiation load on new critical organs — the skin and eyes--is not taken into account. They considered the significance of radiobiological criteria and the degree of risk, taking into account the emergence of new critical organs and the load on existing critical organs and systems, taking into account the lifetime exposure of the population to EMF. From this point of view, the book presents an assessment of the total radiobiological danger of planetary electromagnetic radiation exposure to the population.

The book offers new ways to reduce the electromagnetic load, taking into account 5G on the population. It is necessary to explain to the population that EMF is considered harmful and their safety is regulated by certain hygiene standards.

Exposure to EMF that exceeds these standards may negatively affect the health of the mobile user. In this regard, the population should strictly follow the existing hygiene recommendations. However, most people perceive gadgets simply as an element of convenient everyday communication without time limits, as a toy for children, for entertainment, using cellular communication without the need. The population should understand that by violating hygiene recommendations, they are putting themselves at a certain risk. This danger must be persistently explained and, above all, through the media. It is recommended to introduce such a concept as "The conscious risk". This is the first generalization on the problem of the danger of 5G-technologies, both in Russia and abroad.
Open access book (in Russian; 196 pp. pdf): https://bit.ly/Grigoriev5G
My comments: A considerable amount of research suggests that exposure to millimeter waves can affect many organs of the body, not just the skin and the eyes.

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Electromagnetic fields, 5G and health: what about the precautionary principle?
John William Frank. Electromagnetic fields, 5G and health: what about the precautionary principle? J Epidemiol Community Health. Published Online First: 19 January 2021. doi: 10.1136/jech-2019-213595.
Abstract

New fifth generation (5G) telecommunications systems, now being rolled out globally, have become the subject of a fierce controversy. Some health protection agencies and their scientific advisory committees have concluded that there is no conclusive scientific evidence of harm. Several recent reviews by independent scientists, however, suggest that there is significant uncertainty on this question, with rapidly emerging evidence of potentially harmful biological effects from radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposures, at the levels 5G roll-out will entail. This essay identifies four relevant sources of scientific uncertainty and concern: (1) lack of clarity about precisely what technology is included in 5G; (2) a rapidly accumulating body of laboratory studies documenting disruptive in vitro and in vivo effects of RF-EMFs—but one with many gaps in it; (3) an almost total lack (as yet) of high-quality epidemiological studies of adverse human health effects from 5G EMF exposure specifically, but rapidly emerging epidemiological evidence of such effects from past generations of RF-EMF exposure; (4) persistent allegations that some national telecommunications regulatory authorities do not base their RF-EMF safety policies on the latest science, related to unmanaged conflicts of interest. The author, an experienced epidemiologist, concludes that one cannot dismiss the growing health concerns about RF-EMFs, especially in an era when higher population levels of exposure are occurring widely, due to the spatially dense transmitters which 5G systems require. Based on the precautionary principle, the author echoes the calls of others for a moratorium on the further roll-out of 5G systems globally, pending more conclusive research on their safety.

Conclusions and recommendation

In assessing causal evidence in environmental epidemiology, Bradford Hill himself pointed out that 'the whole picture matters;' he argued against prioritising any subset of his famous nine criteria for causation. One's overall assessment of the likelihood that an exposure causes a health condition should take into account a wide variety of evidence, including 'biological plausibility'. After reviewing the evidence cited above, the writer, an experienced physician-epidemiologist, is convinced that RF-EMFs may well have serious human health effects. While there is also increasing scientific evidence for RF-EMF effects of ecological concern in other species, both plant and animal, these have not been reviewed here, for reasons of space and the author's disciplinary limitations. In addition, there is convincing evidence, cited above, that several nations' regulatory apparatus, for telecommunications innovations such as the 5G roll-out, is not fit for purpose. Indeed, significant elements in that apparatus appear to have been captured by vested interests. Every society's public health—and especially the health of those most likely to be susceptible to the hazard in question (in the case of EMFs, children and pregnant women)—needs to be protected by evidence-based regulations, free from significant bias.

Finally, this commentary would be remiss if it did not mention a widely circulating conspiracy theory, suggesting that 5G and related EMF exposures somehow contributed to the creation or spread of the current COVID-19 pandemic. There are knowledgeable commentators' reports on the web debunking this theory, and no respectable scientist or publication has backed it. Indeed, combatting it is widely viewed by the scientific community as critical to dealing with the pandemic, as conspiracy theorists holding this view have already carried out violent attacks on mobile phone transmission facilities and other symbolic targets, distracting the public and authorities at a time when pandemic control actions are paramount. 42 This writer completely supports that view of the broader scientific community: the theory that 5G and related EMFs have contributed to the pandemic is baseless.

It follows that, for the current 5G roll-out, there is a sound basis for invoking 'the precautionary principle'. This is the environmental and occupational health principle by which significant doubt about the safety of a new and potentially widespread human exposure should be a reason to call a moratorium on that exposure, pending adequate scientific investigation of its suspected adverse health effects. In short, one should 'err on the side of caution'. In the case of 5G transmission systems, there is no compelling public health or safety rationale for their rapid deployment. The main gains being promised are either economic (for some parties only, not necessarily with widely distributed financial benefits across the population) or related to increased consumer convenience. Until we know more about what we are getting into, from a health and ecological point of view, those putative gains need to wait.

Open access paper: https://jech.bmj.com/content/early/2021/01/04/jech-2019-213595 or https://jech.bmj.com/content/jech/early/2021/01/04/jech-2019-213595.full.pdf

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Chemical polarization effects of electromagnetic field radiation from the novel 5G network deployment at ultra high frequency
Ugochukwu O. Matthew, Jazuli S. Kazaure. Chemical polarization effects of electromagnetic field radiation from the novel 5G network deployment at ultra high frequency. Health Technology (Berl). 2021 Jan 27: 1-13. doi: 10.1007/s12553-020-00501-x.
Abstract
The wide-spectrum of non-ionizing, non-visible radiation emitted from the novel 5G network deployment was investigated and found liable to produce effects capable of heating up and altering human body nomenclature. The Ultra-high frequency magnetic fields, induced circulation of currents in the surrounding human body when potentially exposed. The quantum of these electromagnetic charges is influenced by the magnitude of the external magnetic field. The Magnetic fields warming is the major organic consequence of the electromagnetic fields radiofrequency radiation emitted from 5G network installation especially at a very high frequencies. From the current research, the levels of electromagnetic fields to which individuals are naturally unmasked under 4G network and 5G network technology in SCENARIO1, SCENARIO 2 and SCENARIO 3 are very negligible to alter human body dipolar chemistry. On the several findings of the research, deploying 5G network technology under the ultra-high frequency above 20 GHz will produce effect that will heat up the human body tissues due to electromagnetic field inducement since human body is dipolar in nature. The research established that while the current digital society will continue investment into 5G network technology, caution must be applied not to deploy 5G network under ultra-high frequency above 20 GHz due to its adverse health effects.
Conclusions

From the knowledge and principle of electromagnetism, human beings are constituted of substantial amount of oriented cells with diverse electromagnetic field attributes. The Biological attributes of the human tissue under diverse electromagnetic radiative emission are studied and that had provided the basis upon which the current research on the effects of electromagnetic fields on the human body. The heating consequences of the radio electromagnetic waves from 5G network technology deployment had formed the fundamental basis for current research. On the several findings of the research, deploying 5G network technology under the ultra-high baseband above 20 GHz will produce effects such as heating up of the body tissues due to electromagnetic field inducement on the account that human body is dipolar in nature. The effects will extend to produce dielectric polarization, ionic polarization, interfacial polarization and orientational polarization. This is generally on the account that variations on dielectric properties of biological tissues with the frequency of the electromagnetic field inducement are very dissimilar. While it is very imperative to determine the frequency distribution in deploying the novel 5G network to avoid adverse dielectric dispersion that may flow into the human body.

Open access paper: https://www.springerprofessional.de/en/chemical-polarization-effects-of-electromagnetic-field-radiation/18805704

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New IEEE paper questions safety of exposure to 5G cell phone radiation
There has been considerable public pressure in many countries including the U.S. to stop deployment of 5G due to potential health risks. Most of the attention has focused on the cell towers or base stations; however, the safety of using 5G cell phones and other 5G personal devices may be an even greater concern due to the proximity of these devices to our bodies.
A new peer-reviewed paper, "Human Electromagnetic Field Exposure in 5G at 28 GHz," questions the safety of exposure to 5G millimeter waves. The authors found in a simulation study that use of a 5G cell phone at 28 GHz could exceed ICNIRP (i.e. international) radio frequency exposure limits when held at 8 centimeters (i.e., 3 inches) or closer to the head or body. Whereas the ICNIRP exposure limit for the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) is 2.0 watts per kilogram averaged over 10 grams of tissue, the FCC limit is 2-3 times more conservative, namely the SAR limit is 1.6 watts per kilogram averaged over only 1 gram of tissue. This means compliance with the FCC exposure limit would require a greater separation distance from the body than 8 centimeters in the U.S.

Although there have been numerous peer-reviewed papers that have raised serious concerns about the safety of exposure to 5G radiation and/or millimeter waves, this new paper is significant because it is published in an industry-sponsored journal, the November/December issue of IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine.
Seungmo Kim, Imtiaz Nasim. Human Electromagnetic Field Exposure in 5G at 28 GHz. IEEE Consumer Electronics Magazine. 9(6):41-48. Nov. 1 2020. DOI: 10.1109/MCE.2019.2956223.
Abstract
The fifth-generation wireless (5G) has already started showing its capability to achieve extremely fast data transfer, which makes itself considered to be a promising mobile technology. However, concerns have been raised on adverse health impacts that human users can experience in a 5G system by being exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). This article investigates the human EMF exposure in a 5G system and compares them with those measured in the previous-generation cellular systems. It suggests a minimum separation distance between a transmitter and a human user for keeping the EMF exposure below the safety regulation level, which provides consumers with a general understanding on the safe use of 5G communications.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9090831
Excerpts

"First, we discuss the human EMF exposure in the downlink as well as the uplink. Most of the prior work studies the uplink only, while hardly paying attention to EMF emissions generated by BSs [base stations or cell towers] in a 5G network. Recall the aforementioned changes that the 5G adopts: 1) operation at higher carrier frequencies; 2) reduction of cell size (which leads to increase in number of BSs; and 3) concentration of higher EMF energy into an antenna beam. They all imply that in 5G, unlike the previous-generation wireless systems, the downlink can also be a threat to human health as well as the uplink.

Second, we suggest that both SAR [Specific Absorption Rate] and PD [power density] should be used to display human EMF exposure for a wireless system. The reason is that SAR captures an amount of EMF energy that is actually "absorbed" into human tissues, whereas PD is an efficient metric only to present the EMF energy being introduced to a human user.

Third, we present an explicit comparison of human EMF exposure in 5G to those in the currently deployed wireless standards....

Fourth, we consider the maximum possible exposure that a human user can experience...."
"... in a 5G network, a consumer is likely to be exposed to high EMF energy more consistently. Nevertheless, it is easier to apply a "compliance distance" [17] in a downlink than in an uplink. Thus, this article suggests 1) an overhaul of the compliance distances defined in different standards and 2) the consumers' discretion on being close to a BS...."
"... the fact that a high-frequency EMF cannot penetrate deep into human skin does not mean that it is not dangerous. Specifically, although the penetration is limited only at the skin surface, the SAR (illustrated as a heat map in Figure 4) can be higher within the concentrated area, which can cause subsequent health problems such as skin heating."
Downlink vs. Uplink

"Figure 3(c) and (d) compare PD and SAR in uplink to the ICNIRP guidelines set at 10 W/m2 and 2W/kg, respectively. PD and SAR are remarkably higher in uplink than those in downlink, shown via a comparison of the results for uplink to those for downlink shown in Figure 3(a) and (b). It is attributed to smaller separation distance between a transmitter and a human body. Imagine one talking on a voice call; it is a "direct" physical contact of the phone and the head!

Also, it is significant to notice that no regulation exists at 28 GHz where this article investigates for 5G. As such, we refer to the ICNIRP's guideline that is set to be 2 W/kg by ICNIRP[11] at a frequency "below 10 GHz." In Figure 3(d), it provides a ""inferred" understanding on SAR in an uplink. The zoom-in look shown in Figure 3(d) suggests that in 5G, use of a handheld device within the distance of 8 cm causes an EMF absorption exceeding 2 W/kg, which would have been prohibited if the carrier frequency was lower than 10 GHz. This implies the gravity of human EMF exposure in an uplink of 5G."

Conclusion

"This article has discussed human EMF exposure in 5G operating at 28 GHz, while most of the prior work focuses only on the technological benefits that the technology brings. Considering the significance of wireless technologies in our daily life, the potential danger of using them should also be emphasized for sustainable advancement of the technologies. In this article, the first case study has demonstrated how much EMF exposure is caused in a 5G system compared to 4G and 3.9G. Then, the latter case study has suggested an adequate separation distance from a transmitter, in order to keep a human user from being exposed to EMF below a regulatory guideline. This article is expected to ignite continued interest in overarching research on the design of future wireless systems that achieve high performance while keeping consumer safety guaranteed.

However, considering the gravity of this issue, we suggest several directions to be achieved in our future research.

  • Human EMF exposure mitigation strategy: We are particularly interested in exploiting the technical features in future wireless systems—i.e., a larger number of BSs within a unit area. Such a paradigm change will enable a holistic, network-based approach to mitigate the EMF exposure as an optimization problem with a set of constraints representing the PD, SAR, and skin-temperature elevation.

  • Further studies regarding exact human health impacts caused by EMF exposure: The particular focus will be put on 1) skin dielectric effect with respect to frequency and 2) the effect of radiation when the body is covered with clothing or garment materials."

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Modelling of Total Exposure in Hypothetical 5G Mobile Networks for Varied Topologies and User Scenarios

Sven Kuehn, Serge Pfeifer, Beyhan Kochali, Niels Kuster. Modelling of Total Exposure in Hypothetical 5G Mobile Networks for Varied Topologies and User Scenarios. Final Report of Project CRR-816. A report on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). Zurich, IT'IS Foundation. 24 June 2019.
Executive Summary

In January 2019, the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) mandated the IT'IS Foundation to evaluate the total human exposure in hypothetical 5G mobile networks for varied topologies and user scenarios to identify factors that would minimize the total exposure of the population. In this study, total exposure is defined as the combined exposure from network base stations, the user's own device, as well as bystanders' mobile devices.

The influence of various factors on total exposure in mobile communication networks (as defined above) was modeled and analyzed with the help of the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Total exposure is described as the local peak specific absorption rate (SAR) spatially averaged over any 10 g of tissue mass (psaSAR10g) averaged over a period of 6 minutes. The unit psaSAR10g was chosen because it defines the governing basic restriction for wireless exposure as the whole-body average SAR limits (wbaSAR) are intrinsically met if the limits of local exposure are satisfied. The averaging duration of 6 minutes constitutes the internationally accepted averaging time to prevent thermal hazards at frequencies below 6 GHz as instant values have little justification. However, it should be noted that some regulators define shorter averaging time periods, e.g., the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of 100 s.

In a first step, we analyzed the tissue-specific exposure as a function of frequency. The preliminary dosimetric study showed that exposure of the human brain to the 3.6 GHz band, that has been recently added to the Swiss mobile communication frequencies, is reduced by a factor of >6 for the tissue averaged SAR when compared to mobile network operation at <1 GHz. This reduction is due to the smaller penetration depth at higher frequencies. This conclusion, however, does not apply to exposed tissues close to the surface or skin (eyes, testicles, etc.) when the peak SAR in this tissue is evaluated. The peak SAR in the grey matter remains in approximately the same order of magnitude ( 3 dB) over all frequencies but the area of high exposure is reduced at 3.6 GHz.

In a second step, we used data measured in 4G systems and analyzed the latest mobile network standards to extrapolate the exposures for various 5G network scenarios. These measured data were also used to extrapolate the exposure to the future development of data usage in 5G networks.

Specifically, we analyzed the effect on the total exposure of (i) the network topology by varying the cell size and amount of indoor coverage in the network, as well as the usage of (ii) an individual's own device, and (iii) devices of close bystanders.

The results – based on simulations of more than 200 different exposure scenarios – reveal that, for all user types, except for non-users (including passive mobile phone users and users dominantly using downlink data traffic, e.g., video streaming), total exposure is dominated by the person's own mobile device. Compared to non-users, the exposure is increased (i) for light users (with 100 MByte uplink data per day) by 6 – 10 dB (or a factor of 4 to 10), (ii) for moderate users (with 1 GByte uplink data per day) by 13 – 25 dB (or a factor of 20 to >300), and (iii) for heavy users by 15 – 40 dB (or a factor of 30 to >10000). Further, the results show that peak exposure of non-users is not defined by exposure to base stations but by exposure to mobile devices of close bystanders in urban areas resulting in 6 dB (or a factor of 4) higher exposure than from a nearby base station antenna.

While a reduction of the mobile cell size leads to a reduction in total exposure by a factor of 2 to10 for people actively using their mobile devices, this might also lead to a small increase by a factor of 1.6 in total exposure of non-users due the generally increased incident signal levels from the surrounding base stations.

Similarly, the exposure of active users can be reduced by a factor of 4 to 600 by increasing the indoor network coverage. Yet, in line with the results for the mobile cell sizes, increased indoor coverage will also lead to increased exposure of non-users by a factor of 2 to 10. This increase, however, starts at a level 1000 times lower than the typical total exposure of active users.

The results of this study show that the personal mobile device is the dominant exposure source for active mobile network users. Besides a person's own usage behavior, total exposure is also closely linked to the network infrastructure. Generally speaking, a network with a lower path loss, i.e., smaller cells and additional indoor coverage, helps to reduce total exposure. The exposure per transmitted bit is reduced by a factor of <3 by the increased spectral efficiency of the 5G technology, and the reduced penetration depth associated with the new bands at 3.5 – 3.8 GHz.

The results presented above are limited due to the network data that has been used and the definition of total exposure as stated in this report. Furthermore, it only considers time-averaged (6 min) and not instant exposures. This study does not consider (i) the effect of upcoming massive MIMO systems in 5G networks, (ii) alternative data transmission links, for instance the use of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), and (iii) millimeter wave frequencies in 5G mobile networks.
Conclusions
The results of this study show that the absorption of energy by the human brain, resulting from exposure to the 3.6 GHz band newly added to the Swiss mobile communication frequencies, is reduced by a factor >6 for the tissue averaged SAR when compared to mobile networks operating at <1 GHz, and by a factor of >2 when compared to the frequency bands at 1.8 – 2GHz. For deep brain regions, the reduction is much larger.
The reduced exposure for these regions is due to lower penetration depths at higher frequencies. Close to the surface (eyes, testicles, etc.) the exposure can be higher. At the most exposed surface of the grey matter, the values remain approximately 3 dB over all frequencies whereas the area of high exposure is reduced.
More than 200 Monte Carlo simulated exposure scenarios have been analyzed to evaluate total human exposure in 5G Networks for different topologies and user scenarios. The results show that for all users (except non-users), the total exposure is dominated by a person's own mobile device. Compared to a non-user, the exposure is increased for a light user (with 100 MByte uplink data per day) by 6 – 10 dB (or by a factor 4 to 10), for a moderate user (with 1 GByte uplink data per day) by 13 – 25 dB (or by a factor of 20 to >300), and for a heavy user by 25 – 40 dB (or a factor of 300 to >10000). The peak exposure of non-users is further not defined by exposure to surrounding base stations but by mobile devices of close bystanders in urban areas, resulting in 6 dB (or a factor of 4) higher exposure than from a nearby base station antenna.

Reducing the diameter of the mobile cell leads to a decreased overall exposure by a factor of 2 to 10 for people who actively use their mobile devices. At the same time, the reduction in cell size might lead to a small increase by a factor <2 in exposure for non-users. The exposure of active users can be reduced by factors ranging from 4 to 600 by increasing indoor network coverage which, in turn, will be linked to increased exposure of non-users by a factor of 2 to 10. However, such an increase is by a factor 1000 lower than the typical exposure of active users. The results of this study are limited due to the network data that has been used and the definition of total exposure as stated earlier in this report. This study does not consider (i) the effect of upcoming massive MIMO and multi-user MIMO systems in 5G networks, (ii) alternative data transmission links – for instance the use of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and (iii) millimeter wave frequencies in 5G mobile networks.

In summary, the results of this study show that the user's own mobile device is the dominant source of exposure for the population of active mobile network users. Besides personal usage patterns, totl exposure is also closely linked to the network infrastructure. Generally speaking, a network that decreases the path loss by means of smaller cells and additional indoor coverage will help to reduce the total exposure of the population.

https://www.bafu.admin.ch/dam/bafu/en/dokumente/elektrosmog/externe-studien-berichte/modelling-of-total-exposure-in-hypothetical-5g-mobile-networks-for-varied-topologies-and-user-scenarios.pdf.download.pdf/Modelling%20of%20Total%20Exposure%20in%20Hypothetical%205G%20Networks%20-%20Schlussbericht.pdf
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Oct 14, 2020
5G Research from the EMF-Portal Archive
As of June 1, 2020, the EMF-Portal archive listed 133 papers and letters to the editor published in professional journals and presentations at professional conferences that focus on 5G research. Although most discuss technical or dosimetric issues (n = 92), 41 citations address other issues including potential biologic or health effects.
In all, the EMF-Portal archive references more than 30,000 publications and presentations on non-ionizing electromagnetic fields. The Portal is a project based at the University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Germany.

Currently, no peer-reviewed, empirical studies of the biologic or health effects from actual exposure to 5G radiation have been published. Hence, those who claim that 5G is safe because it complies with radiofrequency exposure guidelines are engaging in sophistry.
These guidelines were designed to protect the population from short-term heating (or thermal) risks. However, numerous peer-reviewed studies have found adverse biologic and health effects from exposure to low-intensity or non-thermal levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF). Hence, more than 240 EMF scientists who have signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal have recommended that "guidelines and regulatory standards be strengthened":
"Numerous recent scientific publications have shown that EMF affects living organisms at levels well below most international and national guidelines….
The various agencies setting safety standards have failed to impose sufficient guidelines to protect the general public, particularly children who are more vulnerable to the effects of EMF."
To download the list of 133 papers and presentations: bit.ly/EmfPortal5G
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5G Wireless Deployment and Health Risks: Time for a Medical Discussion
Priyanka Bandara, Tracy Chandler, Robin Kelly, Julie McCredden, Murray May, Steve Weller, Don Maisch, Susan Pockett, Victor Leach, Richard Cullen, Damian Wojcik. 5G Wireless Deployment and Health Risks: Time for a Medical Discussion in Australia and New Zealand. ACNEM Journal. 39(1). July 2020.
No abstract.
Excerpts

"There is an urgent need for clinicians and medical scientists in the Australia-New Zealand region to engage in an objective discussion around the potential health impacts of the fifth generation (5G) wireless technology currently being deployed. The statements of assurance by the industry and government parties that dominate the media in our region are at odds with the warnings of hundreds of scientists actively engaged in research on biological/health effects of anthropogenic electromagnetic radiation/fields (EMR/EMF). (1) There have been worldwide public protests as well as appeals by professionals and the general public (2) that have compelled many cities in Europe to declare moratoria on 5G deployment and to begin investigations. In contrast, there is no medically-oriented professional discussion on this public health topic in Australia and New Zealand, where 5G deployment is being expedited. 5G is untested for safety on humans and other species and the limited existing evidence raises major concerns that need to be addressed. The vast body of research literature on biological/health effects of 'wireless radiation' (radiofrequency EMR) (3,4) indicates a range of health-related issues associated with different types of wireless technologies (1G-4G, WiFi, Bluetooth, Radar, radio/TV transmission, scanning and surveillance systems). These are used in a wide range of personal devices in common use (mobile/cordless phones, computers, baby monitors, games consoles etc) without users being aware of the health risks. Furthermore, serious safety concerns arise from the extra complexity of 5G as follows:
• 5G carrier waves use a much broader part of the microwave spectrum including waves with wavelengths in the millimetre range (hence called 'millimetre waves') which will be used in the second phase of 5G). Until now, millimetre waves have had limited applications such as radar, point-to-point communications links and non-lethal military weapons. (5)
• Extremely complex modulation patterns involving numerous frequencies form novel exposures.
• Beam formation characteristics can produce hotspots of high unknown intensities.
• A vast number of antenna arrays will add millions of microwave transmitters globally in addition to the existing RF transmitters thereby greatly increasing human exposure. This includes 5G small cell antennas to be erected every 200-250 metres on street fixtures, such as power poles and bus shelters, many of which will be only metres from homes with the homeowners having absolutely no say in where the antennas will be located.

This massive leap in human exposure to RF-EMR from 5G is occurring in a setting where the existing scientific evidence overwhelmingly indicates biological interference, (3,4) therefore suggesting the need to urgently reduce exposure...."
"As for the new 5G technology, it is concerning that leading experts in the technical field (6) have reported the possibility of damaging thermal spikes under the current exposure guidelines (from beam forming 5G millimetre waves that transfer data with short bursts of high energy) and some animals and children may be at an increased risk due to smaller body size. Even working within the entirely thermally-based current regulatory process, they pointed out 5G millimetre waves "may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines". (6) Microwave experts from the US Air Force have reported on 'Brillouin Precursors' created by sharp transients at the leading and trailing edges of pulses of mm waves, when beam forming fast millimetre waves create moving charges in the body which penetrate deeper than explained in the conventional models, and have the potential to cause tissue damage. (7) In fact, concerns about moving charges affecting deep tissue are associated with other forms of pulsed RF radiation currently used for wireless communications. This may be one factor explaining why the pulsed radiation used in wireless communication technologies is more biologically active than continuous RF radiation. (8) Such effects of high energy 5G mm waves could have potentially devastating consequences for species with small body size and also creatures that have innate sensitivity to EMF, which include birds and bees that use nature's EMFs for navigation. (9) Unfortunately, non-thermal effects and chronic exposure effects are not addressed in the current guidelines. (10)"
"Our investigation into the scientific literature has found RF-EMR to be a potent inducer of oxidative stress even at so-called "low-intensity" exposures (which are in fact billions of times higher than in nature (26)) such as those from commonly used wireless devices. An analysis (22) of 242 publications (experimental studies) which had investigated endpoints related to oxidative stress - biomarkers of oxidative damage such as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (indicating oxidative DNA damage) and/or altered antioxidant levels - revealed that 216 studies (89%) had reported such findings (Fig. 1). This evidence base on RF-associated oxidative stress from 26 countries (only one study from Australia and none from New Zealand) is relatively new and mostly post 2010, i.e. after the WHO's International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RF-EMR as a Group 2B possible carcinogen. Moreover, 180 studies out of the 242 (74.7%) were in vivo studies (including several human studies) which presents strong evidence.
"Proponents of 5G often dismiss concerns about health risks claiming that 5G microwaves will minimally penetrate the skin and therefore any effects are limited to minor skin heating (and they acknowledge that there is some uncertainty around heating effects on the eyes). The medical community understands that skin is the largest organ of the human body and a key part of the neuro-immune and neuro-endocrine systems. Natural UVA and UVB (also so-called non-ionizing radiation) that penetrate the skin less than 5G millimetre waves have profound effects on health and wellbeing of humans. Therefore, artificial 5G waves must be subjected to rigorous safety testing."
"Unfortunately, the questionable conduct of regulatory agencies such as ARPANSA and WHO's international EMF Project (43) with conflicts of interest due to funding links to the wireless industry (44) remains to be investigated. More open questioning and protests are appearing in Europe and North America where there is some level of engagement on the part of government bodies in response to warnings of adverse health effects of anthropogenic EMF/EMR by expert medical bodies such as EUROPAEM and AAEM (31,32) (despite industry opposition)."
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5G Communication Technology and Coronavirus Disease [Health Matters]
James C. Lin. 5G Communication Technology and Coronavirus Disease [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine, 21(9):16-19. Sep 2020.

No abstract.
Excerpts
"The fact is that there is no link between the COVID-19 virus and 5G cell phone technology or 5G base-station communication towers. These are totally different constructs; they are not even close. None of the conspiracy theories that try to link 5G and the coronavirus make any sense scientifically."
"For biological matters, it is not obvious whether the biological responses to high-band 5G radiation will be akin to earlier generations or low-band 5G radiations, given the distinctive characteristics of mm-wave [millimeter wave] and its interaction with the complex structure and composition of pertinent biological tissues."
"It is important to note that the recent NTP and Ramazzini RF exposure studies presented similar findings in terms of heart schwannomas and brain gliomas. Thus, two relatively well-conducted RF exposure studies employing the same strain of rats showed consistent results in significantly increased cancer risks. More recently, an advisory group for the IARC has recommended including reevaluation of the carcinogenicity of human exposure to RF radiation, with high priority, in their monograph series [7]."
"... the 5G frequency domain is divided into low, mid, and high bands. The operating frequencies at low and mid bands can overlap with the current 4G band at 6 GHz or below. Thus, the biological effects of RF radiation at these lower frequency bands are likely to be comparable to 2, 3, or 4G. However, the scenarios of high-band 5G—especially for 24–60 GHz in the mm-wave region for high-capacity, short-range wireless data communications—are relatively recent arrivals and pose considerable challenge to health risk assessment. There is a paucity of data on permittivity and coupling, such as reflection, transmission, and induced energy deposition, in biological tissues in the mm-wave frequency band."
"Induced energy deposition increases with mm-wave frequency. However, at the highest frequencies, the energy deposition in the deeper regions inside the skin is lower because of the reduced penetration depth at these frequencies [11]."
"A recently published review [13] included 45 in vivo studies conducted using laboratory animals and other biological preparations and 53 in vitro studies involving primary cells and cultured cell lines.... This industry-supported review noted that, aside from the wide frequency ranges, the studies were diverse both in subjects and in the end points investigated. Biological effects were observed to occur both in vivo and in vitro for different biological endpoints studied. Indeed, the percentage of positive responses at nonthermal levels in most frequency groups was as high as 70%."
"While many of these investigations with mm-wave exposures reported biological responses, there is inconsistency in the dependence of biological effects and mm-wave intensity used for exposure. Also, the reported in vitro and in vivo laboratory investigations are modest in number and diverse in subject matter, considering the wide 5G/mmwave frequency domain. The jury on the biological effect or health impact is still out on 5G. Moreover, there is a lack of ongoing controlled laboratory investigations. Simply put, the existing scientific data are too limited for any reliable assessment or conclusion with certainty."
https://ieeexplore-ieee-org/document/9154657

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Setting Guidelines for Electromagnetic Exposures and Research Needs
Barnes F, Greenebaum B. Setting Guidelines for Electromagnetic Exposures and Research Needs. Bioelectromagnetics. 2020 Jul;41(5):392-397. doi: 10.1002/bem.22267.
Abstract

Current limits for exposures to nonionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF) are set, based on relatively short-term exposures. Long-term exposures to weak EMF are not addressed in the current guidelines. Nevertheless, a large and growing amount of evidence indicates that long-term exposure to weak fields can affect biological systems and might have effects on human health. If they do, the public health issues could be important because of the very large fraction of the population worldwide that is exposed. We also discuss research that needs to be done to clarify questions about the effects of weak fields. In addition to the current short-term exposure guidelines, we propose an approach to how weak field exposure guidelines for long-term exposures might be set, in which the responsibility for limiting exposure is divided between the manufacturer, system operator, and individual being exposed.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32311139/
Excerpts
"Both IEEE and ICNIRP base their analyses on rigorous reviews of the scientific literature and on established firm evidence of health effects in humans. The present guidelines are based on acute exposures; to date both IEEE and ICNIRP have not found sufficient evidence to include health effects of long-term exposures at lower levels. However, over the last 20 years the evidence has become extremely strong that weaker EMF over the whole range for frequencies from static through millimeter waves can modify biological processes. There is now solid experimental evidence and supporting theory showing that weak fields, especially but not exclusively at low frequencies, can modify reactive free radical concentrations and that changes in radical concentration and that of other signaling molecules, such as hydrogen peroxide and calcium, can modify biological processes …"
"The evidence that weak radiofrequency (RF) and low-frequency fields can modify human health is still less strong, but the experiments supporting both conclusions are too numerous to be uniformly written off as a group due to poor technique, poor dosimetry, or lack of blinding in some cases, or other good laboratory practices. Based on recent studies by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) [SmithRoe et al., 2020] and the Ramazzini Foundation [Falcioni et al., 2018] as well as laboratory data, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has declared RF fields as possible human carcinogens [IARC, 2013]. A recent paper extends the NTP studies by evaluating genotoxicity in animals exposed to fields at or over the guideline limits and found DNA damage in Comet assays [SmithRoe et al., 2020]. Many other papers indicate similar results, but many negative results are also in the literature."

"PROPOSED APPROACH TO SETTING EXPOSURE LIMITS

From these and other lines of solid research, the guidelines for exposure could be revised. Increased emphasis on long-term exposures may require refining the concept of dose to more flexibly combine exposure time and field intensity or energy absorbed. Eventual guidelines might suggest limiting cell phone calls to X hours per day with exposure levels above Y W/m2, and for Z days per week exposure should be less than Y W/m2 to allow the body to reset its baseline."

"What is missing in the current guidelines or regulations are guidelines for long-term exposure to weak EMF…."

"Guidelines should be set at three levels: the individual user, local company, and national or international level…. External guidance, in terms of informed recommendations or at least analysis of various intensities and styles of usage from some agency such as the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) or NIH, would be useful.

Limits on the time for operations of base stations and exposures in adjacent living spaces are not controlled by the user and must be set by competent authorities, based on scientific evidence. It is likely to be difficult to specify times when exposures to RF signals are zero or below some limit. What will be needed is being able to say with some certainty that exposure below a given level has not been shown to cause changes in body chemistry above some level. A starting point might be current levels from TV and radio stations that are large enough to give signal-to-noise ratios around 20 dB (100-fold) with typical receiving systems. Currently, mean values for the population's exposure to these systems are estimated to be around 0.1 V/m and peak exposures range up to 2 V/m, which exceed current exposure limits for a small fraction of the population. Therefore, one starting point for exposure limits might be an average of 0.1 V/m, not based on research but on practicality, until further research results dictate either a lower or higher limit."

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Effects of 5G Wireless Communication on Human Health
Karaboytcheva M. Effects of 5G wireless communication on human health. European Parliamentary Research Service (EPRS). Briefing document: PE 646.172. March 2020.
Summary
The fifth generation of telecommunications technologies, 5G, is fundamental to achieving a European gigabit society by 2025.
The aim to cover all urban areas, railways and major roads with uninterrupted fifth generation wireless communication can only be achieved by creating a very dense network of antennas and transmitters. In other words, the number of higher frequency base stations and other devices will increase significantly.
This raises the question as to whether there is a negative impact on human health and environment from higher frequencies and billions of additional connections, which, according to research, will mean constant exposure for the whole population, including children.
Whereas researchers generally consider such radio waves not to constitute a threat to the population, research to date has not addressed the constant exposure that 5G would introduce. Accordingly, a section of the scientific community considers that more research on the potential negative biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) and 5G is needed, notably on the incidence of some serious human diseases. A further consideration is the need to bring together researchers from different disciplines, in particular medicine and physics or engineering, to conduct further research into the effects of 5G.
The EU's current provisions on exposure to wireless signals, the Council Recommendation on the limitation of exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields (0 Hz to 300 GHz), is now 20 years old, and thus does not take the specific technical characteristics of 5G into account.
In this Briefing
  • Difference between 5G and current technology
  • Regulation of electromagnetic fields and 5G exposure
  • European Parliament Research on EMF and 5G effects on human health
  • Stakeholders' views
  • The road ahead for 5G
Open access paper: https://bit.ly/EUParl5G
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Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking technology under real-life conditions
Kostoff RN, Heroux P, Aschner M, Tsatsakis A. Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking technology under real-life conditions. Toxicology Letters. 323(1):35-40. May 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.01.020.



Highlights

• Identifies wide-spectrum of adverse health effects of non-ionizing non-visible radiation
• Most laboratory experiments were not designed to identify the more severe adverse effects reflective of real-life conditions
• Many experiments do not include the real-life pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal
• Vast majority of experiments do not account for synergistic adverse effects of other toxic stimuli with wireless radiation
• 5G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, but will have adverse systemic effects as well

Abstract

This article identifies adverse effects of non-ionizing non-visible radiation (hereafter called wireless radiation) reported in the premier biomedical literature. It emphasizes that most of the laboratory experiments conducted to date are not designed to identify the more severe adverse effects reflective of the real-life operating environment in which wireless radiation systems operate. Many experiments do not include pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal. The vast majority do not account for synergistic adverse effects of other toxic stimuli (such as chemical and biological) acting in concert with the wireless radiation. This article also presents evidence that the nascent 5G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, as commonly believed, but will have adverse systemic effects as well.


https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31991167

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Appeals that matter or not on a moratorium on the deployment of the fifth generation, 5G, for microwave radiation
Hardell L, Nyberg R. [Comment] Appeals that matter or not on a moratorium on the deployment of the fifth generation, 5G, for microwave radiation. Molecular and Clinical Oncology. Published online January 22, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3892/mco.2020.1984.

Abstract

Radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range of 30 kHz‑300 GHz is classified as a 'possible' human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) since 2011. The evidence has since then been strengthened by further research; thus, RF radiation may now be classified as a human carcinogen, Group 1. In spite of this, microwave radiations are expanding with increasing personal and ambient exposure. One contributing factor is that the majority of countries rely on guidelines formulated by the International Commission on Non‑Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a private German non‑governmental organization. ICNIRP relies on the evaluation only of thermal (heating) effects from RF radiation, thereby excluding a large body of published science demonstrating the detrimental effects caused by non‑thermal radiation. The fifth generation, 5G, for microwave radiation is about to be implemented worldwide in spite of no comprehensive investigations of the potential risks to human health and the environment. In an appeal sent to the EU in September, 2017 currently >260 scientists and medical doctors requested for a moratorium on the deployment of 5G until the health risks associated with this new technology have been fully investigated by industry‑independent scientists. The appeal and four rebuttals to the EU over a period of >2 years, have not achieved any positive response from the EU to date. Unfortunately, decision makers seem to be uninformed or even misinformed about the risks. EU officials rely on the opinions of individuals within the ICNIRP and the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR), most of whom have ties to the industry. They seem to dominate evaluating bodies and refute risks. It is important that these circumstances are described. In this article, the warnings on the health risks associated with RF presented in the 5G appeal and the letters to the EU Health Commissioner since September, 2017 and the authors' rebuttals are summarized. The responses from the EU seem to have thus far prioritized industry profits to the detriment of human health and the environment.

Excerpt
In conclusion, this article demonstrates that the EU has given mandate to a 13‑member, non‑governmental private group, the ICNIRP, to decide upon the RF radiation guidelines. The ICNIRP, as well as SCENIHR, are well shown not to use the sound evaluation of science on the detrimental effects of RF radiation, which is documented in the research which is discussed above (9,10,21‑24,54,55). These two small organizations are producing reports which seem to deny the existence of scientific published reports on the related risks. It should perhaps be questioned whether it is in the realm of protecting human health and the environment by EU and whether the safety of EU citizens and the environment can be protected by not fully understanding the health‑related risks.
Open access paper: https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/mco.2020.1984/download
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Spatial and Time Averaging Restrictions Within the Electromagnetic Exposure Safety Framework in the Frequency Range Above 6 GHz

Neufeld E, Samaras T, Kuster N. Discussion on Spatial and Time Averaging Restrictions Within the Electromagnetic Exposure Safety Framework in the Frequency Range Above 6 GHz for Pulsed and Localized Exposures. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Dec 30. doi: 10.1002/bem.22244.

Abstract
Both the current and newly proposed safety guidelines for local human exposure to millimeter-wave frequencies aim at restricting the maximum local temperature increase in the skin to prevent tissue damage. In this study, we show that the application of the current and proposed limits for pulsed fields can lead to a temperature increase of 10°C for short pulses and frequencies between 6 and 30 GHz. We also show that the proposed averaging area of 4 cm2 , that is greatly reduced compared with the current limits, does not prevent high-temperature increases in the case of narrow beams. A realistic Gaussian beam profile with a 1 mm radius can result in a temperature increase about 10 times higher than the 0.4°C increase the same averaged power density would produce for a plane wave. In the case of pulsed narrow beams, the values for the time and spatial-averaged power density allowed by the proposed new guidelines could result in extreme temperature increases.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31885092
Excerpts
.... In this letter, we look at limits, such as those currently proposed or recently approved for the revised ICNIRP guidelines and IEEE standard, and investigate whether such limits are consistent with the stated goals of the exposure safety frameworks of preventing excessive heating in the case of pulsed and/or localized radiation. In cases when they are not consistent, we discuss how consistency can be achieved. In line with the above mentioned safety standards and exposure guidelines, the presented analysis focuses exclusively on the magnitude of the tissue temperature increase as a risk factor and does not consider other aspects, such as the thermoelastic effect related to the rapidity of temperature increase.....
In conclusion, the results presented above demonstrate that, in the case of very short pulses, pulse‐duration‐independent limits imposed on transmitted energy density (fluence) alone cannot preclude the induction of high‐temperature increases in the skin. Pulse‐duration‐dependent limits should be applied also for pulses less than 1 s and possibly less than 30 GHz as well. Even though the amplifiers of the currently developed consumer devices will not allow the full exploitation of the limits of the guidelines, the guidelines should not implicitly rely on this, as they will be used to develop exposure assessment standards with the aim of ensuring safety of any future technology, e.g. IEC/IEEE 63195 [2018]. Accordingly, either assumption must be explicitly stated in the guidelines, or the limits should be adapted to be intrinsically safe. In the absence of limitations applied to the peak‐to‐average power ratio of pulses, it is possible to deliver to the body large amounts of energy within a very short time interval. For millimeter‐wave frequencies, where the absorption is superficial, this results in fast and dramatic temperature rises, as the step response function is proportional to the rapidly rising ... rather than the ... commonly encountered for deeper heating. As far as spatial averaging is concerned, it has been shown that an averaging area smaller than 4 cm2 should be introduced in order to avoid peak PDs in narrow beams [Neufeld and Kuster, 2018] that overheat the tissues. With increasing beam radius, e.g. at larger distances from the antenna(s), the tolerable averaging area increases rapidly, provided that there are no sharp exposure peaks. Duration‐independent limits on the fluence of pulses are not suitable. They should either be replaced by duration‐dependent fluence limits for pulses or by limits on the (temporal) peak exposure. In both cases, the limits should be set after taking narrow‐beam exposures into consideration. These limits will depend on the chosen spatial and temporal averaging schemes and the maximum temperature increase deemed acceptable. Forward‐looking knowledge about the technical needs and priorities of the industry could allow for selecting the balance between thresholds (averaging time and area, peak‐to‐average ratio, PD) to minimally impact the technological potential using the same limit‐setting framework.

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5G mobile networks rated as "high impact" risk for insurance industry
in new Emerging Risk report from Swiss Re

Swiss Re, one of the world's leading providers of insurance and reinsurance, rated 5G as a "high impact" risk for the insurance industry that may affect property and casualty claims in more than 3 years.
Off the leash – 5G mobile networks
"5G – short for fifth generation – is the latest standard for cellular mobile communications. Providing ultrafast broadband connection with higher capacity and lower latency, 5G is not only heaven for your smartphone. It will enable wireless connectivity in real time for any device of the Internet of things (IoT), whether that be autonomous cars or sensor-steered factory. In doing so, it will allow decentralised seamless interconnectivity between devices. To allow for a functional network coverage and increased capacity overall, more antennas will be needed, including acceptance of higher levels of electromagnetic radiation. In some jurisdictions, the rise of threshold values will require legal adaptation. Existing concerns regarding potential negative health effects from electromagnetic fields (EMF) are only likely to increase. An uptick in liability claims could be a potential long-term consequence.
Other concerns are focused on cyber exposures, which increase with the wider scope of 5G wireless attack surfaces. Traditionally IoT devices have poor security features. Moreover, hackers can also exploit 5G speed and volume, meaning that more data can be stolen much quicker. A large-scale breakthrough of autonomous cars and other IoT applications will mean that security features need to be enhanced at the same pace. Without, interruption and subversion of the 5G platform could trigger catastrophic, cumulative damage. With a change to more automation facilitated by new technology like 5G, we might see a further shift from motor to more general and product liability insurance. There are also worries about privacy issues (leading to increased litigation risks), security breaches and espionage. The focus is not only on hacking by third parties, but also potential breaches from built-in hard- or software "backdoors." In addition, the market for 5G infrastructure is currently focussed on a couple of firms, and that raises the spectre of concentration risk. Potential impacts:
· Cyber exposures are significantly increased with 5G, as attacks become faster and higher in volume. This increases the challenge of defence.
· Growing concerns of the health implications of 5G may lead to political friction and delay of implementation, and to liability claims. The introductions of 3G and 4G faced similar challenges.
· Information security and national sovereignty concerns might delay implementation of 5G further, increasing uncertainty for planning authorities, investors, tech companies and insurers.
· Heated international dispute over 5G contractors and potential for espionage or sabotage could affect international cooperation, and impact financial markets negatively.
· As the biological effects of EMF in general and 5G in particular are still being debated, potential claims for health impairments may come with a long latency."
Source: Swiss Re. SONAR – New emerging risk insights. Zurich, Switzerland: Sustainability, Emerging and Political Risk Management, Swiss Re Institute, Strategy Development & Performance Management. May 2019. page 29.
https://www.swissre.com/institute/research/sonar/sonar2019.html

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5G Deployment
Blackman C, Forge S. 5G Deployment: State of Play in Europe, USA, and Asia. Study for the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies, European Parliament, Luxembourg, 2019.
Download the report at: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/etudes/IDAN/2019/631060/IPOL_IDA(2019)631060_EN.pdf

Excerpts

"It is becoming clear that 5G [fifth generation cellular technology] will cost much more to deploy than previous mobile technologies (perhaps three times as much) as it is more complex and requires a denser coverage of base stations to provide the expected capacity. The European Commission has estimated that it will cost €500 billion to meet its 2025 connectivity targets, which includes 5G coverage in all urban areas.
As 5G is driven by the telecoms supply industry, and its long tail of component manufacturers, a major campaign is under way to convince governments that the economy and jobs will be strongly stimulated by 5G deployment. However, we are yet to see significant "demand-pull" that could assure sales. These campaign efforts are also aimed at the MNOs [mobile network operators] but they have limited capacity to invest in the new technology and infrastructure as their returns from investment in 3G and 4G are still being recouped.
The notion of a "race" is part of the campaign but it is becoming clear that the technology will take much longer than earlier generations to perfect. China, for instance, sees 5G as at least a ten-year programme to become fully working and completely rolled out nationally. This is because the technologies involved with 5G are much more complex. One aspect, for example, that is not well understood today is the unpredictable propagation patterns that could result in unacceptable levels of human exposure to electromagnetic radiation."
"Although lower frequencies, many in the UHF [ultra high frequency] range, are being proposed for the first phase of 5G networks, much higher radio frequencies are also projected in bands traditionally used for radars and microwave links. Whether this will transpire is still open to question. These frequencies are being commercially tested by some (e.g. by AT&T in the USA at 28 GHz [gigahertz]). The new bands are well above the UHF ranges, being either in centimetric (3-30 GHz) or in millimetric bands (30-300 GHz) and popularly branded "mmWave", but present technical challenges that are expensive to solve."
"Although many 5G networks currently being piloted will use the much lower bands, those upper frequencies being proposed for the future may offer propagation ranges only in the order of hundreds or even tens of metres. Higher frequency signals are also subject to more interference from weather – rain, snow, fog – and obstacles - wet foliage or buildings and their walls. This means that, at higher frequencies, indoor use may be problematic if based on through-wall or window penetration. Consequently, re-use of the existing UHF bands and also those just above in the 3-10 GHz range ("mid-range") are emphasised today, to give 5G signals greater range with fewer technical challenges."
"With higher frequencies and shortened ranges, base stations will be more closely packed into a given area to give complete coverage that avoids "not-spots". Ranges of 20-150 metres may be typical, giving smaller coverage areas per "small cell". A cell radius of 20 metres would imply about 800 base stations per square kilometre (or small area wireless access points (SAWAPs), the term used in the European Electronic Communications Code (EECC)). That contrasts with 3G and 4G which use large or "macro" cells. Traditionally they offer ranges of 2-15 km or more and so can cover a larger area but with fewer simultaneous users as they have fewer individual channels."
5G Electromagnetic Radiation and Safety
"Significant concern is emerging over the possible impact on health and safety arising from potentially much higher exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation arising from 5G. Increased exposure may result not only from the use of much higher frequencies in 5G but also from the potential for the aggregation of different signals, their dynamic nature, and the complex interference effects that may result, especially in dense urban areas.
The 5G radio emission fields are quite different to those of previous generations because of their complex beamformed transmissions in both directions – from base station to handset and for the return. Although fields are highly focused by beams, they vary rapidly with time and movement and so are unpredictable, as the signal levels and patterns interact as a closed loop system. This has yet to be mapped reliably for real situations, outside the laboratory.
While the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) issues guidelines for limiting exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (EMF), and EU member states are subject to Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC which follows ICNIRP guidelines, the problem is that currently it is not possible to accurately simulate or measure 5G emissions in the real world."
USA
"The USA is moving towards some form of rollout of mobile broadband as 5G but not necessarily in a holistic, well-orchestrated operation. It is more a set of ad hoc commercial manoeuvres. Some of these are simply rebranding existing LTE, rather than delivering novel networks. Re-use of the LTE spectrum in the UHF ranges (300 MHz to 3 GHz) is significant. The latter decision is probably warranted by its geography of large rural spaces and high density urban centres situated more on the coasts. Thus, the insistence for 5G on high centimetric bands (25–30 GHz and higher) is probably less justified than for the dense conurbations of Asia and the EU.
A significant challenge concerns the administrative local barriers to small cell rollout. The need for many small cells implies long delays and high costs. Local regulations continue to prevail despite the FCC's mandate on a light-touch regime and minimal permit costs. This has led to a wide divide between local and central government on the principles of having to obtain permission for rollout and the charges for that. Local administrations, especially in the larger municipalities, are at loggerheads with the FCC (Zima, 2018). Several court challenges are being made to the FCC mandate of August 2018 that overrides local objections to a "one-touch" regime."
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How Harmful is 5G?

Harald Schumann and Elisa Simantke. How harmful is 5G really? Der Tagesspiegel, Jan 15, 2019. (In German. For English translation email me at jmm@berkeley.edu.)
"5G should transfer huge amounts of data quickly. But it could also harm your health. Europe's governments ignore the danger."
Investigate Europe reports on the current state of the science and exposes the harmful roles that the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the World Health Organization's International EMF Project, and the EU Commission's Scientific Committee on New Health Risks (SCENIHR) have played in paving the way for the deployment of 5G without regard to health consequences.
Investigate Europe is a pan-European journalist team that researches topics of European relevance and publishes the results across Europe. The project is supported by several foundations, the Open Society Initiative for Europe, and readers' donations. Among the media partners for the report on 5G include "Newsweek Polska", "Diario de Noticias", "Il Fatto Quotidiano", "De Groene Amsterdamer", "Efimerida ton Syntakton", "Aftenbladet" and the "Falter". In addition to the authors, Crina Boros, Wojciech Ciesla, Ingeborg Eliassen, Juliet Ferguson, Nikolas Leontopoulos, Maria Maggiore, Leila Minano, Paulo Pena and Jef Poortmans contributed to this.

More about the project: https://www.investigate-europe.eu/publications/the-5g-mass-experiment/
https://www.tagesspiegel.de/gesellschaft/mobilfunk-wie-gesundheitsschaedlich-ist-5g-wirklich/23852384.html
Literature Reviews
5G Wireless Communication and Health Effects-A Pragmatic Review Based on Available Studies Regarding 6 to 100 GHz
Simkó M, Mattsson MO. 5G wireless communication and health effects-A pragmatic review based on available studies regarding 6 to 100 GHz. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Sep 13;16(18). pii: E3406. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16183406.

Abstract


The introduction of the fifth generation (5G) of wireless communication will increase the number of high-frequency-powered base stations and other devices. The question is if such higher frequencies (in this review, 6-100 GHz, millimeter waves, MMW) can have a health impact. This review analyzed 94 relevant publications performing in vivo or in vitro investigations. Each study was characterized for: study type (in vivo, in vitro), biological material (species, cell type, etc.), biological endpoint, exposure (frequency, exposure duration, power density), results, and certain quality criteria. Eighty percent of the in vivo studies showed responses to exposure, while 58% of the in vitro studies demonstrated effects. The responses affected all biological endpoints studied. There was no consistent relationship between power density, exposure duration, or frequency, and exposure effects. The available studies do not provide adequate and sufficient information for a meaningful safety assessment, or for the question about non-thermal effects. There is a need for research regarding local heat developments on small surfaces, e.g., skin or the eye, and on any environmental impact. Our quality analysis shows that for future studies to be useful for safety assessment, design and implementation need to be significantly improved.

Conclusions
Since the ranges up to 30 GHz and over 90 GHz are sparingly represented, this review mainly covers studies done in the frequency range from 30.1 to 65 GHz.In summary, the majority of studies with MMW exposures show biological responses. From this observation, however, no in-depth conclusions can be drawn regarding the biological and health effects of MMW exposures in the 6–100 GHz frequency range. The studies are very different and the total number of studies is surprisingly low. The reactions occur both in vivo and in vitro and affect all biological endpoints studied.There does not seem to be a consistent relationship between intensity (power density), exposure time, or frequency, and the effects of exposure. On the contrary, and strikingly, higher power densities do not cause more frequent responses, since the percentage of responses in most frequency groups is already at 70%. Some authors refer to their study results as having "non-thermal" causes, but few have applied appropriate temperature controls. The question therefore remains whether warming is the main cause of any observed MMW effects?
In order to evaluate and summarize the 6–100 GHz data in this review, we draw the following conclusions:
  • Regarding the health effects of MMW in the 6–100 GHz frequency range at power densities not exceeding the exposure guidelines the studies provide no clear evidence, due to contradictory information from the in vivo and in vitro investigations.
  • Regarding the possibility of "non-thermal" effects, the available studies provide no clear explanation of any mode of action of observed effects.
  • Regarding the quality of the presented studies, too few studies fulfill the minimal quality criteria to allow any further conclusions.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/18/3406
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EMF safety guidelines are fraudulent: The consequences for microwave frequency exposures and 5G
Pall M. Eight repeatedly documented findings each show that EMF safety guidelines do not predict biological effects and are, therefore fraudulent: The consequences for both microwave frequency exposures and also 5G. Second Edition, May 23, 2019.

Abstract

ICNIRP, US FCC, EU and other EMF safety guidelines are all based on the assumption that
average EMF intensities and average SAR can be used to predict biological effects and therefore safety. Eight different types of quantitative or qualitative data are analyzed here to determine whether these safety guidelines predict biological effects. In each case the safety guidelines fail and in most of these, fail massively. Effects occur at approximately 100,000 times below allowable levels and the basic structure of the safety guidelines is shown to be deeply flawed. The safety guidelines ignore demonstrated biological heterogeneity and established biological mechanisms. Even the physics underlying the safety guidelines is shown to be flawed. Pulsed EMFs are in most cases much more biologically active than are non-pulsed EMFs of the same average intensity, but pulsations are ignored in the safety guidelines despite the fact that almost all of our current exposures are highly pulsed. There are exposure windows such that maximum effects are produced in certain intensity windows and also in certain frequency windows but the consequent very complex dose-response curves are ignored by the safety guidelines. Several additional flaws in the safety guidelines are shown through studies of both individual and paired nanosecond pulses. The properties of 5G predict that guidelines will be even more flawed in predicting 5G effects than the already stunning flaws that the safety guidelines have in predicting our other EMF exposures. The consequences of these findings is that "safety guidelines" should always be expressed in quotation marks; they do not predict biological effects and therefore do not predict safety. Because of that we have a multi-trillion dollar set of companies, the telecommunication industry, where all assurances of safety are fraudulent because they are based on these "safety guidelines."

Open access paper: https://bit.ly/RFguidelinesPall190523

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5G Wireless Telecommunications Expansion: Public Health & Environmental Implications
Russell CL. 5G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications. Environmental Research. 2018 Aug;165:484-495. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.016.
Abstract

The popularity, widespread use and increasing dependency on wireless technologies has spawned a telecommunications industrial revolution with increasing public exposure to broader and higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data through a variety of devices and infrastructure. On the horizon, a new generation of even shorter high frequency 5G wavelengths is being proposed to power the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT promises us convenient and easy lifestyles with a massive 5G interconnected telecommunications network, however, the expansion of broadband with shorter wavelength radiofrequency radiation highlights the concern that health and safety issues remain unknown. Controversy continues with regards to harm from current 2G, 3G and 4G wireless technologies. 5G technologies are far less studied for human or environmental effects.
It is argued that the addition of this added high frequency 5G radiation to an already complex mix of lower frequencies, will contribute to a negative public health outcome both from both physical and mental health perspectives.
Radiofrequency radiation (RF) is increasingly being recognized as a new form of environmental pollution. Like other common toxic exposures, the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR) will be problematic if not impossible to sort out epidemiologically as there no longer remains an unexposed control group. This is especially important considering these effects are likely magnified by synergistic toxic exposures and other common health risk behaviors. Effects can also be non-linear. Because this is the first generation to have cradle-to-grave lifespan exposure to this level of man-made microwave (RF EMR) radiofrequencies, it will be years or decades before the true health consequences are known. Precaution in the roll out of this new technology is strongly indicated.
This article will review relevant electromagnetic frequencies, exposure standards and current scientific literature on the health implications of 2G, 3G, 4G exposure, including some of the available literature on 5G frequencies. The question of what constitutes a public health issue will be raised, as well as the need for a precautionary approach in advancing new wireless technologies.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29655646

Conclusion
Although 5G technology may have many unimagined uses and benefits, it is also increasingly clear that significant negative consequences to human health and ecosystems could occur if it is widely adopted. Current radiofrequency radiation wavelengths we are exposed to appear to act as a toxin to biological systems. A moratorium on the deployment of 5G is warranted, along with development of independent health and environmental advisory boards that include independent scientists who research biological effects and exposure levels of radiofrequency radiation. Sound regulatory policy regarding current and future telecommunications initiative will require more careful assessment of risks to human health, environmental health, public safety, privacy, security and social consequences. Public health regulations need to be updated to match appropriate independent science with the adoption of biologically based exposure standards prior to further deployment of 4G or 5G technology.
Considering the current science, lack of relevant exposure standards based on known biological effects and data gaps in research, we need to reduce our exposure to RF EMR where ever technically feasible. Laws or policies which restrict the full integrity of science and the scientific community with regards to health and environmental effects of wireless technologies or other toxic exposures should be changed to enable unbiased, objective and precautionary science to drive necessary public policies and regulation. Climate change, fracking, toxic emissions and microwave radiation from wireless devices all have something in common with smoking. There is much denial and confusion about health and environmental risks, along with industry insistence for absolute proof before regulatory action occurs (Frentzel-Beyme, 1994; Michaels 2008). There are many lessons we have not learned with the introduction of novel substances, which later became precarious environmental pollutants by not heeding warning signs from scientists (Gee, 2009). The threats of these common pollutants continue to weigh heavily on the health and well being of our nation. We now accept them as the price of progress. If we do not take precautions but wait for unquestioned proof of harm will it be too late at that point for some or all of us?
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935118300161

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Towards 5G Communication Systems: Are there Health Implications?
Di Ciaula A. Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications? Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Apr;221(3):367-375. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.01.011.
Highlights
• RF-EMF exposure is rising and health effects of are still under investigation. • Both oncologic and non-cancerous chronic effects have been suggested. • 5G networks could have health effects and will use MMW, still scarcely explored. • Adequate knowledge of RF-EMF biological effects is also needed in clinical practice. • Underrating the problem could lead to a further rise in noncommunicable diseases.
Abstract

The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance.


In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW).

Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics.

Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29402696


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Effects of Millimeter Waves Radiation on Cell Membrane - A Brief Review
Ramundo-Orlando A. Effects of millimeter waves radiation on cell membrane - A brief review. J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves. 2010; 30 (12): 1400-1411.
Abstract
The millimeter waves (MMW) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, extending from 30 to 300 GHz in terms of frequency (corresponding to wavelengths from 10 mm to 1 mm), is officially used in non-invasive complementary medicine in many Eastern European countries against a variety of diseases such gastro duodenal ulcers, cardiovascular disorders, traumatism and tumor. On the other hand, besides technological applications in traffic and military systems, in the near future MMW will also find applications in high resolution and high-speed wireless communication technology. This has led to restoring interest in research on MMW induced biological effects. In this review emphasis has been given to the MMW-induced effects on cell membranes that are considered the major target for the interaction between MMW and biological systems.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10762-010-9731-z
Excerpts
"Several studies on the effects induced by millimeter radiation on biological systems have been reported in the literature. Diverse effects have been observed on cell free systems, cultured cells, isolated organs of animals and humans. The subject has been extensively reviewed by Motzkin [17] and more recently by Pakhomov [3]. At the cellular level these effects are mainly on the membrane process and ion channels, molecular complexes, excitable and other structures. Many of these effects are quite unexpected from a radiation penetrating less than 1 mm into biological tissues [3, 18, 19]. However none of the findings described in the above reviews has been replicated in an independent laboratory, thus they cannot be considered as established biological effects."
"…a large number of cellular studies have indicated that MMW may alter structural and functional properties of membranes (Table 2)."
Conclusion
"In this review emphasis has been given to the low-level MMW effects on cell membranes. Above all, it should be mentioned that the reported effects are of a non-thermal character, that is, the action of radiation does not produce essential heating of the biological system or destroy its structure. In this context it appears that no permanent structural change of lipid bilayer could arise under low level (less than 10 mW/cm2) millimeter waves irradiation.
On the other hand, MMW radiation may affect intracellular calcium activities, and, as a consequence, several cellular and molecular processes controlled by Ca2+ dynamics themselves. The effects of MMW radiation on ion transport may be the consequence of a direct effect on membrane proteins as well as on phospholipid domain organization. Water molecules seem to play an important role in these biological effects of MMW radiation. Unfortunately, detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating physiological responses to MMW exposure remain largely unknown.
Usually the search at a molecular level is simpler if we can reduce the complexity of our biological samples. This is the case for cell membranes by using model systems. They can be formed by a simple lipid bilayer without interfering components and they give independence from biological activity that can create complication in searching for electromagnetic fields bioeffects. The emphasis is on the search for molecular mechanisms of the membrane effect induced by MMW with different frequencies and power density. Furthermore, replication studies are needed including good temperature control and appropriate internal control samples. It is also advantageous if the future studies are multidisciplinary, invoking an integration of high quality exposure and effects methodologies.
Clearly a significant amount of accurate experimental work is still required in order to fully understand the interactions between MMW radiation and cell membrane."

Research Papers (updated 1/10/2021)
Sven Kuehn, Serge Pfeifer, Beyhan Kochali, Niels Kuster. Modelling of Total Exposure in Hypothetical 5G Mobile Networks for Varied Topologies and User Scenarios. Final Report of Project CRR-816. A report on behalf of the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN). IT'IS Foundation, Zurich. 24 June 2019.
Executive Summary

In January 2019, the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) mandated the IT'IS Foundation to evaluate the total human exposure in hypothetical 5G mobile networks for varied topologies and user scenarios to identify factors that would minimize the total exposure of the population. In this study, total exposure is defined as the combined exposure from network base stations, the user's own device, as well as bystanders' mobile devices.

The influence of various factors on total exposure in mobile communication networks (as defined above) was modeled and analyzed with the help of the Monte Carlo simulation technique. Total exposure is described as the local peak specific absorption rate (SAR) spatially averaged over any 10 g of tissue mass (psaSAR10g) averaged over a period of 6 minutes. The unit psaSAR10g was chosen because it defines the governing basic restriction for wireless exposure as the whole-body average SAR limits (wbaSAR) are intrinsically met if the limits of local exposure are satisfied. The averaging duration of 6 minutes constitutes the internationally accepted averaging time to prevent thermal hazards at frequencies below 6 GHz as instant values have little justification. However, it should be noted that some regulators define shorter averaging time periods, e.g., the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) of 100 s.

In a first step, we analyzed the tissue-specific exposure as a function of frequency. The preliminary dosimetric study showed that exposure of the human brain to the 3.6 GHz band, that has been recently added to the Swiss mobile communication frequencies, is reduced by a factor of >6 for the tissue averaged SAR when compared to mobile network operation at <1 GHz. This reduction is due to the smaller penetration depth at higher frequencies. This conclusion, however, does not apply to exposed tissues close to the surface or skin (eyes, testicles, etc.) when the peak SAR in this tissue is evaluated. The peak SAR in the grey matter remains in approximately the same order of magnitude ( 3 dB) over all frequencies but the area of high exposure is reduced at 3.6 GHz.

In a second step, we used data measured in 4G systems and analyzed the latest mobile network standards to extrapolate the exposures for various 5G network scenarios. These measured data were also used to extrapolate the exposure to the future development of data usage in 5G networks.

Specifically, we analyzed the effect on the total exposure of (i) the network topology by varying the cell size and amount of indoor coverage in the network, as well as the usage of (ii) an individual's own device, and (iii) devices of close bystanders.

The results – based on simulations of more than 200 different exposure scenarios – reveal that, for all user types, except for non-users (including passive mobile phone users and users dominantly using downlink data traffic, e.g., video streaming), total exposure is dominated by the person's own mobile device. Compared to non-users, the exposure is increased (i) for light users (with 100 MByte uplink data per day) by 6 – 10 dB (or a factor of 4 to 10), (ii) for moderate users (with 1 GByte uplink data per day) by 13 – 25 dB (or a factor of 20 to >300), and (iii) for heavy users by 15 – 40 dB (or a factor of 30 to >10000). Further, the results show that peak exposure of non-users is not defined by exposure to base stations but by exposure to mobile devices of close bystanders in urban areas resulting in 6 dB (or a factor of 4) higher exposure than from a nearby base station antenna.

While a reduction of the mobile cell size leads to a reduction in total exposure by a factor of 2 to10 for people actively using their mobile devices, this might also lead to a small increase by a factor of 1.6 in total exposure of non-users due the generally increased incident signal levels from the surrounding base stations.

Similarly, the exposure of active users can be reduced by a factor of 4 to 600 by increasing the indoor network coverage. Yet, in line with the results for the mobile cell sizes, increased indoor coverage will also lead to increased exposure of non-users by a factor of 2 to 10. This increase, however, starts at a level 1000 times lower than the typical total exposure of active users.

The results of this study show that the personal mobile device is the dominant exposure source for active mobile network users. Besides a person's own usage behavior, total exposure is also closely linked to the network infrastructure. Generally speaking, a network with a lower path loss, i.e., smaller cells and additional indoor coverage, helps to reduce total exposure. The exposure per transmitted bit is reduced by a factor of <3 by the increased spectral efficiency of the 5G technology, and the reduced penetration depth associated with the new bands at 3.5 – 3.8 GHz.

The results presented above are limited due to the network data that has been used and the definition of total exposure as stated in this report. Furthermore, it only considers time-averaged (6 min) and not instant exposures. This study does not consider (i) the effect of upcoming massive MIMO systems in 5G networks, (ii) alternative data transmission links, for instance the use of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN), and (iii) millimeter wave frequencies in 5G mobile networks.
Conclusions
The results of this study show that the absorption of energy by the human brain, resulting from exposure to the 3.6 GHz band newly added to the Swiss mobile communication frequencies, isreduced by a factor >6 for the tissue averaged SAR when compared to mobile networks operating at <1 GHz, and by a factor of >2 when compared to the frequency bands at 1.8 – 2GHz. For deep brain regions, the reduction is much larger.
The reduced exposure for these regions is due to lower penetration depths at higher frequencies. Close to the surface (eyes, testicles, etc.) the exposure can be higher. At the most exposed surface of the grey matter, the values remain approximately 3 dB over all frequencies whereas the area of high exposure is reduced.
More than 200 Monte Carlo simulated exposure scenarios have been analyzed to evaluate total human exposure in 5G Networks for different topologies and user scenarios. The results show that for all users (except non-users), the total exposure is dominated by a person's own mobile device. Compared to a non-user, the exposure is increased for a light user (with 100 MByte uplink data per day) by 6 – 10 dB (or by a factor 4 to 10), for a moderate user (with 1 GByte uplink data per day) by 13 – 25 dB (or by a factor of 20 to >300), and for a heavy user by 25 – 40 dB (or a factor of 300 to >10000). The peak exposure of non-users is further not defined by exposure to surrounding base stations but by mobile devices of close bystanders in urban areas,resulting in 6 dB (or a factor of 4) higher exposure than from a nearby base station antenna.

Reducing the diameter of the mobile cell leads to a decreased overall exposure by a factor of 2 to 10 for people who actively use their mobile devices. At the same time, the reduction in cell size might lead to a small increase by a factor <2 in exposure for non-users. The exposure of active users can be reduced by factors ranging from 4 to 600 by increasing indoor network coverage which, in turn, will be linked to increased exposure of non-users by a factor of 2 to 10. However, such an increase is by a factor 1000 lower than the typical exposure of active users. The results of this study are limited due to the network data that has been used and the definition of total exposure as stated earlier in this report. This study does not consider (i) the effect of upcoming massive MIMO and multi-user MIMO systems in 5G networks, (ii) alternative data transmission links – for instance the use of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and (iii)millimeter wave frequencies in 5G mobile networks.

In summary, the results of this study show that the user's own mobile device is the dominant source of exposure for the population of active mobile network users. Besides personal usage patterns, totl exposure is also closely linked to the network infrastructure. Generally speaking, a network that decreases the path loss by means of smaller cells and additional indoor coverage will help to reduce the total exposure of the population.

https://www.bafu.admin.ch/dam/bafu/en/dokumente/elektrosmog/externe-studien-berichte/modelling-of-total-exposure-in-hypothetical-5g-mobile-networks-for-varied-topologies-and-user-scenarios.pdf.download.pdf/Modelling%20of%20Total%20Exposure%20in%20Hypothetical%205G%20Networks%20-%20Schlussbericht.pdf
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El-Hajj AM, Naous T. Radiation Analysis in a Gradual 5G Network Deployment Strategy. 2020 IEEE 3rd 5G World Forum (5GWF), Bangalore, India IEEE, 2020: 448-453, ISBN 9781728173009. (Austin, TX simulation)

Abstract

In a world where many overlapping 2G, 3G, and 4G electromagnetic radiation sources already exist, concerns regarding the potential increase in these radiation levels following the roll-out of 5G networks are growing. The deployment of 5G is expected to increase power density levels drastically, given the limitations of mmWave communications that impose a notably higher number of base stations to cover a given area of interest. In this paper, we propose a gradual deployment strategy of a 5G network for a small area in downtown Austin, Texas, using the already existing 4G LTE sites of the area. The radiated power density of the proposed 5G network is then analyzed according to several electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure limits and compared to the radiation levels of the same area where only the LTE network is present. Simulation results for the selected area demonstrate the significant increase in radiation levels resulting from the addition of 5G cell towers.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9221314
For the frequency range of 2 to 300 GHz, the IEEE C95.1-2019 standard [18] specifies a limit power density value of 10 W/m2 in restricted environment and 50 W/m2 in unrestricted environments. These correspond to an averaging time of 30 minutes. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) 2020 guidelines for limiting exposure to electromagnetic fields [19] specify the general public exposure limit at 10 W/m2 for frequencies between 2 and 300 GHz with the averaging time being 30 minutes. Similar limits are specified by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in [20] where a restriction of 10 W/m2 for the general public has been set. In contrast, the institute for building biology and sustainability (IBN) in Germany have specified the exposure limit to be less than 0.1 W/m2 in their 2015 Standard of Building Biology Measurement Technique (SBM-2015) [21], which is a million-fold lower than what is specified by the aforementioned guidelines. This suggests that negative health effects can occur at levels much lower than 10
W/m2. Finally, the Chinese ministry of health [22] have set the power density exposure limit to 0.1 W/m2.This paper presented an analysis of the radiation levels in a deployed 5G network in an urban outdoor environment. Under the constraints of exposure limits, several challenges face the design and planning of such radiation aware 5G networks. Cell ranges need to be reduced to comply with the maximum allowed radiated power, requiring the densification of small cells in small areas and making it more costly to deploy these radiation-aware 5G networks. Although in this work we considered the maximum allowed EIRP prior to network deployment, results showed power density levels that do not satisfy all the exposure limits set by several sources. In this regard, a positive impact can be imposed by radiationaware 5G networks on several levels. On a governmental level, the exposure limits for the power density need to be revised using today's data and approaches to bridge the gap between the thresholds specified by the different institutes and commissions. On a technological and scientific level, the radiation exposure constraint can open the door for innovative 5G solutions targeted to limit the health risks and economic barriers associated with this problem. This work can be extended by developing an analytical framework to efficiently rank and rate different cell allocation alternatives to minimize the potential radiations given a carefully chosen list of key performance indicators.

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Absorption of 5G radiation in brain tissue as a function of frequency, power and time
David H. Gultekin, Peter H. Siegel. Absorption of 5G radiation in brain tissue as a function of frequency, power and time. IEEE Access. Published online June 12, 2020. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3002183.
Abstract
The rapid release of 5G wireless communications networks has spurred renewed concerns regarding the interactions of higher radiofrequency (RF) radiation with living species. We examine RF exposure and absorption in ex vivo bovine brain tissue and a brain simulating gel at three frequencies: 1.9 GHz, 4 GHz and 39 GHz that are relevant to current (4G), and upcoming (5G) spectra. We introduce a highly sensitive thermal method for the assessment of radiation exposure, and derive experimentally, accurate relations between the temperature rise (ΔT), specific absorption rate (SAR) and the incident power density (F), and tabulate the coefficients, ΔT/ΔF and Δ(SAR)/ΔF, as a function of frequency, depth and time. This new method provides both ΔT and SAR applicable to the frequency range below and above 6 GHz as shown at 1.9, 4 and 39 GHz, and demonstrates the most sensitive experimental assessment of brain tissue exposure to millimeter-wave radiation to date, with a detection limit of 1 mW. We examine the beam penetration, absorption and thermal diffusion at representative 4G and 5G frequencies and show that the RF heating increases rapidly with frequency due to decreasing RF source wavelength and increasing power density with the same incident power and exposure time. We also show the temperature effects of continuous wave, rapid pulse sequences and single pulses with varying pulse duration, and we employ electromagnetic modeling to map the field distributions in the tissue. Finally, using this new methodology, we measure the thermal diffusivity of ex vivo bovine brain tissue experimentally.
Summary
In this paper, we present for the first time, a simple, highly accurate test system for measuring the temperature rise and the specific absorption rate in tissue samples and liquid or gel simulants as a function of frequency, RF exposure power and time – pulsed and CW. We use this set up to make, and compare, carefully calibrated measurements of bovine brain tissue and a gel simulant, Triton X and water, at both 4G (1.9 GHz) and newly allocated 5G frequency bands (4 GHz - 39 GHz). We show the effects of beam concentration, focusing, absorption and heat diffusion at all three frequencies and delineate a linear range over which we can derive highly accurate coefficients (ΔT/ΔF and Δ(SAR)/ΔF) that can be used to predict the temperature rise and the specific absorption rate at prescribed depths and exposure times within the tissue or gel at power levels that go down to detectable limits (<1 mW). This method may be used to evaluate a wide range of RF radiation sources, tissues and simulants.
We also note that the impact of relatively modest incident RF power (1 W) and short exposure times (6 minutes CW and 30 second pulsed) at 39 GHz using a single mode waveguide source for the exposure, results in extremely large power density (16.5 kW/m2) and temperature rise (> 60°C for CW, > 35°C for 30 s pulse) in both bovine brain tissue and gel. This same temperature rise can be expected on skin (which has very similar dielectric properties) when such large surface power densities are present in very close proximity to the RF source or antenna, perhaps emanating from millimeter-wave base stations, handsets, or wireless-enabled appliances or kiosks. Although, current safety limits of 28.76 and 143.8 W/m2 for power density in unrestricted (public) and restricted (occupational) environments, respectively should prevent such exposures, the resulting limits on RF power generation of only 1.7 to 8.5 mW from a directional RF source, such as our waveguide at 39 GHz, in the vicinity, will greatly limit the application potential for any such communications system.
In the USA, the FCC and FDA are overseeing the implementation of millimeter wave technology in the public realm and more studies are needed to help guide the science, technology and policy. Our experimental method can provide threshold temperature and SAR values for both occupational and public exposures to millimeter waves with surface power densities from 16.5 W/m2 to 16.5 kW/m2 and exposure times from 1 second to 30 minutes.
Finally, we use our new data and this RF method to derive a thermal diffusivity coefficient for the ex vivo bovine brain tissue that is consistent with our prior measurements using an MRI. This is the first time that the thermal diffusivity of ex vivo bovine brain tissue has been directly measured by this thermal RF method [47, 50, 51, 70].
Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9115853
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A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on the Measurement of the Electromagnetic Field Level Radiated by 5G Base Stations

Adda S, Aureli T, D'elia S, Franci D, Grillo E, Migliore MD, Pavoncello S, Schettino F, Suman R. A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation on the Measurement of the Electromagnetic Field Level Radiated by 5G Base Stations. IEEE Access 2020. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2020.2998448.
Abstract
This paper presents some theoretical considerations and experimental results regarding the problem of maximum power extrapolation for the assessment of the exposure to electromagnetic fields radiated by 5G base stations. In particular the results of an extensive experimental campaign using an extrapolation procedure recently proposed for 5G signal is discussed and experimentally checked on a SU-MIMO signal. The results confirm the effectiveness of the extrapolation technique. Starting from an analysis (that represents a further novel contribution of this paper) on the impact of Spatial Division Multiple Access techniques used in 5G on the measurement of EMF level, some indications of possible extension of the technique to the highly complex MU-MIMO case are also given.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9103530
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Adverse Impacts of 5G Downlinks on Human Body
Nasim I, Kim S. Adverse Impacts of 5G Downlinks on Human Body. 2019 SoutheastCon. Huntsville, AL. 11-14 April 2019. DOI: 10.1109/SoutheastCon42311.2019.9020454
Abstract

The increasing demand for higher data rates and uninterrupted reliable service have made the frequency spectrum above 6 GHz a very promising candidate for future wireless communications because of its massive amount of raw bandwidth and extremely high data transfer capabilities. However, increasing concerns of communications at high frequencies on human health have gained international alarm that suggests more research before it is deployed successfully. In this context, this paper aims to investigate the human electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure from fifth-generation (5G) downlink communications and compare its impacts with the present cellular technologies considering the features that the 5G systems will likely adopt. Our simulation results suggest that while the impacts from 5G beamforming communications cross the regulatory borders at downlinks for a very short range between base stations (BSs) and user equipment (UE), the exposure level remains on a high throughout the entire network compared to the present systems. Also, this paper urges for more research on the exposure level from future communications to determine any possible threats below the existing guidelines. This paper also highlights the significance of considering SAR for the measurement of exposure compliance in downlinks.
Excerpt
... this paper urges the regulatory authorities to set SAR guidelines for 5G systems at far-field exposure also for frequencies above 6 GHz. Also, the minimum AP-UE [access point - user equipment] distance should be maintained at least 6 m [meters] for 5G and further space should be left for a conservative operation regarding human safety.
Conclusions
This paper has highlighted the significance of the human EMF exposure issue in the downlink of a cellular communications system. This paper measured the exposure level in terms of PD and SAR and compared them to those calculated in the 3.9G and 4G specifications. Distinguished from the prior art that studied uplinks only, this paper has found that the downlinks of a 5G can also yield a higher level of emissions in terms of SAR compared to concurrent cellular systems. Our results emphasized that this increase stems from more highly concentrated EMF energy per downlink RF beam due to the use of larger phased arrays within small cells of a 5G network. However, only skin effects are being taken into consideration for simplicity. This paper has also suggested the minimum AP-UE distance for human safety in cellular communications at high frequencies such as 28 GHz. To this end, this paper urges to investigate any possible threats at the exposure level shown in this work for future 5G systems before it is finally globalized.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9020454
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A Survey on Electromagnetic Risk Assessment and Evaluation Mechanism for Future Wireless Communication Systems
Jamshed MA, Heliot F, Brown T. A Survey on Electromagnetic Risk Assessment and Evaluation Mechanism for Future Wireless Communication Systems. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology. May 20, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/JERM.2019.2917766

Abstract

The accurate measurement of electromagnetic exposure and its application is expected to become more and more important in future wireless communication systems, given the explosion in both the number of wireless devices and equipments radiating electromagnetic-fields (EMF) and the growing concerns in the general public linked to it. Indeed, the next generation of wireless systems aims at providing a higher data rate,better quality of service (QoS), and lower latency to users by increasing the number of access points, i.e. densification, which in turn will increase EMF exposure. Similarly, the multiplication of future connected devices,e.g. internet of things (IoT) devices, will also contribute to an increase in EMF exposure. This paper provides a detailed survey relating to the potential health hazards linked with EMF exposure and the different metrics that are currently used for evaluating,limiting and mitigating the effects of this type of exposure on the general public. This paper also reviews the possible impacts of new wireless technologies on EMF exposure and proposes some novel research directions for updating the EMF exposure evaluation framework and addressing these impacts in future wireless communication systems. For instance, the impact of mmWave or massive-MIMO/beamforming on EMF exposure has yet to be fully understood and included in the exposure evaluation framework.

Conclusions

A thorough survey on exposure risk assessment, evaluation, limitation and mitigation for current and future wireless devices and equipments has been provided in this paper. From the human health point of view, it seems that the possibility of brain tumor is still the main cause of concerns related to the extensive use of wireless devices, even though the effects of EMF exposure is now being investigated in new parts of the body (e.g. eyes). Meanwhile, with the advent of 5G, more efforts are now been made to understand the thermal and non-thermal effects of mmWave exposure on the human body. When it comes to the evaluation of EMF exposure, we have presented the most common evaluation frameworks and metrics that are utilized in wireless communications to measure the exposure. We have also explained how new more generic metrics have been defined by combining existing metrics to better reflect the exposure of large geographical areas and have argued that a generic metric for measuring the individual exposure would also be of interest. We have also reviewed the existing exposure guidelines and have explained how they can be updated for better reflecting the true nature of EMF exposure, i.e. by better taking into account the duration of exposure. Finally, we have provided some views on how key 5G enabling technologies such as densification, massive MIMO and mmWave will impact the EMF exposure in the near future; for instance, the dense deployment of small cells and IoT devices is very likely to increase the overall ambient exposure. We also believe that there could be some technical opportunities in 5G to increase the exposure awareness of wireless system users and to let them decide if they want to reduce it at the cost of, for instance, a lower QoS.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8718293
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Assessment of Maximally Allowable Power-Density Averaging Area for EMF Exposure above 6 GHz
Neufeld E, Carrasco E, Murbach M, Balzano Q, Christ A, Kuster N. Theoretical and numerical assessment of maximally allowable power-density averaging area for conservative electromagnetic exposure assessment above 6 GHz. Bioelectromagnetics. 2018 Dec;39(8):617-630. doi: 10.1002/bem.22147.
Abstract
The objective of this paper is to determine a maximum averaging area for power density (PD) that limits the maximum temperature increase to a given threshold for frequencies above 6 GHz. This maximum area should be conservative for any transmitter at any distance >2 mm from the primary transmitting antennas or secondary field-generating sources. To derive a generically valid maximum averaging area, an analytical approximation for the peak temperature increase caused by localized exposure was derived. The results for a threshold value of 1 K temperature rise were validated against simulations of a series of sources composed of electrical and magnetic elements (dipoles, slots, patches, and arrays) that represented the spectrum of relevant transmitters. The validation was successful for frequencies in which the power deposition occurred superficially (i.e., >10 GHz). In conclusion, the averaging area for a PD limit of 10 W/m2 that conservatively limits the temperature increase in the skin to less than 1 K at any distance >2 mm from the transmitters is frequency dependent, increases with distance, and ranges from 3 cm2 at <10 GHz to 1.9 cm2 at 100 GHz. In the far-field, the area depends additionally on distance and the antenna array aperture. The correlation was found to be worse at lower frequencies (<10 GHz) and very close to the source, the systematic evaluation of which is part of another study to investigate the effect of different coupling mechanisms in the reactive near-field on the ratio of temperature increase to incident power density. The presented model can be directly applied to any other PD and temperature thresholds.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30383885
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The Human Skin as a Sub-THz Receiver - Does 5G Pose a Danger to It or Not?

Betzalel N, Ben Ishai P, Feldman Y. The human skin as a sub-THz receiver - Does 5G pose a danger to it or not? Environ Res. 2018 May;163:208-216.
Highlights

• The sweat duct is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band, reflectance depends on perspiration.
• We outline the background for non-thermal effects based on the structure of sweat ducts.
• We have introduced a realistic skin EM model and found the expected SAR for the 5G standard.


Abstract

In the interaction of microwave radiation and human beings, the skin is traditionally considered as just an absorbing sponge stratum filled with water. In previous works, we showed that this view is flawed when we demonstrated that the coiled portion of the sweat duct in upper skin layer is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band.

Experimentally we showed that the reflectance of the human skin in the sub-THz region depends on the intensity of perspiration, i.e. sweat duct's conductivity, and correlates with levels of human stress (physical, mental and emotional). Later on, we detected circular dichroism in the reflectance from the skin, a signature of the axial mode of a helical antenna. The full ramifications of what these findings represent in the human condition are still unclear. We also revealed correlation of electrocardiography (ECG) parameters to the sub-THz reflection coefficient of human skin. In a recent work, we developed a unique simulation tool of human skin, taking into account the skin multi-layer structure together with the helical segment of the sweat duct embedded in it. The presence of the sweat duct led to a high specific absorption rate (SAR) of the skin in extremely high frequency band.
In this paper, we summarize the physical evidence for this phenomenon and consider its implication for the future exploitation of the electromagnetic spectrum by wireless communication. Starting from July 2016 the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has adopted new rules for wireless broadband operations above 24 GHz (5 G). This trend of exploitation is predicted to expand to higher frequencies in the sub-THz region. One must consider the implications of human immersion in the electromagnetic noise, caused by devices working at the very same frequencies as those, to which the sweat duct (as a helical antenna) is most attuned.
We are raising a warning flag against the unrestricted use of sub-THz technologies for communication, before the possible consequences for public health are explored.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29459303

Excerpt

The need for high data transmission rates, coupled with advances in semiconductor technology, is pushing the communications industry towards the sub-THz frequency spectrum. While the promises of a glorious future, resplendent with semi-infinite data streaming, may be attractive, there is a price to pay for such luxury. We shall find our cities, workspace and homes awash with 5 G base stations and we shall live though an unprecedented EM smog. The benefits to our society of becoming so wired cannot ignore possible health concerns, as yet unexplored. There is enough evidence to suggest that the combination of the helical sweat duct and wavelengths approaching the dimensions of skin layers could lead to non-thermal biological effects. Such fears should be investigated and these concerns should also effect the definition of standards for the application of 5G communications.


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On Measuring Electromagnetic Fields in 5G Technology
Pawlak R, Krawiec P, Żurek J. On measuring electromagnetic fields in 5G technology. IEEE Access. 7: 29826-29835. March 5, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2902481

Abstract

At the awakening of the new 5G network as the network of services, issues related to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) will become one of the key aspects for the cost-effective establishment of the 5G infrastructure. The new 5G services will meet the rigorous demand for bandwidth through the implementation of a large number of densely located base stations operating in the millimeter-wave range. Introduction of new emission sources, working in parallel with already existing 2G/3G/4G mobile technologies, raises concerns about exceeding the admissible EMF exposure limits. This paper analyzes issues and challenges related to EMF measurements in 5G technology, which are crucial for the assessment of EMF compliance with regulatory limits. We point out that the existing methodologies, dedicated to EMF measurements in 2G, 3G, and 4G networks, are not suitable for 5G. The reason is the use of new techniques, such as massive MIMO and precise beamforming together with higher frequency bands so that the existing measurement methods can lead to significantly overestimated results when they will be applied to 5G networks. Such results, in conjunction with the restrictive legislation on the EMF limits that apply in some countries, may have the negative impact on 5G network deployment, making it difficult to achieve the intended 5G network capabilities. We also propose an alternative method of EMF exposure assessment that is based on calculations and simulations and allows obtaining an accurate estimation of the EMF distribution in the 5G environment.

Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8660395


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Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Assessment for Future 5G Networks
Persia S, Carciofi C, Barbiroli M, Volta C, Bontempelli D, Anania G. Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure assessment for future 5G networks. IEEE 29th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2018. IEEE, 2018. doi:10.1109/PIMRC.2018.8580919

Abstract

The fifth generation of mobile network (5G) will relay not only on the expansion of existing fourth (4G) Long Term Evolution (LTE) network, but thanks to the introduction of new radio access in the millimetre wave bands will allow to meet new requirements in terms of connectivity and capacity. Specifically, 5G network will be characterized by the use of new spectrum at higher frequencies with a very large number of antenna elements deployment. As a consequence, the RF EMF (Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field) compliance assessments with the regulatory requirements for human exposure for the installation permission needs to be revised accordingly. In this work, a Country case (Italy), where a more restrictive regulatory framework than the ICNIRP Guidelines is applied, has been analysed to investigate the impact of the restrictive approach on the future 5G mobile networks roll-out.

Conclusions

The EMF evaluations of existing cellular networks has been analysed in this work in order to highlight how restrictive regulatory framework than International Guidelines can affect 5G and future network deployment. Italy case study is considered as an example, due to its restrictive regulation to verify if it can permit an efficient 5G roll-out. This consideration has been confirmed by evaluations of the trend of saturated sites from 2010 to 2017 in Italy. Simulations demonstrate that in Italy the strong development expected for the evolution of 4G networks and, in the perspective of 5G systems, can be threatened with the stringent constraints imposed by the current regulatory framework for exposure to electromagnetic fields.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8580919


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Derivation of Safety Limits for 5G RF Exposure Based on Analytical Models & Thermal Dose
Neufeld E, Kuster N. Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose. Health Phys. 2018 Sep 21. 705-711. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000930.

Abstract

Extreme broadband wireless devices operating above 10 GHz may transmit data in bursts of a few milliseconds to seconds. Even though the time- and area-averaged power density values remain within the acceptable safety limits for continuous exposure, these bursts may lead to short temperature spikes in the skin of exposed people. In this paper, a novel analytical approach to pulsed heating is developed and applied to assess the peak-to-average temperature ratio as a function of the pulse fraction α (relative to the averaging time T; it corresponds to the inverse of the peak-to-average ratio). This has been analyzed for two different perfusion-related thermal time constants (τ1 = 100 s and 500 s) corresponding to plane-wave and localized exposures. To allow for peak temperatures that considerably exceed the 1 K increase, the CEM43 tissue damage model, with an experimental-data-based damage threshold for human skin of 600 min, is used to allow large temperature oscillations that remain below the level at which tissue damage occurs. To stay consistent with the current safety guidelines, safety factors of 10 for occupational exposure and 50 for the general public were applied. The model assumptions and limitations (e.g., employed thermal and tissue damage models, homogeneous skin, consideration of localized exposure by a modified time constant) are discussed in detail.

The results demonstrate that the maximum averaging time, based on the assumption of a thermal time constant of 100 s, is 240 s if the maximum local temperature increase for continuous-wave exposure is limited to 1 K and α ≥ 0.1. For a very low peak-to-average ratio of 100 (α ≥ 0.01), it decreases to only 30 s. The results also show that the peak-to-average ratio of 1,000 tolerated by the International Council on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30247338


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Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink
Nasim I, Kim S. Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink. Submitted on 10 Nov 2017 to IEEE International Communications Conference. arXiv:1711.03683v1.

Abstract
While cellular communications in millimeter wave (mmW) bands have been attracting significant research interest, their potential harmful impacts on human health are not as significantly studied. Prior research on human exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields in a cellular communications system has been focused on uplink only due to the closer physical contact of a transmitter to a human body. However, this paper claims the necessity of thorough investigation on human exposure to downlink RF fields, as cellular systems deployed in mmW bands will entail (i) deployment of more transmitters due to smaller cell size and (ii) higher concentration of RF energy using a highly directional antenna. In this paper, we present human RF exposure levels in downlink of a Fifth Generation Wireless Systems (5G). Our results show that 5G downlink RF fields generate significantly higher power density (PD) and specific absorption rate (SAR) than a current cellular system. This paper also shows that SAR should also be taken into account for determining human RF exposure in the mmW downlink.

https://arxiv.org/abs/1711.03683


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Implications of EMF exposure limits on output power levels for 5G devices above 6 GHz

Colombi D, Thors B, Törnevik C. Implications of EMF exposure limits on output power levels for 5G devices above 6 GHz. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters. 14:1247-1249. 04 February 2015. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2015.2400331.
Abstract
Spectrum is a scarce resource, and the interest for utilizing frequency bands above 6 GHz for future radio communication systems is increasing. The possible use of higher frequency bands implies new challenges in terms of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure assessments since the fundamental exposure metric (basic restriction) is changing from specific absorption rate (SAR) to power density. In this study, the implication of this change is investigated in terms of the maximum possible radiated power (P max ) from a device used in close proximity to the human body. The results show that the existing exposure limits will lead to a non-physical discontinuity of several dB in P max as the transition is made from SAR to power density based basic restrictions. As a consequence, to be compliant with applicable exposure limits at frequencies above 6 GHz, P max might have to be several dB below the power levels used for current cellular technologies. Since the available power in uplink has a direct impact on the system capacity and coverage, such an inconsistency, if not resolved, might have a large effect on the development of the next generation cellular networks (5G).
Conclusion
Above 6 GHz for FCC and 10 GHz for ICNIRP, EMF exposure limits are defined in terms of free-space power density rather than SAR. It was shown that at the transition frequency where the exposure metric changes, the maximum radiated power to meet compliance with ICNIRP and FCC EMF limits, for a device used in close proximity of the body, presents a strong discontinuity (in the order of 6 dB for the investigated case). This discrepancy has no scientific basis and is due to inconsistencies in the exposure limits. As a consequence, the estimated maximum output power in uplink for devices operating at frequencies above 6-10 GHz is about 18 dBm and 15 dBm for ICNIRP and FCC, respectively. These figures were obtained by numerical simulations of a canonical dipole at frequencies up to 70 GHz. It was shown that for more directive antennas, the maximum available power can be substantially lower. For the IEEE limits, the incongruity at the transition frequency is less evident. This is because the IEEE PD limits make use of a larger averaging area than the ICNIRP and FCC limits. The IEEE limits, however, have not yet been adopted in any national regulations.
With a growing interest for utilizing frequency bands above 6 GHz for mobile communications, it is important that the inconsistencies at the transition frequency from SAR to PD based basic restrictions are timely solved. If not, the observed discrepancy might have a large impact on the development of future mobile communication networks. We therefore encourage the relevant standardization organizations and regulatory authorities responsible for defining EMF exposure limits to address this issue.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7031364

Expert Opinions

May 20, 2019

5G: The Unreported Global Threat

Devra Davis, PhD, Medium, May 18, 2019

https://medium.com/@devradavis/5g-the-unreported-global-threat-717c98c9c37d

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Aug 18, 2017 (Updated Sep 27, 2017)
Scientists and Physicians Oppose
"Small Cell" Antenna Bill (Calif. SB 649)

I have been hearing from scientists around the world who are deeply concerned about the deployment of fifth generation (5G) wireless technology without adequate research on the health effects of exposure to this type of radio frequency radiation.

Following is a sample of letters sent to California Governor Brown asking him to veto SB 659, a "small cell" antenna bill written by the cellular industry that paves the way for deployment of 5G wireless technology across the state.

Professor Beatrice Golomb, MD, PhD, a professor of medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Golomb's letter begins with the following warning:
"I urge in the strongest terms that you vigorously oppose California SB 649.
If this bill passes, many people will suffer greatly, and needlessly, as a direct result.
This sounds like hyperbole. It is not.
My research group at UC San Diego alone has received hundreds of communications from people who have developed serious health problems from electromagnetic radiation, following introduction of new technologies. Others with whom I am in communication, have independently received hundreds of similar reports. Most likely these are a tip of an iceberg of tens or perhaps hundreds of thousands of affected person. As each new technology leading to further exposure to electromagnetic radiation is introduced – and particularly introduced in a fashion that prevents vulnerable individuals from avoiding it – a new group become sensitized to health effects. This is particularly true for pulsed signals in the radiowave and microwave portion of the spectrum, the type for which the proposed bill SB 640 will bypass local control."
In the letter, Dr. Golomb summarizes the research on the effects of exposure to radio frequency radiation and advocates for "safer, wired and well shielded technology – not more wireless."
Appended to the letter are 360 references to the scientific literature.
The letter can be downloaded at: https://bit.ly/SB649Golomb822.

Professor Martin Pall, PhD, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences at Washington State University, explains in his letter to the Governor his peer-reviewed research which has documented ...
"exquisite sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the voltage sensors in each cell, such that the force impacting our cells at the voltage sensor has massive impact on the biology in the cells of our bodies."
"This new understanding [1-7] means we can debunk the claims of the wireless industry that there cannot be a mechanism for effects produced by these weak EMFs. The 20 years plus of industry propaganda claims are false. Rather the thousands of studies showing diverse health impacts of these EMFs can be explained. We now have a mechanism, one that is supported by both the biology and the physics, both of which are pointing in exactly the same direction."
"5G will be much more active in activating the VGCCs and producinghealth impacts because of its rapid absorption by materials in the body, because of its very rapid pulsations and because of the huge number antennae they are planning to put up, at least 200 times the number of antennae from all current cell phone towers. What this means is that the impacts on the outer one to two inches of our bodies will be massive."

His letter discusses the potential health impacts on humans and on agriculture with exposure to 5G radiation.

The letter can be downloaded at: https://bit.ly/SB649Pall


Dr. Michael Lipsett, MD, JD, a retired public health physician with extensive experience in environmental health, mentions in his letter the recent demand for a 5G moratorium by more than 180 scientists and physicians and the study of cell phone radiation conducted by the National Toxicology Program.

He points out that while individuals can take precautions to reduce their exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted by wireless devices, this is not feasible with exposure from cell antennas. He notes that ...
"laboratory and human health investigations designed and conducted by independent researchers have reported associations linking exposure to radiation from cell phones or similar devices with multiple adverse effects (e.g., headaches, impacts on brain function, memory, learning and sleep; decreased sperm counts and quality) as well as with DNA damage and tumors of the brain and nervous system."
"Potential health impacts of wireless communication have been ignored or obscured for decades by the telecommunications industry, which has implied that cell phones and other devices are safe because they comply with federal safety standards. However, these standards were established more than 20 years ago and were based on assumptions that have since been called into question by health research studies. The push to establish a 5G network, exemplified by SB 649, is based on a similarly unproven assumption: i.e., that round-the-clock exposure to 5G frequencies will not affect human health or the environment.
Establishment of a 5G network will be irreversible, as will the pattern of near-universal exposure of California residents to high-frequency, as-yet-untested 5G electromagnetic radiation."
The letter can be downloaded at: https://bit.ly/LipsettSB649.

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June 23, 2017


EMF Scientist Appeal Advisors Call for Moratorium on Policies
for 5G "Small Cell" Antennas

The advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal submitted a letter to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in opposition to a proposed change in FCC rules that would allow rapid deployment of 5th generation (5G) wireless infrastructure throughout the nation. A copy of the Appeal was appended to the letter.
5G involves transmission of millimeter waves which operate at much higher frequencies than currently used for cellular transmission (30 to 300 gigahertz). Because the range of these signals is limited (i.e., less than a football field), hundreds of thousands of new "small cell" antennas will be required in the U.S. The wireless industry wants to install these not-so-small cellular antennas on existing public utility poles.
The FCC intends to streamline the approval of these antennas which would further undermine the regulatory authority of cities and states over cell towers.
Meanwhile the wireless industry is lobbying for legislationin many states across the country that would limit local authority over cell antenna deployment.
Due to the concern that the FCC's new rules will result in increased exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), the Appeal's advisors oppose the new rules and call for a "public health review of the growing body of scientific evidence that includes reports of increasing rates of cancer and neurological diseases that may be caused by exposure to EMF from wireless sources."
The Appeal reflects the concerns of 225 EMF expertsfrom 41 nations about the impact of EMF exposure on public health. All of the experts who signed this appeal have published research in peer-reviewed scientific journals about the biologic or health effects of EMF.
According to the Appeal's signatories, current national and international EMF exposure guidelines are obsolete and inadequate to protect human health and the environment. The FCC's radio frequency guidelines were adopted in 1996.
The letter (dated June 9, 2017) is signed by the five advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal: Drs. Martin Blank, Magda Havas, Henry Lai, and Joel Moskowitz, and Elizabeth Kelley.
For more information:
FCC filing detail (June 9, 2017)
FCC letter submitted by Advisors to International EMF Scientist Appeal
FCC submission: International EMF Scientist Appeal

International EMF Scientist Appeal Official Website
International EMF Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields and Wireless Technology
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May 8, 2017

A 5G Wireless Future: Will it give us a smart nation or contribute to an unhealthy one?
Dr. Cindy Russell, The (SCCMA) Bulletin, Jan/Feb 2017
Safety testing for 5G is the same as other wireless devices. It is based on heat. This is an obsolete standard and not considering current science showing cellular and organism harm from non-thermal effects. There is a large gap in safety data for 5G biological effects that has been demonstrated in older studies including military.
Recommendations
1. Do not proceed to roll out 5G technologies pending pre-market studies on health effects.
2. Reevaluate safety standards based on long term as well as short term studies on biological effects.
3. Rescind a portion of Section 704 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 which preempts state and local government regulation for the placement, construction, and modification of personal wireless service facilities on the basis of the environmental effects so that health and environmental issues can be addressed.
4. Rescind portions of The Spectrum Act which was passed in 2012 as part of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act, which strips the ability city officials and local governments to regulate cellular communications equipment, provides no public notification or opportunity for public input and may potentially result in environmental impacts.
5. Create an independent multidisciplinary scientific agency tasked with developing appropriate safety regulations, pre-market testing and research needs in a transparent environment with public input.
6. Label pertinent EMF information on devices along with appropriate precautionary warnings.
Dr. Russell provides a brief review of the research on millimeter wave bioeffects in this article: https://bit.ly/5GRussell.

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Aug 17, 2016 (Updated Aug 19)

5G cellular technology will employ much higher frequency microwaves than current cell phone technologies: 2G, 3G, and 4G. These microwaves, known as millimeter waves, won't penetrate building materials like the current technology which is why industry may need one cell antenna base station for every 12 homes.
But millimeter waves can affect your eyes and penetrate your skin.

When the Los Angeles Times reporter contacted me for the story below, I did a quick search and found several recently published articles examining biological effects of millimeter waves (see references below). This form of microwave radiation is most likely to affect our skin and neuronal cells in the upper dermis.

Moreover, widespread adoption of 5G cellular technology in the U.S. may have profound effects on our ecosystem by altering bacteria, possibly creating harmful bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics.

History has proved that we cannot trust the FCC and the FDAto protect our health from microwave radiation exposure.


I submitted an open letter to the FCC in July calling for "an independent review of the biologic and health research to determine whether the RF standards should be modified before allowing additional spectrum to be used for new commercial applications."

Moreover, the FCC has ignored the 800-plus submissionsthat call upon the agency to adopt rigorous radio frequency standards to protect the public's health. Instead the agency maintains its 20-year old exposure guidelinesthat control only for heating or thermal risks. The FDA has ignored the thousands of studies that find nonthermal biologic effects, and the human studies that find a wide range of health effects including increased cancer risk and reproductive harm from exposure to low intensity microwaves.
In my opinion, precaution is warranted before unleashing 5G technology on the world. I suspect most of the 221 scientists who signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal (referenced in the article below), would support this assertion.

However, more research is also needed as specific characteristics of the millimeter waves (e.g., pulsing, modulation) to be employed in 5G cellular technology may be more important than the frequency or intensity of the waves in terms of biologic and health effects. The research funding must be independent of industry as conflicts of interest have been found to undermine the science in this field.
For an unbiased summary of the partial findings of the National Toxicology Program study of cancer risk from 2G cell phone radiation, see https://www.saferemr.com/2016/05/national-toxicology-progam-finds-cell.html.
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Low-intensity millimeter waves used for pain therapy have side effects
The Russians have pioneered millimeter wave therapy (MWT) using low intensity millimeter waves to reduce pain including headaches, joint pain, and postoperative pain.

Although the following review paper documents some positive effects from short-term exposure to MWT, the authors note that there are side effects including fatigue, sleepiness, and paresthesia (an abnormal sensation, tingling or pricking ["pins and needles"] caused by pressure on or damage to peripheral nerves).
"We conclude that there is promising data from pilot case series and small-scale randomized controlled trials for analgesic/hypoalgesic effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves in frequency range 30–70 GHz. Large-scale randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of this non-invasive therapeutic technique are necessary."
"In the studies reviewed the authors did not report any health-related side effects of MWT. Slight paresthesias, previously mentioned in several case reports and non-controlled case series (10,11), appeared in almost 50% of patients in studies where the effects of MWT were carefully described (21,27,28,31). The paresthesias were of short duration and reported as pleasant ('warmth') or neutral. General fatigue and sleepiness during the treatment sessions in almost 80% of the patients was a rather desirable side effect of MWT, as also described in previous reviews on biomedical effects of MWT (10,11,21,27,28)."
From: Usichenko TI, Edinger H, Gizhko VV, Lehmann C, Wendt M, Feyerherd F. Low-intensity electromagnetic millimeter waves for pain therapy. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Jun;3(2):201-7. URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1475937/
Little research is available on long-term exposure to millimeter waves (see below). Most of the studies referred to in this review paper did not modulate or pulse the carrier waves which will be required for information-carrying millimeter waves employed in 5G technologies. Prior research suggests that such waves will be more biologically active than pure sine waves.

Additional Resources (Updated 3/13/2022)
D. B. Deaconescu, A. M. Buda, D. Vatamanu, S. Miclaus. The Dynamics of the Radiated Field Near a Mobile Phone Connected to a 4G or 5G Network. Eng. Technol. Appl. Sci. Res. 12(1):8101–8106, Feb. 2022.
ANFR (France). Study of the 5G contribution to exposure of the general public to electromagnetic waves: Preliminary Report. Dec 2021.

Sally Beare. How green is 5G? Envirotec Magazine, Nov 2021.
Sam Aerts, Kenneth Deprez, Davide Colombi, Matthias Van den Bossche, Leen Verloock, Luc Martens, Christer Törnevik, Wout Joseph. In Situ Assessment of 5G NR Massive MIMO Base Station Exposure in a Commercial Network in Bern, Switzerland. Appl. Sci. 11(8): 3592. 2021. https://doi.org/10.3390/app11083592.
Kyuri Kim, Young Seung Lee, Nam Kim, Hyung-Do Choi, Dong-Jun Kang, Hak Rim Kim, Kyung-Min Lim. Effects of Electromagnetic Waves with LTE and 5G Bandwidth on the Skin Pigmentation In Vitro. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 26;22(1):E170. doi: 10.3390/ijms22010170.
El-Hajj AM, Naous T. Radiation analysis in a gradual 5G network deployment strategy. 2020 IEEE 3rd 5G World Forum (5GWF), Bangalore, India IEEE, 2020: 448-453, ISBN 9781728173009. (Austin, TX simulation)
Koh TH, Choi JW, Seo M, Choi H-D, Kim KH. Factors affecting risk perception of electromagnetic waves from 5G network base stations. Bioelectromagnetics. 31 August 2020. Open access paper.
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety. 5G Research from the EMF-Portal Archive: 133 papers and presentations. Apr 1, 2020.
Lin JC. Telecommunications health and safety: US FCC affirms its current safety limits for RF radiation and 5G wireless. Radio Science Bulletin 2019; 2019 (371): 87-89.
Lin JC. Health Safety Guidelines and 5G Wireless Radiation [Health Matters]. IEEE Microwave Magazine. 23(1):10-17. Jan. 2022, doi: 10.1109/MMM.2021.3117307.
Pujol F, Manero C, Ropert S, Enjalbal A, Lavender T, Jervis V, Rudd R, Marcus JS. Study on using millimetre waves bands for the deployment of the 5G ecosystem in the Union: Final Report. A study prepared for the European Commission. doi: 10.2759/703052. 2019.

Mehdizadeh AR, Mortazavi SMJ. Editorial. 5G technology: Why should we expect a shift from RF-induced brain cancers to skin cancers? J Biomed Phys Eng. 2019.
"In summary, although 5G technology brings new risks, it should be noted that regarding mobile phone use and cancer, the level of exposure is a factor that really matters."

The essential 5G glossary of key terms and phrases
Michaela Goss, Tech Target, Aug 12, 2019

Senator Blumenthal Raises Concerns on 5G Wireless Technology Health Risks at Senate Hearing
U.S. Senate Commerce Committee Hearing, Feb 6, 2019 (5 minute video)
"We're kind of flying blind here so far as health and safety is concerned."

Is 5G Harmful for Humans and the Environment?Kashyap Vyas, Interesting Engineering, Jan 27, 2019
U.S. Senator Blumenthal briefing on possible health risks posed by 5G wireless technologyCongressional news briefing, Connecticut Network, Dec 3, 2018 (22 minute video)

Congressional letter to FCC Commissioner requesting evidence for safety of 5G
Richard Blumenthal, Anna G. Eshoo, Dec 3, 2018

Resistance to 5G: Roadblock to a High Tech Future or Warning of a Serious Health Risk? Conan Milner, Epoch Times, November 9, 2018
The roll out of 5G wireless service is 'a massive health experiment,' public health expert warns as cell companies install 800,000 towers across the US
Natalie Rahhal, Daily Mail, May 29, 2018

The 5G telecommunication technology--emitted millimeter waves: Lack of research on bioeffects
Dariusz Leszczynski, PhD, Presentation at 5th Asian & Oceanic IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection, Melbourne, Australia, May 22, 2018

NEPA rollback now official for small wireless projects
Sobczyk N, GreenWire, May 3, 2018

5G: Great risk for EU, U.S. and International Health! Compelling Evidence for
Eight Distinct Types of Great Harm Caused by Electromagnetic Exposures and the Mechanism that Causes Them
Martin L. Pall, PhD, undated

5G and Internet of Things: A Trojan Horse
Paul Héroux, PhD, The Green Gazette, Mar 27, 2018

Residents worried about small cell safety have been waiting years for federal guidance
Ryan Barwick, Center for Public Integrity, Mar 2, 2018
5G Cell Service Is Coming. Who Decides Where It Goes?
Allan Holmes, New York Times, Mar 2, 2018


'Tsunami of data' could consume one fifth of global electricity by 2025
The Guardian, Dec 11, 2017

California: Bill to ease permits for cellular antennas could impact health
Tracy Seipel. Mercury News (San Jose, CA), Aug 31, 2017
Is 5G technology dangerous? Early data shows a slight increase of tumors in male rats exposed to cellphone radiationJim Puzzanghera, Los Angeles Times, Aug 8, 2016
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
9.5.2022 21:14

Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity



Source: Microwave News Archive (Louis Slesin)

(See the end of this post for additional resources.)

What is electromagnetic hypersensitivity?

Following is an excerpt from "Electromagnetic hypersensitivity means Peter Lloyd can't leave his house... or enjoy any modern pleasures inside" by Martin Shipton, Wales Online, Oct 16, 2014:

The term "electrical hypersensitivity" was first used in 1989, while "electromagnetic hypersensitivity" - EHS for short - was coined in 1994 to reflect sufferers' sensitivity to magnetic as well as electric fields.

As early as the 1930s, however, EHS symptoms were observed in people working with radio and electricity, and with military radar in the 1940s.

Environmental EHS appeared in the general population from the 1970s with computers.

It increased in the 1980s with mobile and cordless phones, and with wifi from 2000.

Thousands of people are now linked with EHS support groups in 30 countries. The first started in Sweden in 1989; the UK group began in 2003.
Sweden recognised EHS as a functional disability in 2002. The Canadian Human Rights Commission did likewise in 2007. In 2009, the European Parliament voted for persons with EHS to be recognised as disabled.
Despite having official recognition, many doctors still know little or nothing about the condition.

https://bit.ly/211JeT7

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Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, microwave syndrome) – Review of mechanisms
Physician's Weekly, Apr 15, 2020

Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), known in the past as "Microwave syndrome", is a clinical syndrome characterized by the presence of a wide spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms, typically including central nervous system symptoms, that occur following the patient's acute or chronic exposure to electromagnetic fields in the environment or in occupational settings. Numerous studies have shown biological effects at the cellular level of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at magnetic (ELF) and radio-frequency (RF) frequencies in extremely low intensities. Many of the mechanisms described for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) apply with modification to EHS. Repeated exposures result in sensitization and consequent enhancement of response. Many hypersensitive patients appear to have impaired detoxification systems that become overloaded by excessive oxidative stress. EMF can induce changes in calcium signaling cascades, significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells as well as altered neurological and cognitive functions and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Magnetite crystals absorbed from combustion air pollution could have an important role in brain effects of EMF. Autonomic nervous system effects of EMF could also be expressed as symptoms in the cardiovascular system. Other common effects of EMF include effects on skin, microvasculature, immune and hematologic systems. It is concluded that the mechanisms underlying the symptoms of EHS are biologically plausible and that many organic physiologic responses occur following EMF exposure. Patients can have neurologic, neuro-hormonal and neuro-psychiatric symptoms following exposure to EMF as a consequence of neural damage and over-sensitized neural responses. More relevant diagnostic tests for EHS should be developed. Exposure limits should be lowered to safeguard against biologic effects of EMF. Spread of local and global wireless networks should be decreased, and safer wired networks should be used instead of wireless, to protect susceptible members of the public. Public places should be made accessible for electrohypersensitive individuals.

https://www.physiciansweekly.com/electromagnetic-hypersensitivity-ehs-microwave-syndrome-review-of-mechanisms/
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Why electrohypersensitivity and related symptoms are caused by non-ionizing man-made electromagnetic fields: An overview and medical assessment

Dominique Belpomme, Philippe Irigaray. Why electrohypersensitivity and related symptoms are caused by non-ionizing man-made electromagnetic fields: An overview and medical assessment. Environmental Research. Available online 7 May 2022, 113374. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2022.113374.

Highlights
  • Electrohypersensitivity is caused by electromagnetic fields.
  • Electrohypersensitivity is a neurological disorder with inflammation, oxidative stress, blood brain barrier opening and neurotransmitter abnormalities.
  • Electrohypersensitivity must be defined by the decrease of brain electromagnetic fields tolerance threshold.

Abstract

Much of the controversy over the cause of electrohypersensitivity (EHS) lies in the absence of recognized clinical and biological criteria for a widely accepted diagnosis. However, there are presently sufficient data for EHS to be acknowledged as a distinctly well-defined and objectively characterized neurologic pathological disorder. Because we have shown that 1) EHS is frequently associated with multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) in EHS patients, and 2) that both individualized disorders share a common pathophysiological mechanism for symptom occurrence; it appears that EHS and MCS can be identified as a unique neurologic syndrome, regardless its causal origin. In this overview we distinguish the etiology of EHS itself from the environmental causes that trigger pathophysiological changes and clinical symptoms after EHS has occurred. Contrary to present scientifically unfounded claims, we indubitably refute the hypothesis of a nocebo effect to explain the genesis of EHS and its presentation. We as well refute the erroneous concept that EHS could be reduced to a vague and unproven "functional impairment". To the contrary, we show here there are objective pathophysiological changes and health effects induced by electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure in EHS patients and most of all in healthy subjects, meaning that excessive non-thermal anthropogenic EMFs are strongly noxious for health. In this overview and medical assessment we focus on the effects of extremely low frequencies, wireless communications radio frequencies and microwaves EMF. We discuss how to better define and characterize EHS. Taken into consideration the WHO proposed causality criteria, we show that EHS is in fact causally associated with increased exposure to man-made EMF, and in some cases to marketed environmental chemicals. We therefore appeal to all governments and international health institutions, particularly the WHO, to urgently consider the growing EHS-associated pandemic plague, and to acknowledge EHS as a new real EMF causally-related pathology.
Excerpts
In Table 6 the prevalence expressed in percentages of EHS people relative to the overall population is estimated to range from 0.7% to 13.3%, mainly affecting on average 3%–5% of the population in many different worldwide area or countries, meaning that millions of people may in fact be affected by man-made EMF intolerance, and often by EHS. Similar worldwide figures may account for MCS (Genuis, 2010)....
Given the seven billion people worldwide – most using cordless phones and/or mobile phones, Wi-Fi, and other wireless devices – and given the present and future development of 5G (Hardell and Nyberg, 2020; Hardell and Carlberg, 2020; Pall, 2021), it is expected that the prevalence of EMF intolerance and EHS will significantly increase worldwide in the next few years. However, because the figures indicated in Table 6 are estimations based on no objective criteria for identifying EHS (Hallberg and Oberfeld, 2006), we believe these data require confirmation by more objective evaluations. Although the reported EHS prevalence figures are only estimations, it is expected that EMF intolerance and EHS prevalence will continue to grow, in as much as the manufacturers of WC technologies and chemical industries will continue developing their products....

Today's level of scientific knowledge engenders a great ethical responsibility of scientists and governments and of national and international health bodies to uncover the adverse health effects of the increasing man-made EMF exposures and warn on the emerging and growing worldwide EHS and MCS global plagues. This means that suitable public health measures must urgently be taken to recognize EHS and MCS as new pathologies and decrease EMF-exposures.

We therefore strongly ask WHO to add EHS and MCS in the future versions of the WHO International Classification of Diseases on the basis on their clinical and pathophysiological identification, just as has already been done for other recognized diseases.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0013935122007010?via%3Dihub

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The Critical Importance of Molecular Biomarkers and Imaging in the Study of Electrohypersensitivity. A Scientific Consensus International Report

Belpomme, Dominique, George L. Carlo, Philippe Irigaray, David O. Carpenter, Lennart Hardell, Michael Kundi, Igor Belyaev, Magda Havas, Franz Adlkofer, Gunnar Heuser, Anthony B. Miller, Daniela Caccamo, Chiara De Luca, Lebrecht von Klitzing, Martin L. Pall, Priyanka Bandara, Yael Stein, Cindy Sage, Morando Soffritti, Devra Davis, Joel M. Moskowitz, S. M.J. Mortazavi, Martha R. Herbert, Hanns Moshammer, Gerard Ledoigt, Robert Turner, Anthony Tweedale, Pilar Muñoz-Calero, Iris Udasin, Tarmo Koppel, Ernesto Burgio, and André Vander Vorst. 2021. "The Critical Importance of Molecular Biomarkers and Imaging in the Study of Electrohypersensitivity. A Scientific Consensus International Report" International Journal of Molecular Sciences 22, no. 14: 7321. doi: 10.3390/ijms22147321.


Abstract
Clinical research aiming at objectively identifying and characterizing diseases via clinical observations and biological and radiological findings is a critical initial research step when establishing objective diagnostic criteria and treatments. Failure to first define such diagnostic criteria may lead research on pathogenesis and etiology to serious confounding biases and erroneous medical interpretations. This is particularly the case for electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and more particularly for the so-called "provocation tests", which do not investigate the causal origin of EHS but rather the EHS-associated particular environmental intolerance state with hypersensitivity to man-made electromagnetic fields (EMF). However, because those tests depend on multiple EMF-associated physical and biological parameters and have been conducted in patients without having first defined EHS objectively and/or endpoints adequately, they cannot presently be considered to be valid pathogenesis research methodologies. Consequently, the negative results obtained by these tests do not preclude a role of EMF exposure as a symptomatic trigger in EHS patients. Moreover, there is no proof that EHS symptoms or EHS itself are caused by psychosomatic or nocebo effects. This international consensus report pleads for the acknowledgement of EHS as a distinct neuropathological disorder and for its inclusion in the WHO International Classification of Diseases.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/22/14/7321
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Review of the scientific evidence on the individual sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EHS)

Dariusz Leszczynski. Review of the scientific evidence on the individual sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EHS). Rev Environ Health. 2021 Jul 6. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2021-0038.
Abstract

Part of the population considers themselves as sensitive to the man-made electromagnetic radiation (EMF) emitted by powerlines, electric wiring, electric home appliance and the wireless communication devices and networks. Sensitivity is characterized by a broad variety of non-specific symptoms that the sensitive people claim to experience when exposed to EMF. While the experienced symptoms are currently considered as a real life impairment, the factor causing these symptoms remains unclear. So far, scientists were unable to find causality link between symptoms experienced by sensitive persons and the exposures to EMF. However, as presented in this review, the executed to-date scientific studies, examining sensitivity to EMF, are of poor quality to find the link between EMF exposures and sensitivity symptoms of some people. It is logical to consider that the sensitivity to EMF exists but the scientific methodology used to find it is of insufficient quality. It is time to drop out psychology driven provocation studies that ask about feelings-based non-specific symptoms experienced by volunteers under EMF exposure. Such research approach produces only subjective and therefore highly unreliable data that is insufficient to prove, or to disprove, causality link between EHS and EMF. There is a need for a new direction in studying sensitivity to EMF. The basis for it is the notion of a commonly known phenomenon of individual sensitivity, where individuals' responses to EMF depend on the genetic and epigenetic properties of the individual. It is proposed here that new studies, combining provocation approach, where volunteers are exposed to EMF, and high-throughput technologies of transcriptomics and proteomics are used to generate objective data, detecting molecular level biochemical responses of human body to EMF.
Final conclusions
– Problems and solutions for EHS research are summarized in Figure 2.
– Over the last 30 years, a sizable number of research studies has examined causality link between EMF exposures and EHS symptoms.

– The majority of the studies did not find any link between EMF and EHS.

– The EHS studies have examined acute effects but did not have capability to examine delayed EMF responses.

– The major problem is that scientists do not know whether EHS volunteers have indeed correct self-diagnosis of EHS or whether the diagnosis is incorrect and experimental groups are contaminated, to unknown degree, by non-EHS persons. In extreme situation, the small group of volunteers used in research study might have no EHS persons at all.

– Recently, research on EHS has drifted into direction of nocebo as the cause of EHS, what is incorrect.

– Instead of studying obvious impact of nocebo, or likes of medical students' disease, research should focus on finding suitable biochemical and biophysical markers that could be used, in combination with single individual-focused provocation studies, to determine the sources of the EHS symptoms.

– The opinion that there is no causality link between EHS and EMF is unproven. This opinion, expressed by the World Health Organization EMF Project, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and numerous governmental organizations, should be revised because the scientific research data is of insufficient quality to be used as a proof of the lack of causality.
https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/reveh-2021-0038/html

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Redefining electrosensitivity: A new literature-supported model
Mary Redmayne, Siobhan Reddel. Redefining electrosensitivity: A new literature-supported model. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Jan 2021. DOI: 10.1080/15368378.2021.1874971.

Abstract

In critically examining literature on electrohypersensitivity and the reported somatic responses to anthropogenic modulated radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure, it becomes apparent that electrohypersensitivity is one part of a range of consequences. Current evidence on the necessity of considering patients' overall health status leads us to propose a new model in which electrohypersensitivity is but part of the electrosensitive status inherent in being human. We propose the likelihood and type of response to environmental RFR include i) a linear somatic awareness continuum, ii) a non-linear somatic response continuum, and iii) the extent of each individual's capacity to repair damage (linked to homeostatic response). We anticipate this last, dynamic, aspect is inextricably linked to the others through the autonomic nervous system. The whole is dependent upon the status of the interconnected immune and inflammatory systems. This holistic approach leads us to propose various outcomes. For most, their body maintains homeostasis by routine repair. However, some develop electrohypersensitivity either due to RFR exposure or as an ANS-mediated, unconscious response (aka nocebo effect), or both. We suggest RFR exposure may be one factor in the others developing an auto-immune disease or allergy. A few develop delayed catastrophic disease such as glioma. This model gives the blanket term ElectroMagnetic Illness (EMI) to all RFR-related conditions. Thus, EHS appears to be one part of a range of responses to a novel and rapidly changing evolutionary situation.
Conclusion and consequences of the model

Overall, there is compelling evidence in the broader literature indicating that EHS is but one part of a more complex range of responses related to humans being intrinsically electrosensitive.

In fact, "Many of the general malaise symptoms associated with IEI (Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance) 7 are common in the general population" p.42 (World Health Organisation 2004). This is not a sign of a healthy general population even by the WHO's definition of health, 8 and causes must be identified. Life is dependent upon, and arguably defined by the electrical activity, of the brain, the broader nervous system and indeed the body's ongoing efforts to maintain homeostasis. As we said earlier, internal electrical impulses are inherent to life; when they stop, we die. There are also natural, static and low-frequency, non-modulated, electromagnetic fields with which we have evolved and most of which we use and even rely upon. Our bodies and cells have their own resonant frequencies, and research has shown cell sensitivity to RFR exposure at ultra-low intensities (Kositsky, 2001). It is almost to be expected that exposures never encountered during the course of evolution would affect us. Indeed, "Since the low-level environmental exposures associated with IEI are commonly found in everyone's daily living environment, the exposed population is indistinguishable from the general population. Everyone is exposed" p.44 (World Health Organisation 2004).

Our current model of electrosensitivity includes the "general population" and expresses that differing responses are a normal part of being alive. For some of those who do not appear to respond (no symptoms), there will mostly likely be cellular impacts. For most, these will be promptly repaired or otherwise dealt with (e.g., apoptosis); for some, damage will gradually or eventually accumulate and may lead, in time, to a catastrophic response in the form of a disease that began as oxidative stress that the body has fought but finally to which it has catastrophically succumbed. For others, effects will be felt and cause early symptoms. Among these people, some will respond by avoiding the exposure either subconsciously or consciously, while others will ignore them and eventually pay the price. Others will develop EHS. At this stage, it will often go undiagnosed due to lack of training in recognising this possible diagnosis.

Importantly, this model implies that there is a need to acknowledge that EHS (with all its variety) is one part of a range of symptomless pre-cursor and EMI responses to a novel and rapidly changing evolutionary situation. There should be no stigma to EHS, and those affected deserve the same level of concern and extent of assistance as those with allergies or auto-immune diseases, the principal actions being minimisation of the harmful stimulant until personal repair capacity has improved, then slowly re-introducing exposure, to the extent manageable on an individual basis. Assistance with this would be necessary at several stages so the body is not pushed into the hypo-responsive state, but rather assisted to reach the best possible health with the best practicable repair capacity.

We propose that to work towards avoiding, ameliorating, or attempting to overcome EHS it is necessary not only to observe the positive actions recommended, but also to build capacity. And capacity provides the energy necessary to build resilience (Gerritsen and Band 2018).
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15368378.2021.1874971

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Clinical Practice Guidelines for EHS - Proceedings from a Symposium on the Impacts of Wireless Technology on Health
"Clinical Practice Guidelines for EHS - Proceedings from a Symposium on the Impacts of Wireless Technology on Health." Edited by Riina Bray, MD, and David Fancy, PhD. Published by the Environmental Health Clinic, Women's College Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada. 137 pp. https://bit.ly/EHSsymposium.
The document is the published proceedings from a symposium for medical doctors on the subject of wireless technology and EHS held at the Environmental Health Clinic at Women's College Hospital (Toronto) in 2019.
The presenters include Riina Bray, MD; Anthony Miller, PhD; Magda Havas, PhD; Meg Sears, PhD; Jennifer Armstrong, MD; Barbara Payne; David Fancy, PhD; Shelley Wright; Frank Clegg; Robert Steller; and Melissa Chalmers.
The proceedings can be downloaded: https://bit.ly/EHSsymposium.

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Metabolomics and psychological features in fibromyalgia and electromagnetic sensitivity
Cristina Piras, Stella Conte, Monica Pibiri, Giacomo Rao, Sandro Muntoni, Vera Piera Leoni, Gabriele Finco, Luigi Atzori. Metabolomics and psychological features in fibromyalgia and electromagnetic sensitivity. Scientific Reports volume 10, Article number: 20418 (2020).

Abstract

Fibromyalgia (FM) as Fibromyalgia and Electromagnetic Sensitivity (IEI-EMF) are a chronic and systemic syndrome. The main symptom is represented by strong and widespread pain in the musculoskeletal system. The exact causes that lead to the development of FM and IEI-EMF are still unknown. Interestingly, the proximity to electrical and electromagnetic devices seems to trigger and/or amplify the symptoms.

We investigated the blood plasma metabolome in IEI-EMF and healthy subjects using 1H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis. All the individuals were subjected to tests for the evaluation of psychological and physical features.
No significant differences between IEI-EMF and controls relative to personality aspects, Locus of Control, and anxiety were found. Multivariate statistical analysis on the metabolites identified by NMR analysis allowed the identification of a distinct metabolic profile between IEI-EMF and healthy subjects. IEI-EMF were characterized by higher levels of glycine and pyroglutamate, and lower levels of 2-hydroxyisocaproate, choline, glutamine, and isoleucine compared to healthy subjects. These metabolites are involved in several metabolic pathways mainly related to oxidative stress defense, pain mechanisms, and muscle metabolism.
The results here obtained highlight possible physiopathological mechanisms in IEI-EMF patients to be better defined.
Open access paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-76876-8

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Heart rate variability in healthy young adults exposed to global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900-MHz radiofrequency signal from mobile phones
Wallace J, Andrianome S, Ghosn R, Blanchard ES, Telliez F, Selmaoui B. Heart rate variability in healthy young adults exposed to global system for mobile communication (GSM) 900-MHz radiofrequency signal from mobile phones. Environ Res. 2020 Aug 23;191:110097.

Abstract

Given the large number of mobile phone users and the increasing exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) worldwide, we aimed to study the effect of RF-EMF related to mobile phones on heart rate variability (HRV).

Twenty-six healthy young adults participated in two experimental sessions with a double-blind, randomized and counter-balanced crossover design. During each session, participants were exposed for 26 min to a sham or real 900 MHz RF-EMF, generated by a commercial dual-band Global System for Mobile technology (GSM) mobile phone. We recorded an electrocardiogram at rest during the exposure. We evaluated HRV by time- and frequency-domain analysis.
Evaluation of time-domain HRV parameters revealed a statistically significant increase of the standard deviation of interbeat intervals (SDNN) during the real exposure. Other time-domain parameters were not affected. Analysis in the frequency-domain demonstrated that total spectral power and low-frequency band (LF) absolute power were significantly increased during exposure (p = .046 and p = .043, respectively). However, other parameters were not affected.
In conclusion, it seems that most HRV parameters were not affected by GSM signal exposure in our study. The weak effect observed on HRV frequency-domain is likely to represent a random occurrence rather than a real effect.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32846174/
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The enigma of headaches associated with electromagnetic hyperfrequencies: Hypotheses supporting non-psychogenic algogenic processes
Toffa DH, Sow AD. The enigma of headaches associated with electromagnetic hyperfrequencies: Hypotheses supporting non-psychogenic algogenic processes. Electromagn Biol Med. 2020 May 13:1-10. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2020.1762638.

Abstract

Although an electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is reported in numerous studies, some authors associate hyperfrequencies (HF)-related pains with a nocebo effect while others suggest a biological effect. Therefore, we aimed to suggest hypotheses about the complex mechanisms of headaches related to HF-exposure. We crossed basic features of headaches with relevant studies (from the year 2000 up to 2018) emphasizing on the HF effects that may lead to pain genesis: neuroglial dysmetabolism, neuroinflammation, changes in cerebral blood perfusion, blood-brain barrier dysfunction and electrophysiological evidences of hyperexcitability. We privileged studies implying a sham exposure (for in vivo studies) and a specific absorption rate lower than 4 W/Kg. HF-induced headaches may involve an indirect inflammatory process (neurogenic, magnetogenic or thermogenic) as well as a direct biophysical effect (thermogenic or magnetogenic). We linked inflammatory processes to meningeal dysperfusion or primary neuroglial dysfunction triggered by non-thermal irradiation or HF-induced heating at thermal powers. In the latter case, HF-induced excitoxicity and oxidative stress probably play a crucial role. Such disorders may lead to vascular-trigeminal activation in predisposed people. Interestingly, an abnormal oxidative stress predisposition had been demonstrated in overall 80% of EHS self-reporting patients. In the case of direct effects, pain pathways' activation may be directly triggered by HF-irradiation (heating and/or transcranial HF-induced ectopic action potentials). Further research on HF-related headaches is needed.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32401641
Excerpts
Electromagnetic HFs are non-ionizing radiations that have complex interactions with intracranial structures. These radiations can significantly impact on neuroglial excitability and induce direct or indirect changes in the permeability of the BBB and meningeal capillaries. All these objective interactions can lead to the induction of headaches either by non-thermal/thermal proinflammatory mechanisms, by thermal stimulation of trigeminal endings, or also by ectopic discharges genesis. However, we believe that unless there occurs a prolonged and high-intensity exposure, a low threshold for vascular trigeminal activation seems crucial to promote headaches in EHS people. Our hypotheses are based on the conclusions of several studies targeting the brain effects of HF. However, further experiments based on the current assumptions should be conducted. In practice, since it is impossible to avoid HF exposure in modern society, it is important to emphasize awareness to reduce this exposure, especially in EHS individuals. Moreover, since some of the mechanisms described above can lead to durable neuroglial processes, chronic exposure in predisposed people can result in brain disorders (headaches or other) that increasingly evolve independently from HF triggering.
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Symptoms Experienced by Persons with Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity: Submissions to FCC Docket #13-84
This report summarizes the responses of 184 persons with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) who submitted comments to the FCC (Docket #13-84) and reported either their symptoms or the sources of their problematic exposure to radio frequency radiation.

https://www.saferemr.com/2020/05/EHSsubmissionstoFCC.html


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Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, microwave syndrome) Review of mechanisms
Stein Y, Udassin IG. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, microwave syndrome) – Review of mechanisms. Environmental Research. Vol 186. Available online 30 March 2020, 109445. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109445

Abstract

Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), known in the past as "Microwave syndrome", is a clinical syndrome characterized by the presence of a wide spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms, typically including central nervous system symptoms, that occur following the patient's acute or chronic exposure to electromagnetic fields in the environment or in occupational settings.
Numerous studies have shown biological effects at the cellular level of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at magnetic (ELF) and radio-frequency (RF) frequencies in extremely low intensities. Many of the mechanisms described for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) apply with modification to EHS. Repeated exposures result in sensitization and consequent enhancement of response. Many hypersensitive patients appear to have impaired detoxification systems that become overloaded by excessive oxidative stress. EMF can induce changes in calcium signaling cascades, significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells as well as altered neurological and cognitive functions and disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Magnetite crystals absorbed from combustion air pollution could have an important role in brain effects of EMF. Autonomic nervous system effects of EMF could also be expressed as symptoms in the cardiovascular system. Other common effects of EMF include effects on skin, microvasculature, immune and hematologic systems.
It is concluded that the mechanisms underlying the symptoms of EHS are biologically plausible and that many organic physiologic responses occur following EMF exposure. Patients can have neurologic, neuro-hormonal and neuro-psychiatric symptoms following exposure to EMF as a consequence of neural damage and over-sensitized neural responses.
More relevant diagnostic tests for EHS should be developed. Exposure limits should be lowered to safeguard against biologic effects of EMF. Spread of local and global wireless networks should be decreased, and safer wired networks should be used instead of wireless, to protect susceptible members of the public. Public places should be made accessible for electrohypersensitive individuals.
Mechanisms
Many of the mechanisms described for Multiple Chemical Sensitivity (MCS) apply with modification to EHS. Repeated exposures result in sensitization and consequent enhancement of response (Overstreet, 2001; Latremoliere and Woolf, 2009; Molot, 2013; Sage, 2015). Many hypersensitive patients appear to have impaired detoxification systems that become overloaded by excessive oxidative stress (Korkina, 2009; De Luca et al., 2014). Patients can have neurologic, neuro-hormonal and neuro-psychiatric symptoms following exposure to EMF as a consequence of neural damage and over-sensitized neural responses (Dwyer and Leeper, 1978; Pall, 2016). EMF can induce changes in calcium signaling cascades (Liboff, 1984; Blackman et al., 1985; Smith et al., 1987; Pall, 2013, 2015), significant activation of free radical processes and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in living cells (Irmak et al., 2002; Zmyslony et al., 2004; Friedman et al., 2007; Blank and Goodman, 2009; De Iuliis et al., 2009; Georgiou, 2010; Avci et al., 2012; Jing et al., 2012; Bilgici et al., 2013; Burlaka et al., 2013) as well as altered neurological and cognitive functions (Frey, 1961; Thomas et al., 1986; Carrubba et al., 2007; Nittby et al., 2009; Xu et al., 2010; Molot, 2013; Yakymenko et al., 2016; Pall, 2016; Kim et al., 2017) and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (Salford et al., 2008; Nittby et al., 2009). Magnetite crystals absorbed from combustion air pollution could have an important role in brain effects of EMF (Maher et al., 2016).
Conclusions
In the modern world, exposure to electromagnetic radiation has become inescapable. There are many people who develop adverse health effects as a result of exposure to EMF. This review of the literature included numerous self-reported neurologic and neuropsychiatric symptoms which have a temporal relationship to EMF exposures. Further studies suggest that EMF exposure may be associated with changes in cerebral blood flow which correspond to abnormalities on PET scan of the brain. Some of the researchers have even localized the brain abnormalities to the temporal lobe, thought to be the closest site of exposure to cell phones. Because of the widespread use of EMF technology, it is difficult to avoid exposure.

Open access paper: https://ecfsapi.fcc.gov/file/1061559548743/EHS%20Mechanisms%20YS%20IU.pdf

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Electrohypersensitivity as a Newly Identified and Characterized Neurologic Pathological Disorder: How to Diagnose, Treat, and Prevent It
Belpomme D, Irigaray P. Electrohypersensitivity as a Newly Identified and Characterized Neurologic Pathological Disorder: How to Diagnose, Treat, and Prevent It. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Mar 11;21(6). pii: E1915. doi: 10.3390/ijms21061915.


Abstract
Since 2009, we built up a database which presently includes more than 2000 electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and/or multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) self-reported cases. This database shows that EHS is associated in 30% of the cases with MCS, and that MCS precedes the occurrence of EHS in 37% of these EHS/MCS-associated cases. EHS and MCS can be characterized clinically by a similar symptomatic picture, and biologically by low-grade inflammation and an autoimmune response involving autoantibodies against O-myelin. Moreover, 80% of the patients with EHS present with one, two, or three detectable oxidative stress biomarkers in their peripheral blood, meaning that overall these patients present with a true objective somatic disorder. Moreover, by using ultrasonic cerebral tomosphygmography and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, we showed that cases have a defect in the middle cerebral artery hemodynamics, and we localized a tissue pulsometric index deficiency in the capsulo-thalamic area of the temporal lobes, suggesting the involvement of the limbic system and the thalamus. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that EHS is a neurologic pathological disorder which can be diagnosed, treated, and prevented. Because EHS is becoming a new insidious worldwide plague involving millions of people, we ask the World Health Organization (WHO) to include EHS as a neurologic disorder in the international classification of diseases.

Conclusions

In summary, we showed that there are presently sufficient clinical, biological, and radiological data for EHS to be acknowledged as a well-defined, objectively identified, and characterized pathological neurologic disorder. As a result, patients who self-report they suffer from EHS should be diagnosed and treated on the basis of presently available biological tests, including the detection of peripheral blood and urine biomarkers and the use of imaging techniques such as fMRI, TDU, and, when possible, UCTS. Moreover, because we showed for the first time that EHS is frequently associated with MCS and that both clinico-biological entities may be associated with a common physiopathological mechanism for genesis, it clearly appears that they can be identified as a unique neurologic pathological syndrome whatever their causal origin. Moreover; as it was shown that MCS genesis may be attributed to toxic chemical exposure, and EHS genesis to potentially excessive EMF and/or chemical exposure; protective measures against these two environmental stressors should be taken. Whatever its causal origin and mechanism of action, EHS should therefore be from now on recognized as a new identified and characterized neurological pathological disorder. As it is already a real health plague potentially involving millions of people worldwide it should be acknowledged by WHO, and thus be included in the WHO ICD. As stated during the international scientific consensus meeting on EHS and MCS that we have organized in 2015 in Brussels, scientists unanimously asked WHO to urgently assume its responsibilities, by classifying EHS and MCS as separate codes in the ICD; so as to increase scientific awareness of these two pathological entities in the medical community and the general public, and to foster research and train medical practitioners to e ciently diagnose, treat, and prevent EHS and MCS–which in fact constitute a unique, well-defined, and identifiable new neurologic disease.

Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/6/1915

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Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is an Environmentally-Induced Disability that Requires Immediate Attention
Havas M. Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is an Environmentally-Induced Disability that Requires Immediate Attention. Review Article. J Sci Discov. 3(1):jsd18020;DOI:10.24262/jsd.3.1.18020. 2019.
Abstract
A growing number of countries are beginning to acknowledge that electrohypersensitivity (EHS) exists and a few countries have classified it as a disability or a functional impairment attributable to the environment. Epidemiological studies and in vivo experiments show that exposure to non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from extremely low to microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) at exposure intensities far below the maximum limits in international guidelines increases anxiety, depression, and physiological stress and impairs cognitive functions that include concentration, memory and learning. Furthermore, exposure to NIR contributes to neurodegenerative diseases including dementia, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Exposure of the fetus to NIR (mobile phone) affects the neonatal heart and can lead to emotional and behavioral problems in human offspring. Similar exposures in laboratory studies report impaired cognitive performance, neuronal losses and pathological changes in the brain of rat offspring. The scientific and medical communities have repeatedly sent out urgent warnings, in the form of appeals, declarations and testimonies, that exposure to NIR needs to be reduced from a public health perspective. These warnings have been largely ignored. With continued development of wireless technology and the imminent roll out of new and densified technologies (e.g., 5G technology, satellite constellations, repeaters, wearables, Internet of Things), society will pay an enormous price for disregarding these warnings. It is long overdue for those responsible for public health, the health of children and health policy to take these warnings seriously and to provide a refuge for those afflicted by EHS. EHS is real, it is exacerbated by exposure to NIR, it is increasing among the population and when severe it becomes a disability. Action is long overdue to minimize exposure to NIR and to provide a safe environment that all can enjoy.
Conclusion
Environments contaminated by electrosmog can be devastating to those individuals who are already impaired by electromagnetic exposures. Unfortunately, these environments may also induce impairment in previously unimpaired individuals. Fetal exposure is particularly disturbing as it can affect the life of the offspring, as shown in both human and animal studies. The research reported here is regarding undesirable disruption of neurological and hormonal functions such that either cognitive or physical ability becomes impaired.

According to this research, exposure to EMF or EMR at levels far below the maximum limits in federal guidelines can contribute to deficits in memory and learning; increase the stress response and lead to mood disorders, including both anxiety and depression; contribute to symptoms of autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; contribute to neurodegenerative disorders and exacerbate symptoms of multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and various types of dementia, including Alzheimer's disease. Removal of the EMF/EMR exposure can ameliorate the impairing symptoms for many with EHS and/or reduce requirements for prescriptive medications and care. Mechanisms of action involve neurotransmitter disturbances, oxidative stress, programmed cell death (apoptosis), increase in stress proteins, reduced growth of nerve cells, DNA damage and altered hormonal levels.
With the impending deployment of 5G (5th Generation Wireless technology and the Internet of Things), exposure to mm [millimeter] waves will dramatically increase, further densifying our current electrosmog exposure.
Scientists and physicians familiar with EHS have submitted multiple appeals and declarations to governing agencies in an attempt to reduce exposure to electromagnetic frequencies. They recommend establishing more protective emission and exposure guidelines; designing technologies that emit EMR less often, at lower intensity and with a reduced radiation footprint; educating health care providers; informing the public; and establishing radiation-free environments for persons with EHS.
Agencies responsible for assuring disabled persons are included, and welcomed, in their communities and have equal access to necessities and enjoyment of life have provided little support for those suffering with EHS, presumably due to lack of information and/or unintentional, yet nevertheless in appropriate, attitudinal barriers. It is my hope that this document will encourage federal and state agencies, as well as other jurisdictions and decision-makers, to take EHS seriously and to help individuals affected by this physiological condition and to support their families. According to the World Health Organization (2015) the level of severity of EHS is classified as being severe for approximately 10% of individuals who report EHS symptoms. This percentage is likely to increase as more EMF-emitting technologies, such as 5G, mm waves and Internet of Things, are deployed.
Open access paper: https://www.e-discoverypublication.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/JSD18020-final.pdf
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Shielding methods and products against man-made Electromagnetic Fields: Protection versus risk
Panagopoulos DJ, Chrousos GP. Shielding methods and products against man-made Electromagnetic Fields: Protection versus risk. Sci Total Environ. 2019 Feb 23;667:255-262. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.344.

Highlights
• Human exposure to man-made EMFs has increased with increasing health problems.
• Metal shielding is lately suggested by private companies/individuals as a way to reduce exposure.
• Metal shielding reduces both man-made and natural atmospheric EMFs.
• EHS symptom relapses and internal desynchronization are reported after shielding.
• An avoidance strategy of man-made EMFs should be preferable than metal shielding.

Abstract

Human exposure to man-made Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs) has increased to unprecedented levels, accompanied by increase in various health problems. A connection has been indicated by an increasing number of studies. Symptoms characterized as Electro-hyper-sensitivity (EHS) are frequently reported especially in urban environments. Lately, people are advised by private companies and individuals to protect themselves from man-made EMFs by metal shielding through various products, for which there are reasonable concerns about their protective efficacy and safety. Indeed, any metal shielding practice, even when correctly applied, attenuates not only man-made totally polarized EMFs accused for the health problems, but also the natural non-polarized EMFs responsible for the biological rhythmicity and well-being of all animals. Strong evidence on this was provided by pioneering experiments in the 1960's and 1970's, with volunteers staying in a shielded underground apartment. We analyze the physical principles of EMF-shielding, the importance of natural atmospheric EMFs, and examine available shielding methods and suggested products, relying on science-based evidence. We suggest that an avoidance strategy is safer than shielding, and provide specific protection tips. We do not reject shielding in general, but describe ways to keep it at a minimum by intermittent use, as this is theoretically safer than extensive permanent shielding. We explain why metallic patches or "chips" or minerals claimed by sellers to be protective, do not seem to make sense and might even be risky. We finally suggest urgent research on the safety and efficacy of shielding methods combined with use of generators emitting weak pulses of similar frequency, intensity, and waveform with the natural atmospheric resonances.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30831365

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Individual variation in temporal relationships between RF exposure & physical symptoms: A new approach in studying 'electrosensitivity'
Bogers RP, van Gils A, Clahsen SCS, Vercruijsse W, van Kamp I, Baliatsas C, Rosmalen JGM, Bolte JFB. Individual variation in temporal relationships between exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and non-specific physical symptoms: A new approach in studying 'electrosensitivity'. Environ Int. 2018 Sep 15;121(Pt 1):297-307. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.064.


Abstract

BACKGROUND: Everyday exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted from wireless devices such as mobile phones and base stations, radio and television transmitters is ubiquitous. Some people attribute non-specific physical symptoms (NSPS) such as headache and fatigue to exposure to RF-EMF. Most previous laboratory studies or studies that analyzed populations at a group level did not find evidence of an association between RF-EMF exposure and NSPS.

OBJECTIVES: We explored the association between exposure to RF-EMF in daily life and the occurrence of NSPS in individual self-declared electrohypersensitive persons using body worn exposimeters and electronic diaries.

METHODS: We selected seven individuals who attributed their NSPS to RF-EMF exposure. The level of and variability in personal RF-EMF exposure and NSPS were determined during a three-week period. Data were analyzed using time series analysis in which exposure as measured and recorded in the diary was correlated with NSPS.

RESULTS: We found statistically significant correlations between perceived and actual exposure to wireless internet (WiFi - rate of change and number of peaks above threshold) and base stations for mobile telecommunications (GSM + UMTS downlink, rate of change) and NSPS scores in four of the seven participants. In two persons a higher EMF exposure was associated with higher symptom scores, and in two other persons it was associated with lower scores. Remarkably, we found no significant correlations between NSPS and time-weighted average power density, the most commonly used exposure metric.

CONCLUSIONS: RF-EMF exposure was associated either positively or negatively with NSPS in some but not all of the selected self-declared electrohypersensitive persons.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30227317
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Characteristics of perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the general population
Gruber MJ, Palmquist E, Nordin S. Characteristics of perceived electromagnetic hypersensitivity in the general population. Scand J Psychol. 2018 May 9. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12449.

Abstract

Health problems evoked in the presence of electrical equipment is a concern, calling for better understanding for characteristics of electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in the general population. The present study investigated demographics, lifestyle factors, frequency and duration, coping strategies, proportion meeting clinical criteria for intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (EMF) and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated persons with self-reported (n = 91) EHS in comparison to referents (n = 3,250). Middle age, female sex and poor perceived health was found to be associated with EHS. More than 50% in the EHS group reported having EMF-related symptoms more often than once a week, and the mean number of years experiencing EHS was 10.5. More than half of the EHS group reported that their symptoms started after a high-dose or long-term EMF exposure, that they actively tried to avoid EMF sources and that they mostly could affect the EMF environment. A minority of the EHS group had sought medical attention, been diagnosed by a physician or received treatment. Exhaustion syndrome, anxiety disorder, back/joint/muscle disorder, depression, functional somatic syndrome and migraine were comorbid with EHS. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of EHS and or consequences of EHS.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29741795


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Hypersensitivity to electromagnetic waves: research efforts should be scaled up and suitable care provided for the people concerned
French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES), March 27, 2018

Today the Agency is publishing the results of its expert appraisal on hypersensitivity to electromagnetic waves. This work drew on all the available scientific literature, as well as on numerous hearings with hospital and general practitioners, researchers, associations, and the people concerned. The expert appraisal revealed the great complexity of the issue of electrohypersensitivity (EHS), while concluding that according to the current state of knowledge, there is no solid experimental evidence establishing a causal link between exposure to electromagnetic fields and the symptoms described by the people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive. The Agency also emphasised that the suffering and pain expressed by the people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive is a reality of life, requiring them to adapt their daily lives to cope with it. In this context, the Agency recommends providing suitable care for the people concerned and pursuing research work, in particular by setting up studies whose experimental conditions take into account the circumstances of people declaring themselves as EHS.

Radiofrequency electromagnetic waves have been a major health, environmental and societal concern for several years now, in France and abroad. Despite the measures taken to regulate and monitor the levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields, for several decades the scientific literature has regularly reported cases of people suffering from various disorders attributed to exposure to fields emitted by household appliances, electrical facilities and communicating devices.

In this context, the Agency has published several opinions and collective expert appraisal reports, particularly in 2003, 2005, 2009, 2013 and, most recently, in 2016, on the potential health risks of exposure to radiofrequency waves. It also wished to pay due attention to the issue of electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), by devoting a specific in-depth expert appraisal to this subject.

This expert appraisal, whose results are published today, was based on an analysis of the scientific literature and on numerous hearings (with hospital and general practitioners, researchers, associations and the people concerned). It was also supplemented with data based on more than 500 additional comments from scientists and stakeholders, in the framework of the open public consultation that ran from 27 July to 15 October 2016, and which was based on a preliminary expert appraisal report.
Agency conclusions and recommendationsThe Agency's expert appraisal showed the great complexity of the issue of electro-hypersensitivity. First of all, there are currently no validated diagnostic criteria for EHS, and the expert appraisal found that it is only possible to define EHS on the basis of self-reporting by individuals.

The Agency also concluded that the pain and suffering (headaches, sleep, attention and memory disorders, social isolation, etc.) expressed by the people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive is a reality of life, requiring them to adapt their daily lives to cope with it.

The 40 experts, who worked on this expert appraisal for almost four years, investigated many hypotheses in an attempt to understand these symptoms. However, current scientific knowledge shows no cause and effect relationship between the symptoms of people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive and their exposure to electromagnetic waves. Nevertheless, these symptoms, which can have a significant impact on the quality of life of these people, require and warrant suitable care by health and social service players.

To this end, the Agency recommends asking the French National Authority for Health to consider the relevance of formulating recommendations for health professionals to ensure suitable care for people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive. The Agency also recommends developing training for health professionals on the issue of electrohypersensitivity and training for social service professionals in supporting and counselling people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive, as well as taking their questions and expectations into account in their practices and fostering greater coordination between the players involved in their care.

The Agency also recommends continuing research:
  • by strengthening the interactions between scientists and associations of people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive;
  • by supporting the establishment of research infrastructure suitable for investigating EHS, mainly in order to conduct long-term follow-up studies, while ensuring that the experimental conditions are controlled and take into account the circumstances of people declaring themselves as electrohypersensitive;
  • by securing long-term funding for research work on the health effects of radiofrequencies.
https://www.anses.fr/en/content/hypersensitivity-electromagnetic-waves-research-efforts-should-be-scaled-and-suitable-care
Report (in French):
https://www.anses.fr/en/system/files/AP2011SA0150Ra.pdf
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Vital Signs with Dr. Sanjay Gupta

Dr. Sanjay Gupta, CNN's Chief Medical Correspondent, has produced a program on Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity which was aired on CNN International and on CNN in the U.S. in October and November, 2017.

You can watch the program online now by viewing the following three videos on the CNN website:

Part 1 (9-minute video): Welcome to the National Quiet Zone - with Diane Schou and Dr. David Carpenter. In a small West Virginia town, a restriction on wireless internet and phone signals provides a refuge to disconnect.
https://cnn.it/2floP7A

Part 2 (7-minute video): Reducing Wireless Exposure - with Dr. Joel Moskowitz, Melissa Chalmers, Kevin Mottus, and Dafna Tachover. As the world becomes more connected, how can you reduce your exposure to electromagnetic fields?
https://cnn.it/2yBjBgB


Part 3 (5-minute video): Living in the National Quiet Zone - with Leo Halepli. What life is like for a young man from Turkey now living in the small town of Green Bank, West Virginia.https://cnn.it/2wgekcD
Note: Dr. Gupta's statement that non-ionizing radiation cannot cause DNA damage is false. The National Toxicology Program found that mice and rats exposed to non-ionizing, cell phone radiation developed DNA damage. Numerous studies have found evidence of DNA damage from exposure to low-intensity radiofrequency radiation (RFR). At least seven published studies have found evidence of DNA damage in humans. The DNA damage may be an indirect effect of the oxidative stress caused by exposure to RFR.
Discussion Questions:
Why doesn't our federal government conduct or fund research on electromagnetic hypersensitivity and other health effects (e.g., cancer, reproductive and neurological damage) associated with exposure to radio frequency radiation? The only major study the government has conducted in the past two decades, the National Toxicology Program study on second-generation (2G) cell phone radiation, was requested by the FDA in 1999 and still has not been finalized.
Why doesn't the Federal Communications Commission update its decades-old guidelines for radio frequency radiation exposure based upon the latest international research that finds biologic and health effects from current levels of exposure to radio frequency radiation?
Related Post:
How does wireless radiation produce harmful health effects?

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Mobile Phone Use and The Risk of Headache: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cross-sectional Studies
Wang J, Su H1, Xie W, Yu S. Mobile Phone Use and The Risk of Headache: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cross-sectional Studies. Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 3;7(1):12595. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-12802-9.

Abstract

Headache is increasingly being reported as a detrimental effect of mobile phone (MP) use. However, studies aimed to investigate the association between MP use and headache yielded conflicting results. To assess the consistency of the data on the topic, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available cross-sectional studies. Published literature from PubMed and other databases were retrieved and screened, and 7 cross-sectional studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. We found that the risk of headache was increased by 38% in MP user compared with non-MP user (OR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.18-1.61, p < 0.001). Among MP users, the risk of headache was also increased in those who had longer daily call duration (2-15 min vs. <2 min: OR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.34-1.98, p < 0.001; >15 min vs. <2 min: OR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.76-3.54, p < 0.001) and higher daily call frequency (2-4 calls vs. <2 calls: OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.07-1.76, p < 0.001; >4 calls vs. <2 calls: OR, 2.52; 95% CI, 1.78-3.58, p < 0.001). Our data indicate that MP use is significantly associated with headache, further epidemiologic and experimental studies are required to affirm and understand this association.


Excerpts
The underlying mechanism of the association between MP use and headache remains unclear but some suggest that breakdown of the blood-brain barrier due to exposure to low intensity MP frequency microwave energy may be involved 33,34,35,36. Also, the dopamine-opiate system may be involved in headaches and low intensity electromagnetic energy exposure affects those systems 37,38,39. However, since Frey's group first reported headaches occurring after microwave energy exposure at approximately the same frequencies and incident energies that present day MP emit40, the exact mechanism under this association is still not fully understood now.

The results of our meta-analysis and lots of previous studies herein supported current clinical opinion that MP use may cause increased risk for headache. Therefore, it is advisable to admit that the use of MP is a risk factor for headache. In Stalin's study 18 and Chiu's study 19, the prevalence of MP usage among adult and children was 69.8% and 63.2% respectively in their study population, and that was only the data from two years ago. We could foresee the prevalence of MP usage will be higher in the future. So it is also advisable to suggest that excessive use of MP should be avoided by increasing social awareness through health promotion activities. It is imperative that health care professionals, clinicians and common people are educated about the deleterious influence of MP on headache. And it is reasonable to instruct children and adolescent about a prudent use of MPs. In addition, we encourage screening of headache patients during routine clinical visits to identify those patients to explore excessive MP use as a potential cause. Intervention and policies must be developed, evaluated and carry out at the population level to raise the awareness of the potential adverse health effect to decrease the headache caused by MP using.

Open Access Paper: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-12802-9

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Special Issue on Ecopsychology and Environmental Sensitivities: Chemical, Electrical, and Beyond
Ecopsychology, Vol. 9, Issue 2

https://online.liebertpub.com/toc/eco/9/2

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EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment
of EMF-related health problems and illnesses

Belyaev I, Dean A, Eger H, Hubmann G, Jandrisovits R, Kern M, Kundi M, Moshammer H, Lercher P, Müller K, Oberfeld G, Ohnsorge P, Pelzmann P, Scheingraber C, Thill R. EUROPAEM EMF Guideline 2016 for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems and illnesses.Rev Environ Health. Publ online 2016 Jul 25. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2016-0011.

Abstract


Chronic diseases and illnesses associated with unspecific symptoms are on the rise. In addition to chronic stress in social and work environments, physical and chemical exposures at home, at work, and during leisure activities are causal or contributing environmental stressors that deserve attention by the general practitioner as well as by all other members of the health care community. It seems certainly necessary now to take "new exposures" like electromagnetic field (EMF) into account. Physicians are increasingly confronted with health problems from unidentified causes.

Studies, empirical observations, and patient reports clearly indicate interactions between EMF exposure and health problems. Individual susceptibility and environmental factors are frequently neglected. New wireless technologies and applications have been introduced without any certainty about their health effects, raising new challenges for medicine and society. For instance, the issue of so-called non-thermal effects and potential long-term effects of low-dose exposure were scarcely investigated prior to the introduction of these technologies. Common EMF sources include Wi-Fi access points, routers and clients, cordless and mobile phones including their base stations, Bluetooth devices, ELF magnetic fields from net currents, ELF electric fields from electric lamps and wiring close to the bed and office desk. On the one hand, there is strong evidence that long-term-exposure to certain EMF exposures is a risk factor for diseases such as certain cancers, Alzheimer's disease and male infertility. On the other hand, the emerging electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is more and more recognized by health authorities, disability administrators and case workers, politicians, as well as courts of law.

We recommend treating EHS clinically as part of the group of chronic multisystem illnesses (CMI) leading to a functional impairment (EHS), but still recognizing that the underlying cause remains the environment. In the beginning, EHS symptoms often occur only occasionally, but over time they may increase in frequency and severity. Common EHS symptoms include headaches, concentration difficulties, sleeping problems, depression, lack of energy, fatigue and flu-like symptoms.

A comprehensive medical history, which should include all symptoms and their occurrences in spatial and temporal terms and in the context of EMF exposures, is the key to the diagnosis. The EMF exposure can be assessed by asking for typical sources like Wi-Fi access points, routers and clients, cordless and mobile phones and measurements at home and at work. It is very important to take the individual susceptibility into account.

The primary method of treatment should mainly focus on the prevention or reduction of EMF exposure, that is, reducing or eliminating all sources of EMF at home and in the workplace. The reduction of EMF exposure should also be extended to public spaces such as schools, hospitals, public transport, and libraries to enable persons with EHS an unhindered use (accessibility measure). If a detrimental EMF exposure is reduced sufficiently, the body has a chance to recover and EHS symptoms will be reduced or even disappear. Many examples have shown that such measures can prove effective. Also the survival rate of children with leukemia depends on ELF magnetic field exposure at home.

To increase the effectiveness of the treatment, the broad range of other environmental factors that contribute to the total body burden should also be addressed. Anything that supports a balanced homeostasis will increase a person's resilience against disease and thus against the adverse effects of EMF exposure. There is increasing evidence that EMF exposure has a major impact on the oxidative and nitrosative regulation capacity in affected individuals. This concept also may explain why the level of susceptibility to EMF can change and why the number of symptoms reported in the context of EMF exposures is so large. Based on our current understanding, a treatment approach that minimizes the adverse effects of peroxynitrite - as has been increasingly used in the treatment of multisystem disorders - works best.

This EMF Guideline gives an overview of the current knowledge regarding EMF-related health risks and provides concepts for the diagnosis and treatment and accessibility measures of EHS to improve and restore individual health outcomes as well as for the development of strategies for prevention.

https://bit.ly/2asNTuj

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Electrohypersensitivity: a functional impairment due to an inaccessible environment
Johansson O. Electrohypersensitivity: a functional impairment due to an inaccessible environment. Rev Environ Health. 2015 Dec 1;30(4):311-21. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0018.

Abstract

In Sweden, electrohypersensitivity is recognized as a functional impairment which implies only the environment as the culprit. The Swedish view provides persons with this impairment a maximal legal protection, it gives them the right to get accessibility measures for free, as well as governmental subsidies and municipality economic support, and to provide them with special Ombudsmen (at the municipality, the EU, and the UN level, respectively), the right and economic means to form disability organizations and allow these to be part of national and international counterparts, all with the simple and single aim to allow persons with the functional impairment electrohypersensitivity to live an equal life in a society based on equality. They are not seen as patients, they do not have an overriding medical diagnosis, but the 'patient' is only the inferior and potentially toxic environment. This does not mean that a subjective symptom of a functionally impaired can not be treated by a physician, as well as get sick-leave from their workplace as well as economic compensation, and already in the year 2000 such symptoms were identified in the Internal Code of Diagnoses, version 10 (ICD-10; R68.8/now W90), and have been since. But the underlying cause still remains only the environment.


https://1.usa.gov/1YFwzkd

Excerpts
The very first case may have been Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856–7 January 1943) a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist, best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. Descriptions of his health status closely resembles what we today would have named electro-hypersensitivity. A surge of similar case reports were also seen during the amateur radio (DX) years.

In more recent times, as early as in the 1970s, a report from the former Soviet Union described a "microwave syndrome". The Soviet military recognized early on the possible side-effects from radar and radio radiation. This microwave syndrome was seen in up to a quarter of the military personnel working with radio and radar equipment. They showed symptoms such as fatigue, dizziness, headaches, problems with concentration and memory, sleep disturbances, and being hot tempered. The treatment suggested was a change of assignments and to keep away from exposure. Rest, physical exercise, and nutritious food were also offered (8).

Also in the 1970s the newspaper industry was one of the first to supply it's employees with personal computers using visual display terminals. Complaints of headaches and visual problems, as well as clusters of miscarriages and birth defects in children born to female editors and other newspaper employees, generated some publicity. In addition, many people who worked in the electronics industry in Sweden, including an estimated 12% of the electrical engineers in that industry, became electrically sensitive, and helped form the current Swedish disability organization ...

In the United States, then-Representative Al Gore held Congressional hearings in 1981 on the health effects of computer screens ....

Today the most famous electrohypersensitive person is Gro Harlem Brundtland (20 April 1939), the former Prime Minister of Norway and the former Director General of the UN World Health Organization (WHO).

I and my collaborator, Dr. Shabnam Gangi, in two papers of theoretical nature (27, 28), have put forward a model for how mast cells and substances secreted from them (e.g. histamine, heparin, and serotonin) could explain sensitivity to electromagnetic fields...

When it comes to functional impairments, it is always only action that speaks, nothing else. To ensure that everyone acts within the UN Human Rights Convention is of paramount importance, and that persons with EHS is promptly given complete accessibility is the only acceptable goal, as is proper symptom identification and treatment when possible, but only when asked for by the disabled person Himself/Herself. However, the latter should never be used instead of the first.
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Biomarkers for diagnosing electrohypersensitivity & multiple chemical sensitivity:Two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder
Belpomme D, Campagnac C, Irigaray P. Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder. Rev Environ Health. 2015 Dec 1;30(4):251-71. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0027.
Abstract

Much of the controversy over the causes of electro-hypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) lies in the absence of both recognized clinical criteria and objective biomarkers for widely accepted diagnosis.

Since 2009, we have prospectively investigated, clinically and biologically, 1216 consecutive EHS and/or MCS-self reporting cases, in an attempt to answer both questions. We report here our preliminary data, based on 727 evaluable of 839 enrolled cases: 521 (71.6%) were diagnosed with EHS, 52 (7.2%) with MCS, and 154 (21.2%) with both EHS and MCS. Two out of three patients with EHS and/or MCS were female; mean age (years) was 47. As inflammation appears to be a key process resulting from electromagnetic field (EMF) and/or chemical effects on tissues, and histamine release is potentially a major mediator of inflammation, we systematically measured histamine in the blood of patients. Near 40% had a increase in histaminemia (especially when both conditions were present), indicating a chronic inflammatory response can be detected in these patients. Oxidative stress is part of inflammation and is a key contributor to damage and response. Nitrotyrosin, a marker of both peroxynitrite (ONOO°-) production and opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), was increased in 28% the cases. Protein S100B, another marker of BBB opening was increased in 15%. Circulating autoantibodies against O-myelin were detected in 23%, indicating EHS and MCS may be associated with autoimmune response. Confirming animal experiments showing the increase of Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 chaperone proteins under the influence of EMF, we found increased Hsp27 and/or Hsp70 in 33% of the patients. As most patients reported chronic insomnia and fatigue, we determined the 24 h urine 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (6-OHMS)/creatinin ratio and found it was decreased (<0.8) in all investigated cases. Finally, considering the self-reported symptoms of EHS and MCS, we serially measured the brain blood flow (BBF) in the temporal lobes of each case with pulsed cerebral ultrasound computed tomosphygmography. Both disorders were associated with hypoperfusion in the capsulothalamic area, suggesting that the inflammatory process involve the limbic system and the thalamus.

Our data strongly suggest that EHS and MCS can be objectively characterized and routinely diagnosed by commercially available simple tests. Both disorders appear to involve inflammation-related hyper-histaminemia, oxidative stress, autoimmune response, capsulothalamic hypoperfusion and BBB opening, and a deficit in melatonin metabolic availability; suggesting a risk of chronic neurodegenerative disease. Finally the common co-occurrence of EHS and MCS strongly suggests a common pathological mechanism.

https://1.usa.gov/1NEtsXW

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The microwave syndrome or electro-hypersensitivity:
historical background
Carpenter DO. The microwave syndrome or electro-hypersensitivity: historical background. Rev Environ Health. 2015 Nov 10. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2015-0016. [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract


Microwave generating equipment first became common during World War 2 with the development of radar. Soviet bloc countries reported that individuals exposed to microwaves frequently developed headaches, fatigue, loss of appetite, sleepiness, difficulty in concentration, poor memory, emotional instability, and labile cardiovascular function, and established stringent exposure standards. For a variety of reasons these reports were discounted in Western countries, where the prevailing belief was that there could be no adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that were not mediated by tissue heating. The reported Soviet effects were at lower intensities than those that cause heating. However, there were several accidental exposures of radar operators in Western countries that resulted in persistent symptoms similar to those described above. The Soviets irradiated the US Embassy in Moscow with microwaves during the period 1953-1975, and while no convincing evidence of elevated cancer rates was reported, there were reports of "microwave illness." Officials passed these complaints off as being due to anxiety, not effects of the microwave exposure. There is increasing evidence that the "microwave syndrome" or "electro-hypersensitivity" (EHS) is a real disease that is caused by exposure to EMFs, especially those in the microwave range. The reported incidence of the syndrome is increasing along with increasing exposure to EMFs from electricity, WiFi, mobile phones and towers, smart meters and many other wireless devices. Why some individuals are more sensitive is unclear. While most individuals who report having EHS do not have a specific history of an acute exposure, excessive exposure to EMFs, even for a brief period of time, can induce the syndrome.

https://1.usa.gov/1HDPOWI

Excerpts

Electro-hypersensitivity (EHS) is a syndrome that may include some or all of the following: excessive fatigue, headache, tinnitus, insomnia, photophobia, a feeling of cognitive dysfunction and impaired memory, irritability, pain at various sites and often cardiovascular abnormalities (1). However, these are all relatively common complaints. All of us have on occasion suffered from headaches and insomnia. Because the symptoms are relatively non-specific, and because the adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) is a contentious issue, and also because primary care physicians have no objective diagnostic algorithms by which to diagnose EHS, patients suffering from EHS are often referred to a psychiatrist. There is, however, a body of evidence, both old and more recent, that indicates that these symptoms are triggered by exposure to EMFs in sensitive individuals. This is the case for exposure to both the extra low electromagnetic fields (ELF) coming from electricity and the radiofrequency (RF) EMFs coming from radar, communication devices, WiFi, smart meters and many other forms of wireless devices.
There are conflicting estimates on what percent of the population suffers from EHS, with some suggesting that between 5 and 10% of people have the syndrome, and that the incidence is increasing with time (2). However, there are several reports of tests of individuals taken into a laboratory and their responses recorded when they were unaware of whether or not an EMF field was being applied. Some of these studies have not shown that individuals who report that they are electro-sensitive are in fact able to discern if the EMFs are present or not (3–6). However, these reports are balanced by others that show that at least some individuals do respond with adverse symptoms when exposed to EMFs in a blinded fashion (7, 8). Thus not everyone who believes they are electrosensitive really is, but it is also likely that some have the symptoms of EHS but have not identified the cause. Thus the true incidence of EHS is currently not known.
... the Soviet countries' standard for maximal permissible [EMF] exposure during the workday is 1,000 times lower than that in the US. [0.01 mW/cm2 over an entire workday]

Some of the strongest evidence that EHS is a real syndrome comes from cases of acute high intensity exposure to microwaves of healthy people, which resulted in prolonged illness ....

Recent years have seen a marked increase in overall exposure to EMFs ....There has always been uncertainty over which characteristics of EMFs are most important with regard to human health effects. Because the mechanisms whereby these various adverse health outcomes arise are still not well understood, it is important to ask the question of which components pose the greatest risk, whether or not we are confident of the answer. Frey (36, 37) first suggested that peak power density was more important than average power density. Litovitz et al. (38) concluded that 60 Hz EMFs and RF EMFs do very much the same things, and later studies suggested that the low frequency, modulatory component of RF was particularly important (39). Others have implicated on-off transients, "dirty electricity" and other characteristics of the fields than the steady 50 or 60 Hz fields.

... smart meter RF radiation is significantly different from many other forms of RF, in that it consists of brief but very high intensity pulses. Thus, whereas the average exposure over time is not excessive it appears possible that the high intensity pulses are responsible for the development of EHS. Brief intense pulses have been described as "dirty electricity" by Milham and Morgan (33), who suggest that many of the reported adverse effects of EMFs are due to these brief events, rather than the sine wave forms ...

Conclusion
The weight of evidence indicates that EHS is a real syndrome induced by exposure to either ELF or RF EMF. In some cases it results from a brief, high intensity exposure, whereas in others it appears to reflect ambient exposures, especially those of increasing intensity and perhaps of certain waveforms. Whether from acute high intensity exposure or ambient background exposure from cell towers, mobile phones, smart meters and other devices, it is clear that not everyone develops EHS, for reasons not well understood. Certainly more research is needed to understand exactly which of the components of EMF exposures pose the greatest danger to human health, and what biological mechanisms are responsible. But the important conclusion is that there is something about EMFs of various forms that do pose direct hazards to human health.
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Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS): Fad Allergy, Debilitating Disease, or What?
The National Law Review, Oct 15, 2015
"... electromagnetic hypersensitivity (or "EHS" – sensitivity to radio waves from Wi-Fi routers, cell phones and similar products) is an "allergy" that has recently gotten more mainstream media attention and is also "characterized by a range of non-specific symptoms." The Access Board, which is the federal agency responsible for promulgating accessibility guidelines under the Americans with Disabilities Act, has recognized that "electromagnetic sensitivities may be considered disabilities under the ADA ...."

"The upshot of court rulings to date is that while some courts will overlook the lack of scientific evidence that EHS is caused by exposure to EMF in the context of government benefits, they have not been so accommodating where another individual's (or company's) rights would be adversely affected by a ruling in favor of an EHS plaintiff."
"If EHS becomes as prevalent as "gluten sensitivity," we can expect more EHS sufferers to ask courts to fashion them a remedy. Unlike bread and pasta for the gluten-obsessed, EMF is not something a person can easily avoid. Americans are exposed to EMF on a daily basis, from the likes of garage door openers, cell phones, cordless phones, laptops, tablets, to Wi-Fi routers in their homes, supermarkets, malls and places of work. Radio frequency energy is literally everywhere. While there is no science to support the causation hypothesis, people who believe they have EHS really believe they have a legitimate sensitivity, and many have demonstrable symptoms that are not frivolous. That makes for motivated litigants, which means the courts will probably see more of these cases in the future. But for courts to decide that EHS is something more than a fad allergy, or a psychological manifestation arising from the nocebo effect, they will need controlled scientific studies supporting the case—studies that at the moment do not exist."
Complete article: https://bit.ly/1VUUvg8
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2015 International Scientific Declaration on Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity and Multiple Chemical Sensitivity
ARTAC / ECERI Press Release, Sep 4, 2015

Following the fifth Paris Appeal Congress, which took place on the 18th of May, 2015 and focused on environmental hypersensitivities, the attending European, American and Canadian scientists unanimously decided to create a working group and to write a Common International Declaration to request an official recognition of these new diseases and of their sanitary consequences worldwide.

The declaration calls upon national and international bodies and institutions and particularly the World Health Organization, for taking urgently their responsibility for recognizing electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as real diseases, including them in the International Classification of Diseases.

This International Declaration also asks national and international institutions to adopt simple precautionary measures of prevention, to inform populations and requires the appointment of real independent expert groups to evaluate these sanitary risks in total scientific objectivity, which is not the case today.
For the Scientific Committee of the Paris Appeal Fifth Congress:
Pr. David Carpenter, MD (USA)Pr. Lennart Hardell, MD, PhD (Sweden)Pr. Dominique Belpomme, MD, MS (France
Brussels International Scientific Declaration : www.appel-de-paris.com

To download the Declaration: https://bit.ly/ehsDeclarationTo download the Program of the Congress: https://bit.ly/ParisEHSappeal2
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Ex-WHO General-Director Warns: "Wireless Technology has Health Effects There is no Doubt "
YouTube, Aug 20, 2015 (3:20)
On August 14, 2015, retired General-Director of the World Health Organization and former Prime Minister of Norway, Dr. Gro Harlem Brundtland, was interviewed by the Norwegian newspaper Aftenposten.
One issue discussed in the interview was her current thoughts about wireless radiation. Her statement was crystal clear. Watch the relevant clip from the interview here, subtitled in English by Citizens´ Radiation Protection, Norway.

https://bit.ly/1hykTzF
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What does the World Health Organization say about EHS?
The EHS overview on the World Health Organization's web site is nine years old. When will the WHO inform the public about the world-wide program of EMF studies on EHS it is co-ordinating?
Electromagnetic fields and public health: Electromagnetic hypersensitivity

Backgrounder, World Health Organization, December 2005

What WHO is doing
WHO, through its International EMF Project, is identifying research needs and co-ordinating a world-wide program of EMF studies to allow a better understanding of any health risk associated with EMF exposure. Particular emphasis is placed on possible health consequences of low-level EMF. Information about the EMF Project and EMF effects is provided in a series of fact sheets in several languages www.who.int/emf/.
https://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/facts/fs296/en/

Resources
Hypersensitivity to WiFi ... Could it be a disability?
Alexis Kramer. Hypersensitivity to WiFi ... Could it be a disability? Bloomberg BNA. Sep 10, 2015. https://www.bna.com/hypersensitivity-wifi-disability-b17179935773/
On Sept. 1, a federal district court in Florida refused to dismiss an ADA claim based on allegations that an individual experienced insomnia, loud and violent ear ringing and difficulty concentrating as a result of the attachment of a digital meter to his home.
The court said that because these symptoms substantially limited major life activities and derived from "some sort of physical or mental impairment," it could reasonably infer that the plaintiff has a disability.
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Electromagnetic hypersensitivity -- an increasing challenge to the medical profession Hedendahl L, Carlberg M, Hardell L. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity - an increasing challenge to the medical profession. Rev Environ Health. 2015;30(4):209-15.
Abstract
BACKGROUND: In 1970, a report from the former Soviet Union described the "microwave syndrome" among military personnel, working with radio and radar equipment, who showed symptoms that included fatigue, dizziness, headaches, problems with concentration and memory, and sleep disturbances. Similar symptoms were found in the 1980s among Swedes working in front of cathode ray tube monitors, with symptoms such as flushing, burning, and tingling of the skin, especially on the face, but also headaches, dizziness, tiredness, and photosensitivity. The same symptoms are reported in Finns, with electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) being attributed to exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). Of special concern is involuntary exposure to radiofrequency (RF)-EMF from different sources. Most people are unaware of this type of exposure, which has no smell, color, or visibility. There is an increasing concern that wireless use of laptops and iPads in Swedish schools, where some have even abandoned textbooks, will exacerbate the exposure to EMF.
METHODS: We have surveyed the literature on different aspects of EHS and potential adverse health effects of RF-EMF. This is exemplified by case reports from two students and one teacher who developed symptoms of EHS in schools using Wi-Fi.
RESULTS: In population-based surveys, the prevalence of EHS has ranged from 1.5% in Sweden to 13.3% in Taiwan. Provocation studies on EMF have yielded different results, ranging from where people with EHS cannot discriminate between an active RF signal and placebo, to objectively observed changes following exposure in reactions of the pupil, changes in heart rhythm, damage to erythrocytes, and disturbed glucose metabolism in the brain. The two students and the teacher from the case reports showed similar symptoms, while in school environments, as those mentioned above.
DISCUSSION: Austria is the only country with a written suggestion to guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of EMF-related health problems. Apart from this, EHS is not recognized as a specific diagnosis in the rest of the world, and no established treatment exists.
CONCLUSION: It seems necessary to give an International Classification of Diseases to EHS to get it accepted as EMF-related health problems. The increasing exposure to RF-EMF in schools is of great concern and needs better attention. Longer-term health effects are unknown. Parents, teachers, and school boards have the responsibility to protect children from unnecessary exposure.
From: The Fifth Congress of the Paris Appeal: Environmental idiopathic intolerance: what role for EMFs and multiple chemicals? 18 May 2015, Brussels, Belgium.

Conclusions
The prevalence of EHS seems to be increasing today, and many people get symptoms when exposed to ELF- and/or RF-EMF. With the ever more extensive use of wireless technologies, nobody can avoid being exposed. It is important to work toward getting objective diagnostic criteria for EHS, and have it recognized and officially accepted as hypersensitivity, an illness caused by exposure to EMF. Thus, it is necessary to give an International Classification of Diseases to EHS. If and when EHS is accepted as a diagnosis by society and the medical profession, measures can be taken especially in consideration for this group of people with EHS regarding healthcare, accommodation, school, and work.
Measurements of exposure to EMF should be performed in classrooms and in school yards during a typical school week. The results must be evaluated in relation to current knowledge of biological effects from EMF exposure. This should lead to a precautionary approach using wired solution of the internet connection, but also reduction of other sources of EMF exposure. This approach should be similar as for control of exposure to other toxic agents such as asbestos and radon emissions. It is time to consider ELF-EMF and RF-EMF as environmental pollutants that need to be controlled.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26372109
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Implications of non-linear biological oscillations on human electrophysiology for EHS and MCS
Sage C. The implications of non-linear biological oscillations on human electrophysiology for electrohypersensitivity (EHS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS). Rev Environ Health. 2015 Sep 12.
Abstract
The 'informational content' of Earth's electromagnetic signaling is like a set of operating instructions for human life. These environmental cues are dynamic and involve exquisitely low inputs (intensities) of critical frequencies with which all life on Earth evolved. Circadian and other temporal biological rhythms depend on these fluctuating electromagnetic inputs to direct gene expression, cell communication and metabolism, neural development, brainwave activity, neural synchrony, a diversity of immune functions, sleep and wake cycles, behavior and cognition. Oscillation is also a universal phenomenon, and biological systems of the heart, brain and gut are dependent on the cooperative actions of cells that function according to principles of non-linear, coupled biological oscillations for their synchrony. They are dependent on exquisitely timed cues from the environment at vanishingly small levels. Altered 'informational content' of environmental cues can swamp natural electromagnetic cues and result in dysregulation of normal biological rhythms that direct growth, development, metabolism and repair mechanisms. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and radiofrequency radiation (RFR) can have the devastating biological effects of disrupting homeostasis and desynchronizing normal biological rhythms that maintain health. Non-linear, weak field biological oscillations govern body electrophysiology, organize cell and tissue functions and maintain organ systems. Artificial bioelectrical interference can give false information (disruptive signaling) sufficient to affect critical pacemaker cells (of the heart, gut and brain) and desynchronize functions of these important cells that orchestrate function and maintain health. Chronic physiological stress undermines homeostasis whether it is chemically induced or electromagnetically induced (or both exposures are simultaneous contributors). This can eventually break down adaptive biological responses critical to health maintenance; and resilience can be compromised. Electrohypersensitivity can be caused by successive assaults on human bioelectrochemical dynamics from exogenous electromagnetic fields (EMF) and RFR or a single acute exposure. Once sensitized, further exposures are widely reported to cause reactivity to lower and lower intensities of EMF/RFR, at which point thousand-fold lower levels can cause adverse health impacts to the electrosensitive person. Electrohypersensitivity (EHS) can be a precursor to, or linked with, multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) based on reports of individuals who first develop one condition, then rapidly develop the other. Similarity of chemical biomarkers is seen in both conditions [histamines, markers of oxidative stress, auto-antibodies, heat shock protein (HSP), melatonin markers and leakage of the blood-brain barrier]. Low intensity pulsed microwave activation of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) is postulated as a mechanism of action for non-thermal health effects.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26368042
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Does electromagnetic hypersensitivity originate from nocebo responses? Indications from a qualitative study
Dieudonné M. Does electromagnetic hypersensitivity originate from nocebo responses? Indications from a qualitative study. Bioelectromagnetics. 2015 Sep 15. doi: 10.1002/bem.21937. [Epub ahead of print]
Abstract

Idiopathic Environmental Intolerance attributed to Electromagnetic Fields (IEI-EMF) is a condition in which symptoms are attributed to electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. As electro-hypersensitive (EHS) people have repeatedly been observed, during provocation trials, to report symptoms following perceived rather than actual exposure, the hypothesis has been put forward that IEI-EMF originates from psychological mechanisms, especially nocebo responses. This paper examines this hypothesis, using data from a qualitative study aimed at understanding how EHS people come to regard themselves as such.
Forty self-diagnosed EHS people were interviewed.
A typified model of their attribution process was then elaborated, inductively, from their narratives. This model is linear and composed of seven stages: (1) onset of symptoms; (2) failure to find a solution; (3) discovery of EHS; (4) gathering of information about EHS; (5) implicit appearance of conviction; (6) experimentation; (7) conscious acceptance of conviction.
Overall, symptoms appear before subjects start questioning effects of EMF on their health, which is not consistent with the hypothesis that IEI-EMF originates from nocebo responses to perceived EMF exposure. However, such responses might occur at the sixth stage of the process, potentially reinforcing the attribution. It remains possible that some cases of IEI-EMF originate from other psychological mechanisms.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26369906

--Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention
De Luca et al 2014. Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention. Mediators of Inflammation. Volume 2014, Article ID 924184. Open Access https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4000647/pdf/MI2014-924184.pdf
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This West Virginia Town Has Gone Radio Silent: Greetings from the Quiet Zone
Steve Featherstone, Popular Science, Apr 13, 2015.
Excerpts
"According to the World Health Organization (WHO), EHS is not a medical diagnosis, but rather a vague set of symptoms with no apparent physiological basis. Even so, the condition--whatever its cause--appears to be widespread. Olle Johansson, an associate professor of neuroscience at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, says the number of people who claim to have EHS varies by country, from 8 percent of the population in Germany to 3.5 percent, or about 11 million people, in the U.S."
"There are few epidemic diseases this large," Johansson says. "Nowadays, wherever you live, whatever you do, you're whole-body exposed, 24/7.""
"As palpable as Jane's symptoms are to her--and as certain as she is that they're caused by EMR--scientific consensus disagrees. Almost universally, scientists hold that most EMR has no adverse health effects at the levels people typically encounter. And no study has ever definitively linked EHS symptoms to RF radiation, a type of electromagnetic radiation that originates from wireless devices, such as Wi-Fi routers, cellphones, base stations, or Bluetooth antennas. "Health agencies have repeatedly waded through the scientific literature," says Kenneth Foster, professor of bioengineering at the University of Pennsylvania, "and they don't see any clear evidence that there's a problem other than if you put a rat in a microwave oven, it's bad for the rat."
"The only recognized health risk from RF radiation is the heating of tissue (as in the rat in the microwave). In 1996, the Federal Communications Commission adopted a safety standard for RF-emitting devices based on thermal heating. That's why even though the standard is set far below levels recognized to cause harm, wireless companies still recommend not carrying your phone around in your pocket or sleeping with one too close to your head."
"According to Joel Moskowitz, the director of the Center for Family and Community Health at the University of California at Berkeley, the test for the thermal standard is outdated if not irrelevant. "It's not at all reflective of what the average user looks like today and not really of any user anywhere," he says. "It's not even the right measurement." Moskowitz believes that science hasn't caught up with the rapid proliferation of RF-emitting devices--from smartphones to smart meters--that have been spilling radiation into our homes, schools, and workplaces over the past two decades. Electrosensitives may be the proverbial canaries in the coal mine, he says. He cites a growing body of research that suggests RF exposure has many nonthermal biological effects, including damage to sperm cells and changes in brain chemistry.
"There are a lot of unanswered questions, obviously, but we clearly have evidence for precautionary health warnings," Moskowitz says."
"Without an official medical diagnosis, it's difficult for EHS sufferers to claim benefits from insurance companies and government health agencies. Only Sweden recognizes EHS as a functional impairment, equivalent to a disability. But activists are beginning to have an impact on attitudes toward EHS and EMR-related issues, such as the use of wireless networks in public schools. Some day they hope that the medical establishment will treat EHS like other mysterious syndromes, such as fibromyalgia. They won a moral victory in 2011, when the WHO classified RF radiation as "possibly carcinogenic" in response to its Interphone study, which found a 40 percent greater risk for certain brain tumors at the highest exposure levels. (Scientists, however, did not find an increased incidence in cellphone users overall.) Then, in February of this year, France restricted the use of RF devices in daycare centers, citing a precautionary approach to exposure. Those gains aside, few if any studies are taking seriously the issue of EHS, and the inexorable expansion of wireless technologies does not appear to be slowing. Barring a breakdown in relations between electrosensitives and townsfolk or defunding of the GBT, Green Bank will continue to attract technological refugees searching for a safe haven from the electrosmog they feel is smothering the rest of the world." "That's why I call [EHS] technological leprosy," Diane {Schou } said. "We can't be with other people in society. We have to live like lepers. Technology is wonderful stuff--if we aren't harmed by it."
This article was originally published in the April 2015 issue of Popular Science, under the title "Greetings From The Quiet Zone."
To read the entire article: https://bit.ly/1LjN9ml
--
Is a toxicology model appropriate as a guide for biological research with electromagnetic fields?
My comments
The American neuroscientist, Allan H. Frey, published the first scientific paper that documented the microwave hearing effect in 1962. He published the first paper that documented leakage in the blood-brain barrier from exposure to microwave radiation in 1975. In the following letter from 1990, he discussed why the toxicology model is inappropriate for biologic research on electromagnetic fields.
Twenty-five years later, we have yet to fully comprehend this important message.
International guidelines and national regulatory standards assume a dose-response relationship exists between the power of an EMF exposure and the likelihood of a harmful health effect. However, biologic studies are finding harmful effects from sub-thermal exposures to microwave radiation at power levels that are a fraction of the regulatory limits.
Allan H. Frey. Letter to Editor: Is a toxicology model appropriate as a guide for biological research with electromagnetic fields? Journal of Bioelectricity. 9(2):233-234. 1990.
"... most people use a toxicology model as their frame of reference in the selection, funding, design and analysis of experiments. Data and theory show, however, that this is the wrong model (2-4). Thus much of the research has been inappropriate or irrelevant. This is one reason why hundreds of millions of dollars have been spent on EMF biological research with so little return for investment."
" ... living beings are electrochemical systems that use very low frequency EMFs in everything from protein folding through cellular communication to nervous system function."
" ... if we impose a very weak EMF signal on a living being, it has the possibility of interfering with normal function if it is properly tuned. This is the model that much biological data and theory tell us to use, not a toxicology model."
The letter can be viewed at: https://bit.ly/AFrey1990
--
Is There a Connection Between Electrosensitivity and Electrosensibility? A Replication Study
My comments
The electromagnetically sensitive (ES) participants selected for the following study were based upon individuals' responses to a self-reported measure. Most ES participants did not experience severe symptoms so it may be inappropriate to consider them to have electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS).
Like other sham provocation studies, this study assumed that someone with ES knows when they are exposed to an electromagnetic field (EMF) and when they are not. The study protocol assumed that there is no lag between the exposure and the ability to detect the exposure (or the non-exposure).
The study also assumed that all ES participants would be affected by exposure to a 50 Hz magnetic field. However, it is likely that some people who experience ES may be sensitive to certain radio frequency fields, but not ELF magnetic fields.
Despite the questionable assumptions upon which this study was based, the ES participants were significantly (p = .038) more likely to detect an MF exposure than chance would dictate. This result replicated the finding of an earlier study.
--
Is There a Connection Between Electrosensitivity and Electrosensibility? A Replication Study
Szemerszky R, Gubányi M, Árvai D, Dömötör Z, Köteles F. Is There a Connection Between Electrosensitivity and Electrosensibility? A Replication Study. Int J Behav Med. 2015 Mar 17. [Epub ahead of print]
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Among people with idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF), a better than random detection ability for a 50-Hz 0.5-mT magnetic field (MF) and a propensity to experience more symptoms than controls was reported in a previous study.
PURPOSE: The current study aimed to replicate and clarify these results using a modified experimental design.
METHOD: Participants of the provocation experiment were 49 individuals with self-reported IEI-EMF and 57 controls. They completed the questionnaires (symptom expectations, Somatosensory Amplification Scale-SSAS, radiation subscale of the Modern Health Worries Scale-MHWS Radiation) and attempted to detect the presence of the MF directed to their right arm in 20 subsequent 1-min sessions. Symptom reports were registered after each session.
RESULTS: Individuals with IEI-EMF as opposed to the control group showed a higher than random detection performance (d' index of signal detection theory), while no difference in their bias (β index) toward the presence of the MF was found. Predictors of reported symptoms were self-reported IEI-EMF and believed as opposed to actual presence of the MF. People with IEI-EMF reported significantly more symptoms particularly in the believed presence of the MF. IEI-EMF was closely related to MHWS Radiation and SSAS scores.
CONCLUSION: People with IEI-EMF might be able to detect the presence of the MF to a small extent; however, their symptom reports are connected to perceived exposure.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25778471
--
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: EESC urges continuance of the precautionary principle through regulation and advisory work (Ref: 06/2015)
Press Release, European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), Jan 23, 2015
At its January plenary session, the EESC adopted an opinion on electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome (EHS) which recognises the distress being suffered by people in Europe who believe they are affected. The opinion, which was adopted by 136 votes to 110 with 19 abstentions, calls for sympathetic and appropriate treatment and support for this condition.

Although the EESC opinion says that radiofrequency exposure is not causally linked to EHS symptoms, it urges continuance of the precautionary principle through regulation and advisory work, particularly as further research is still needed to accumulate evidence concerning any potential health impact from long-term exposure.
The EESC opinion on electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome points out that further substantial research is ongoing to understand the problem and its causes. It also notes that the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) has performed an extensive analysis of this issue and will shortly be completing its latest opinion which draws on a broad public consultation. The opinion will soon be adopted and will be published on the SCENIHR website (https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/emerging/index_en.htm).
https://bit.ly/1BAvqz9
--
Public Hearing on Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity
Between 3 and 5 per cent of the population are electrosensitive according to the European Economic and Social Committee.
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is causing distress and loss of quality of life to a growing number of Europeans and according to new estimates, between 3 % and 5% of the population are electro-sensitive. The most common sources of Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) pollution are mobile phone masts, cordless phones and Wi-Fi routers installed in the homes. All these emit microwaves permanently (24/7) in the places where they are installed.
The European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) study group on electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) will hold a public Hearing on EHS on Tuesday, November 4, 2014 in Brussels, Belgium.

This event will gather all relevant stakeholders from a broad range of European civil society for a debate on how to deal with this issues at EU level and to give input for the future EESC's opinion that is scheduled for adoption in January 2015.
The EESC is a consultative body of the European Union that gives representatives of Europe's socio-occupational interest groups and others, a formal platform to express their points of views on EU issues.
https://bit.ly/1tFQcLd
--
EESC opinion: Exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields)European Economic and Social Committee, Dec 7, 2011
Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields)
Key points
  • The EESC recommends that this directive be adopted and implemented in the legislation of Member States as soon as possible.
  • However, the Committee is in favour of a precautionary approach being adopted without delay, given the risks of the non-thermal biological effects of emissions from electromagnetic fields. The long-term health of workers must be completely guaranteed at a high level through the introduction of the best available technologies at economically acceptable costs. The Committee expects a relevant provision to be incorporated into the directive.
  • The EESC supports the Commission's initiative to fix thresholds so as to make this precautionary approach effective and credible; however, to ensure that this is absolutely effective it advocates fixed thresholds based on the thresholds applied when Directive 2004/40/EC was transposed (by Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Italy).
  • The Committee stresses the need to strengthen the independence of scientific bodies involved in determining thresholds for workers' exposure to electromagnetic radiation, its effects and its consequences for public health, and in establishing measures to protect the health of workers exposed to this radiation. It is essential to put a stop to conflicts of interest among members of these bodies, linked to the financing of their research and their appointment (procedures and calls for tender, use of independent public research institutes).
  • The Committee concedes the need for a derogation for professions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for medical purposes, which should however be subject to a time limit and accompanied by additional resources for research into new technologies to protect workers from the effects of electromagnetic fields and alternative techniques. Workers subject to the derogation should be covered by enhanced measures to protect them, special medical supervision and civil liability insurance to cover errors in the execution of their work arising from strong exposure to electromagnetic fields. The Committee also feels that the above-mentioned principles should be applied not only to medical workers, but also to all other workers who may be excluded from the general principles of the directive on the basis of the derogation included in Article 3 of the proposal.
--
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: EESC urges continuance of the precautionary principle through regulation and advisory work (Ref: 06/2015)
Press Release, European Economic and Social Committee (EESC), Jan 23, 2015
At its January plenary session, the EESC adopted an opinion on electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome (EHS) which recognises the distress being suffered by people in Europe who believe they are affected. The opinion, which was adopted by 136 votes to 110 with 19 abstentions, calls for sympathetic and appropriate treatment and support for this condition.

Although the EESC opinion says that radiofrequency exposure is not causally linked to EHS symptoms, it urges continuance of the precautionary principle through regulation and advisory work, particularly as further research is still needed to accumulate evidence concerning any potential health impact from long-term exposure.
The EESC opinion on electromagnetic hypersensitivity syndrome points out that further substantial research is ongoing to understand the problem and its causes. It also notes that the European Commission's Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) has performed an extensive analysis of this issue and will shortly be completing its latest opinion which draws on a broad public consultation. The opinion will soon be adopted and will be published on the SCENIHR website (https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/emerging/index_en.htm).
https://bit.ly/1BAvqz9
--
Public Hearing on Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity
Between 3 and 5 per cent of the population are electrosensitive according to the European Economic and Social Committee.
Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is causing distress and loss of quality of life to a growing number of Europeans and according to new estimates, between 3 % and 5% of the population are electro-sensitive. The most common sources of Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) pollution are mobile phone masts, cordless phones and Wi-Fi routers installed in the homes. All these emit microwaves permanently (24/7) in the places where they are installed.
The European Economic and Social Committee (EESC) study group on electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) will hold a public Hearing on EHS on Tuesday, November 4, 2014 in Brussels, Belgium.

This event will gather all relevant stakeholders from a broad range of European civil society for a debate on how to deal with this issues at EU level and to give input for the future EESC's opinion that is scheduled for adoption in January 2015.
The EESC is a consultative body of the European Union that gives representatives of Europe's socio-occupational interest groups and others, a formal platform to express their points of views on EU issues.
https://bit.ly/1tFQcLd

--
EESC opinion: Exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields)
European Economic and Social Committee, Dec 7, 2011
Proposal for a directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (electromagnetic fields)
Key points
  • The EESC recommends that this directive be adopted and implemented in the legislation of Member States as soon as possible.
  • However, the Committee is in favour of a precautionary approach being adopted without delay, given the risks of the non-thermal biological effects of emissions from electromagnetic fields. The long-term health of workers must be completely guaranteed at a high level through the introduction of the best available technologies at economically acceptable costs. The Committee expects a relevant provision to be incorporated into the directive.
  • The EESC supports the Commission's initiative to fix thresholds so as to make this precautionary approach effective and credible; however, to ensure that this is absolutely effective it advocates fixed thresholds based on the thresholds applied when Directive 2004/40/EC was transposed (by Austria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia and Italy).
  • The Committee stresses the need to strengthen the independence of scientific bodies involved in determining thresholds for workers' exposure to electromagnetic radiation, its effects and its consequences for public health, and in establishing measures to protect the health of workers exposed to this radiation. It is essential to put a stop to conflicts of interest among members of these bodies, linked to the financing of their research and their appointment (procedures and calls for tender, use of independent public research institutes).
  • The Committee concedes the need for a derogation for professions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for medical purposes, which should however be subject to a time limit and accompanied by additional resources for research into new technologies to protect workers from the effects of electromagnetic fields and alternative techniques. Workers subject to the derogation should be covered by enhanced measures to protect them, special medical supervision and civil liability insurance to cover errors in the execution of their work arising from strong exposure to electromagnetic fields. The Committee also feels that the above-mentioned principles should be applied not only to medical workers, but also to all other workers who may be excluded from the general principles of the directive on the basis of the derogation included in Article 3 of the proposal.
--
Study of self-reported hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields in California
Levallois P, Neutra R, Lee G, Hristova L. Study of self-reported hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields in California. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Aug;110 Suppl 4:619-23.
Abstract
Cases of alleged hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been reported for more than 20 years, and some authors have suggested some connection with the "multiple chemical sensitivity" illness. We report the results of a telephone survey among a sample of 2,072 Californians. Being "allergic or very sensitive" to being near electrical devices was reported by 68 subjects, resulting in an adjusted prevalence of 3.2% (95% confidence interval = 2.8, 3.7). Twenty-seven subjects (1.3%) reported sensitivity to electrical devices but no sensitivity to chemicals. Characteristics of the people reporting hypersensitivity to EMFs were generally different from those of people reporting being allergic to everyday chemicals. Alleging environmental illness or multiple chemical sensitivity diagnosed by a doctor was the strongest predictor of reporting being hypersensitive to EMFs in this population. Other predictive factors apart from self-reporting chemical sensitivity were race/ethnicity other than White, Black, or Hispanic; having low income; and being unable to work. The perception of risk of exposure to EMFs through the use of hair dryers (vs. exposure to power and distribution lines) was the factor the most associated with self-reporting about hypersensitivity to EMFs. However, risk perception was not sufficient to explain the characteristics of people reporting this disorder.
Open Access Paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241215/
Additional Resources
Updated: March 2022Andrianome et al. Increasing levels of saliva alpha amylase in electrohypersensitive (EHS) patients.Int J Radiat Biol. 2017 Aug;93(8):841-848. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28466664
Anonymous. Testimony from an internist about her two electrosensitive children to the Joint Committee on Education, Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Sep 4, 2017. https://bit.ly/MDtestifyMass
Belpomme, D. "Diagnosing, treating and preventing the electromagnetic fields impact on adults and children." 2nd international forum on protection from electromagnetic environmental pollution. Protection of children. Krakow, Poland. Nov 27, 2017. (46 minute video). https://bit.ly/EHSBelpomme2017
Bevington, M. The Prevalence of People with Restricted Access to Work in Manmade Electromagnetic Environments. Journal of Environment and Health Science. 2019. doi: org/10.15436/2378-6841.19.2402. https://bit.ly/3EuDJ60
Bray, R. Trials and trends in caring for patients with electromagnetic hypersensitivity at Ontario's Environmental Health Clinic. WSF Montreal. Aug 13 2016. https://maisonsaine.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/ehs-bray-13-08-2016.pdf
De Luca et al 2014. Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention. Mediators of Inflammation. Volume 2014, Article ID 924184. Open Access: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4000647/pdf/MI2014-924184.pdf
Ekici B, Tanındı A, Ekici G, Diker E. The effects of the duration of mobile phone use on heart rate variability parameters in healthy subjects. Anatol J Cardiol. 2016 Apr 7. https://bit.ly/1Wo9na9.
Environmental Health Trust. Electromagnetic Sensitivity. https://bit.ly/EHTehs
Genuis SJ, Lipp CT. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction. Sci Tot Environ. 2012 Jan 1;414:103-12. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22153604
Hardell L, Koppel T. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity close to mobile phone base stations – a case study in Stockholm, Sweden. Rev Environ Health. 2022 Mar 2. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2021-0169. https://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/reveh-2021-0169/html
Heuser G, Heuser SA. Functional brain MRI in patients complaining of electrohypersensitivity after long term exposure to electromagnetic fields. Rev Environ Health. 2017 Jul 5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28678737
Hojo S, Tokiya M, Mizuki M et al. Development and evaluation of an electromagnetic hypersensitivity questionnaire for Japanese people. Bioelectromagnetics. Jun 21, 2016. https://bit.ly/28KvYuF
Hojo S, Mizukoshi A, Azuma K, Okumura J, Ishikawa S et al. Survey on changes in subjective symptoms, onset/trigger factors, allergic diseases, and chemical exposures in the past decade of Japanese patients with multiple chemical sensitivity. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Aug 13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30115513
Johansson O, Redmayne M. Exacerbation of demyelinating syndrome after exposure to wireless modem with public hotspot. Case report. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. Jun 29, 2016. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378.2015.1107839
Lai, H. Electrohypersensitivity Abstracts. Dec 14, 2017. (Over 100 abstracts of scientific studies on EHS published between 1995 and 2017). https://bit.ly/LaiEHSabstracts
Leszczynski D. Brief report on EHS provocation studies. Feb 11, 2018. https://bit.ly/2o22pMy
Maisch D. Commentary: The sad state of affairs with EHS research in Australia. Between a Rock and a Hard Place. Nov 5, 2017. https://bit.ly/2AroQjF
Marshall TG, Heil TJR. Electrosmog and Autoimmune Disease. Immunol Res. Jul 13, 2016. Open Access: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12026-016-8825-7
Medeiros LN, Sanchez TG. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation.Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology. 82(1):97-104. 2016. Open Access: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26602000
Milner C. Tuning in to Microwave Sickness: How wireless technology can trigger a devastating illness. Epoch Times, May 23, 2019. https://www.theepochtimes.com/tuning-in-to-microwave-sickness_2925499.html
Palmquist E, Claeson AS, Neely G, Stenberg B, Nordin S. Overlap in prevalence between various types of environmental intolerance. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014; 217(4-5):427-34. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24029726
Raefsky et al. Delayed-Onset multiphasic demyelinating lesions after high dose radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure: A multiple sclerosis (MS) micmic. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2020 Jun 20;45:102318. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32622299/
Rea WJ. Wireless pollution: The epidemic of the 21st century. video: 24 mins. https://manhattanneighbors.org/rea/
Rea WJ, Pan Y, Fenyves EJ, Sujisawa, Suyama H, Samadi N, Ross GH. Electromagnetic field sensitivity. J Bioelectricity 1991; 10 (1-2): 241-256. Open Access: https://www.aehf.com/articles/em_sensitive.html
Slottje P, van Moorselaar I, van Strien R, Vermeulen R, Kromhout H, Huss A. Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) in occupational and primary health care: A nation-wide survey among general practitioners, occupational physicians and hygienists in the Netherlands. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2016 Dec 2. pii: S1438-4639(16)30385-6. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1438463916303856
Tatoń G, Kacprzyk A, Rok T, Pytlarz M, Pawlak R, Rokita E. A survey on electromagnetic hypersensitivity: the example from Poland. Electromagn Biol Med. 2021 Oct 22;1-8. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2021.1995873. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34686066/

Terzi, M, Ozberk, B, Deniz, OG, Kaplan, S. The role of electromagnetic fields in neurological disorders. J Chem Neuroanat. 2016 Sep;75(Pt B):77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2016.04.003. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27083321
Yakymenko I. Nikola Tesla, you and electro-sensitivity. June 30, 2017. https://bit.ly/2vCW8Kx
EHS Support Groups and ResourcesCanadians for Safe Technology. Electromagnetic Sensitivity. https://c4st.org/electrosensitivity/
D'Agnolo L. Are "Wi-Fi Allergies" an Impairment Covered by the ADA? National Law Review. June 21, 2017. https://bit.ly/2rEx0AD
The Electrosensitive Society. https://www.electrosensitivesociety.com/
Harkinson J. This Former Techie Owes His Fortune to Electronic Devices. Now He Thinks They're Dangerous. Mother Jones. 2017 Jan 28. https://bit.ly/2k3O5kt

Jolie Talks. https://www.jolietalks.com/
Physicians for Safe Technology. https://mdsafetech.org/problems/electro-sensitivity/
Wireless Technology Injury Advocacy Group. https://wearetheevidence.org/
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
3.5.2022 02:26

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields


I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once a month since August 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below. The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 1,500 scientific papers. This 1,258-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:
https://bit.ly/EMF05022022
Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.
The roles of intensity, exposure duration, and modulation on the biological effects of radiofrequency radiation and exposure guidelines
Henry Lai, B. Blake Levitt. The roles of intensity, exposure duration, and modulation on the biological effects of radiofrequency radiation and exposure guidelines. Electromagn Biol Med. 2022 Apr 19:1-26. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2022.2065683.
Abstract
In this paper, we review the literature on three important exposure metrics that are inadequately represented in most major radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure guidelines today: intensity, exposure duration, and signal modulation. Exposure intensity produces unpredictable effects as demonstrated by nonlinear effects. This is most likely caused by the biological system's ability to adjust and compensate but could lead to eventual biomic breakdown after prolonged exposure. A review of 112 low-intensity studies reveals that biological effects of RFR could occur at a median specific absorption rate of 0.0165 W/kg. Intensity and exposure duration interact since the dose of energy absorbed is the product of intensity and time. The result is that RFR behaves like a biological "stressor" capable of affecting numerous living systems. In addition to intensity and duration, man-made RFR is generally modulated to allow information to be encrypted. The effects of modulation on biological functions are not well understood. Four types of modulation outcomes are discussed. In addition, it is invalid to make direct comparisons between thermal energy and radiofrequency electromagnetic energy. Research data indicate that electromagnetic energy is more biologically potent in causing effects than thermal changes. The two likely function through different mechanisms. As such, any current RFR exposure guidelines based on acute continuous-wave exposure are inadequate for health protection.
Excerpts
"Over the last 25–30 years, significant information has been published that in other regulated areas would have resulted in re-examination and adjustments to allowable exposure limits. This has not been the case with these two groups [the FCC and ICNIRP] which adhere to a model based on obsolete scientific evidence, especially in light of the new 5G network that uses higher frequencies and novel modulation forms that have never been used before in broad civilian telecommunications and which are poorly studied."
"RFR effects have been observed at low intensities (< 0.4 W/kg) – a list of which is included in Supplement 1 – far below the guidelines. This points to both the nonlinearity of how living systems couple with nonionizing radiation as well as the inadequacy of acute thresholds. The studies encompass many different biological effects to myriad systems, including: apoptosis induction, adrenal gland activity, blood–brain barrier permeability, brain transmitter levels, calcium concentration in heart muscle, calcium efflux, calcium movement in cells, cell growth, cognitive functions, cellular damage in liver, decreased cell proliferation, embryonic development, endocrine changes, enolose activity, genetic effects, hippocampal neuronal damage, immunological functions, kidney development, memory functions, latency of muscular contraction, membrane chemistry, nerve cell damage, metabolic changes, neural electrical activity, oxidative stress, plant growth, prion level, protein changes, renal injury, serum testosterone concentration, heat-shock protein induction, testis morphology, testosterone synthesis, thymidine incorporation, and ultrastructural alteration in cell cytoplasm. In fact, there are not many physiological functions in humans, animals, or plants that are not affected by low-level RFR."
"As reflected in Supplement 1, SARs at which effects were observed were available from 112 studies. Of these, 75 (67%) were in vivo exposure studies with whole body/organ SARs available. The other 37 (33%) studies were in vitro experiments.... The level at which biological effects occur represents data from in vivo and in vitro and acute and chronic/repeated-exposure experiments. There is a very wide range of effects seen. With an exposure that induces a SAR of 0.0165 W/kg, and using a ten-fold protection, the SAR would be 0.00165 W/kg (i.e., 1.65 mW/kg). For rate of energy absorption in body organs, 0.00165 W/kg is far below the maximum level allowed in the guidelines (whether over 1 or 10 gm of tissue as per FCC/ICNIRP allowances). Given the large body of work as illustrated in Supplement 1, the SAR at, or below, 4 W/kg as a safe threshold is insupportable."
"The duration of exposure is another important factor in biological effects. Other than demarcations for whole body exposures averaged over 30 minutes and local body areas averaged over 6 minutes, neither FCC nor ICNIRP address duration, especially pertaining to long-term and low-level RFR exposures. These are prevalent in both near-field exposures to people with WiFi routers, for example, as well as cell phones, and far-field exposures from infrastructure that have created chronic rising ambient background levels (Levitt et al. 2021a). The guidelines are written only for short-term acute durations.... What we do know is that the supposition that all exposures are the same above and below the SAR threshold set by FCC/ICNIRP is fundamentally flawed in light of the most current research. One feasible and logical solution to such uncertainties regarding duration as an exposure factor would be to adopt an SAR level commensurate with the studies summarized in Supplement 1 at no higher than 0.00165 W/kg, no matter the exposure conditions."

"It is generally believed that modulated RFR is more biologically active than continuous-wave (CW) radiation, i.e., the carrier-wave. To understand the biological and possible hazardous health effects of RFR, it is therefore important to understand modulation effects. Below we discuss what is known about modulation from the research literature (mostly from 1990 to date) and examine the claim that modulation makes RFR more biologically significant...There is research showing no significant biological effects of CW-RFR (Table 1a) but there are also studies that reported CW-RFR effects too (Table 1b). The reason why CW-RFR produced effects in some studies but not others is unknown. Both types of studies (with "effect" and "no effect" outcomes) involved many different biological endpoints, exposure intensities, and duration of exposure – with no discernible differences. A possible explanation is that different tissue types respond differently to CW-RFR. But that just adds another level of inquiry. One of the most puzzling observations is when CW caused an effect but modulation did not (e.g., Kubinyi et al. 1996; Luukkonen et al. 2009). In some studies, a modulated field produced an effect that was not produced by CW. These observations may indicate that the CW carrier-wave itself and modulation act on different mechanisms.... Differences in responses between CW and modulated fields of the same frequency and incident power density provide strong proof that non-thermal effects occur since the two conditions should produce the same amount of heating.... Some studies reported that different frequencies of modulation caused different biological responses .... CW and modulated fields can cause the same effects but with different degrees of biological activity and intensity of reactions. In most instances, a modulated field was found to be more potent than CW versus only one study in which the opposite was reported (Persson et al. 1997).... To add to the complexities described above, effects with modulated fields have also been shown to depend on exposure duration.... there are many studies that used intermittent exposure (e.g., 10 min ON/10 min OFF) instead of continuous exposure with the supposition that intermittent exposure is more biologically active. But not much data showed this to be true.... There are many studies using pulsed fields (i.e., mobile phone signals are pulsed), but there are not many studies that compared pulsed and CW fields of the same SAR in the same study. However, there are reports that effects only occurred with a pulsed field but not CW.... there are many studies showing effects of RFR on the hippocampus..."
"Oxidative changes and stress have been reported in many papers on exposure to electromagnetic fields (Lai 2020; Yakymenko et al. 2016). These are the most consistent cellular responses to RFR exposure. Mechanisms have been proposed to account for oxidative effects that may involve the low-frequency component of modulation (e.g., see Barnes and Greenebaum 2015; Castello et al. 2021). ... But there is not enough data to conclude that modulation effects are caused by oxidative processes. In fact some effects of CW exposure alone also found changes in free radical mechanisms."
"It is important to point out as significant proof of non-thermal RFR effects that CW and modulated-waves of the same frequency and incident power density can/and do produce different effects. The bottom line is that certainty is elusive regarding precise effects in all circumstances. What is clear is that both modulation and continuous-wave RFR are biologically active and both should be considered in exposure guidelines. In situations where enough evidence exists to warrant specific caution, such as with pulsed fields used in cell phones and phased modulation with 5G, particular attention should be paid to include modulation in the guidelines beyond the suppositions of safety contained within the safety allowances. Peak exposures must also be factored in and not just the averaged values which only hide their significance."
"It is apparent that the biological outcome of changing the intensity and duration of RFR exposure is basically unpredictable. This is mainly due to the complex nature of the biological system studied. Intensity and duration can interact and produce different response patterns as shown in the literature reviewed above.

It is also apparent that how RFR modulation affects biological functions is difficult to quantify. Observed effects are multi-variant and involve many factors such as intensity, carrier frequencies and modulation, the modulation waveform itself, exposure duration, and properties of the exposed object. Not enough research data are presently available to provide an explanation or prediction of modulation effects under all circumstances. It may also turn out that modulation is of little major health concern or conversely that it is the only factor that matters – evidence is thus far too contradictory regarding modulation's ability to consistently enhance the biological effects of carrier-waves. Then again, with most modulation forms the carrier-wave is completely altered. All of this awaits proper investigation with comparison studies. In the meantime, there are legitimate reasons for concern, given the contradictions in the literature.

In general, anthropogenic RFR – with highly unusual waveform characteristics and intensities that do not exist in the natural world – is new to the environment and thus has not been a factor in the evolution of species. Living organisms evolved over millions of years in the presence of static and extremely-low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields. These fields play critical roles in their survival, e.g., in migration, food foraging, and reproduction, etc. (see Levitt et al. 2021b). Living organisms are extremely sensitive to the presence of these environmental fields and thus, they can easily be disturbed by man-made EMF. RFR probably acts upon and modifies these primordial EMFs and affects biological functions. Interactions of static/ELF EMF and RFR are basically not well studied, not to mention the mechanisms of involvement of RFR modulations. The interactions are inevitably complex. Such interaction studies would provide answers to wildlife effects.

Regarding the perennial thermal- versus non-thermal- effects criticism inherent in human RFR exposure guidelines, it must be said that the underlying mechanisms of effects should not be a matter of concern in setting of exposure guidelines as is common today. What is important is the level at which energy absorption causes an effect. One such powerful proof – among so very many others – of non-thermal effects is evidenced in the fact that CW and modulated-waves of the same frequency and incident power density can produce different effects, as seen in the modulation section of this paper and Table 2."

"When effects continue to be observed over a long period of time that go against prevailing beliefs, even when mechanisms remain imperfectly understood, the appropriate course of regulatory action is to examine the underlying basis upon which an original premise was formed. When proven incomplete or invalid by new information, the change in a regulatory course is not only justified but is imperative. Disproven or incomplete deductions of how RFR affects living cells and tissues, as well as suppositions of safety for exposed individuals and the environment are insupportable given the wealth of studies to draw from today that have filled in many gaps. We need to more responsibly address the increasing near- and far-field RFR exposures of contemporary life with an eye toward 5G technology's unique characteristics. A new conceptual framework is called for."
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15368378.2022.2065683
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Estimation of RF and ELF dose by anatomical location in the brain from wireless phones in the MOBI-Kids study
Carolina Calderón, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Myron Maslanyj, Joe Wiart, Ae-Kyoung Lee, Masao Taki, Kanako Wake, Alex Abert, Francesc Badia, Abdelhamid Hadjem, Hans Kromhout, Patricia de Llobet, Nadège Varsier, Emmanuelle Conil, Hyung-Do Choi, Malcolm R. Sim, Elisabeth Cardis. Estimation of RF and ELF dose by anatomical location in the brain from wireless phones in the MOBI-Kids study. Environment International. 163. 2022. 107189. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2022.107189.
Highlights
• Epidemiological studies on mobile phone radiation typically rely on phone use history.
• MOBI-Kids is the first study to estimate RF and ELF dose from wireless phones.
• RF and ELF doses vary by age, phone model, communication system and amount of use.
• Communication system and location in the brain are key determinants of dose.
• Duration and number of calls are likely to be crude proxies of dose.
Abstract
Wireless phones (both mobile and cordless) emit not only radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) but also extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields, both of which should be considered in epidemiological studies of the possible adverse health effects of use of such devices. This paper describes a unique algorithm, developed for the multinational case-control MOBI-Kids study, that estimates the cumulative specific energy (CSE) and the cumulative induced current density (CICD) in the brain from RF and ELF fields, respectively, for each subject in the study (aged 10–24 years old). Factors such as age, tumour location, self-reported phone models and usage patterns (laterality, call frequency/duration and hands-free use) were considered, as was the prevalence of different communication systems over time. Median CSE and CICD were substantially higher in GSM than 3G systems and varied considerably with location in the brain. Agreement between RF CSE and mobile phone use variables was moderate to null, depending on the communication system. Agreement between mobile phone use variables and ELF CICD was higher overall but also strongly dependent on communication system. Despite ELF dose distribution across the brain being more diffuse than that of RF, high correlation was observed between RF and ELF dose. The algorithm was used to systematically estimate the localised RF and ELF doses in the brain from wireless phones, which were found to be strongly dependent on location and communication system. Analysis of cartographies showed high correlation across phone models and across ages, however diagonal agreement between these cartographies suggest these factors do affect dose distribution to some level. Overall, duration and number of calls may not be adequate proxies of dose, particularly as communication systems available for voice calls tend to become more complex with time.
Conclusion

This paper describes the algorithm constructed to assess the localised RF and ELF dose arising from the use of mobile (cellular) and DECT (cordless) phones in the MOBI-Kids study. The algorithm was based on information on phone use provided by study subjects, on information from operators on prevalence of communication systems as a function of time, on RF and ELF modelling performed as part of the exposure assessment work package (which considered morphological changes due to age), and on validation studies performed within the overall study. ELF and RF dose diminished rapidly with increasing depth, demonstrating location in the brain is an important variable in dose estimation. The agreement between CSE and phone use variables varied by communication system; it was highest for GSM and close to 0 for UMTS and CDMA. Higher agreement was observed between CICD and phone use variables, but agreement was still close to 0 for 3G systems. Analysis of cartographies showed high correlation across phone models and across ages, however diagonal agreement between these cartographies suggest these factors do affect dose distribution to some level and should thus be ideally considered. Overall, the results highlight the importance of considering the effect of communication system and anatomical location in estimating dose and suggests phone use is becoming a poorer exposure proxy as communication systems available for voice calls tend to become more complex with time

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412022001155

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Effects of mobile phone use on semen parameters: a cross-sectional study of 1634 men in China

Shanshan Zhang, Fengyi Mo, Yali Chang, Shufang Wu, Qing Ma, Fan Jin, Lanfeng Xing. Effects of mobile phone use on semen parameters: a cross-sectional study of 1634 men in China. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2022 Apr 19. doi: 10.1071/RD21234.

Abstract

Mobile phones play an irreplaceable role in modern people's lives. However, the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phones has also caused increasing concern. A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phones on semen parameters in 1634 men who underwent semen examination at the Department of Reproductive Endocrinology, Women's Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, China. Analysis of variance and multivariate linear regression were used to explore differences among different groups. A P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed significant associations among different groups of daily mobile phone use time and daily duration of phone calls in the percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa (P=0.004 and P=0.007), rapid progressively motile spermatozoa (P=0.012 and P=0.006) and total motile spermatozoa (P=0.004 and P=0.046). After adjustments for the confounding effects of age and body mass index by multiple linear regression, the results showed that the daily duration of mobile phone use had a negative effect on sperm motility. However, there was no statistically significant correlation between daily phone call duration and sperm motility. Therefore, the daily duration of mobile phone use may negatively affect sperm motility and impair male fertility.

Conclusion
Our results suggest that the average daily cell phone use duration may affect sperm motility to some extent, leading to a decrease in sperm motility. Therefore, we recommend that men of reproductive age avoid prolonged durations of using mobile phones. In addition, more well-designed cross-sectional investigations and mechanistic studies are needed in the future to clarify the effects of RF-EMR produced by mobile phones on male semen quality.
Open access paper: https://www.publish.csiro.au/rd/RD21234
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Effect of Duration of Mobile Phone Use on the Salivary Flow and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Saliva and Salivary Immunoglobulin A Level
Bansal D, Chhaparwal Y, Pai KM, Kumar M, Vineetha R, Chhaparwal S, Kamath S, Kamath A. Effect of Duration of Mobile Phone Use on the Salivary Flow and Total Antioxidant Capacity of Saliva and Salivary Immunoglobulin A Level: A Cross-sectional Study. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent. 2022 Apr 8;12(2):260-265. doi: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_361_21.
Abstract

Introduction: The objective of this study was to observe the effects of the duration of handheld mobile phone usage on the salivary flow, salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) level, and salivary markers for oxidative stress.

Materials and methods: Eighty-one students were categorized into three groups based on their duration of mobile phone usage after age- and gender-matching. Students were grouped as: mobile phone usage <20 min/day (Group A), mobile phone usage 20-60 min/day (Group B), and mobile phone usage >60 min/day (Group C). Saliva was collected to evaluate salivary flow rate, salivary IgA level, and salivary markers for oxidative stress.

Results: The salivary flow rate showed no statistically significant difference between the three groups (P = 0.180). There was no statistically significant difference in the salivary IgA between the three groups (P = 0.237). There was a statistically significant difference in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level between the three groups (P = 0.042). On pair comparison between the groups, group B and group C had a statistically significant difference (P = 0.019) in the MDA level. There was no statistically significant difference in the salivary thiol level between the three groups (P = 0.237).

Conclusion: The duration of handheld mobile phone usage did not show any significant effects on the salivary flow rate, salivary IgA, and thiol levels. There was an increase in the salivary MDA concentration in subjects using handheld mobile phones for a longer duration, indicating higher oxidative stress in salivary glands exposed to mobile phone radiofrequency electromagnetic waves for a longer duration.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9022387/
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Role of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi on some miRNA and fatty acids composition in brain

Suleyman Dasdag, Mehmet Zulkuf Akdag, Mehmet Bashan, Veysi Kizmaz, Nurten Erdal, Mehmet Emin Erdal, Mehmet Tughan Kiziltug, Korkut Yegin. Role of 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi on some miRNA and faty acids composition in brain. Electromagn Biol Med. 2022 Apr 17;1-12. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2022.2065682.

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi exposure, which is continuously used in the internet connection by mobile phones, computers and other wireless equipment, on microRNA and membrane and depot fatty acid composition of brain cells. Sixteen Wistar Albino rats were divided equally into two groups such as sham and exposure. The rats in the experimental group (n = 8) were exposed to 2.4 GHz RFR emitted from a Wi-Fi generator for 24 h/day for one year. The animals in the control group (n = 8) were kept under the same conditions as the experimental group, but the Wi-Fi generator was turned off. At the end of the study, rats were sacrificed and brains were removed to analyze miRNA expression and membrane and depot fatty acids of brain cells. We analyzed the situation of ten different miRNA expressions and nineteen fatty acid patterns in this study. We observed that long-term and excessive exposure of 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi radiation increased rno-miR-181a-5p, phosphatidylserine (PS) and triacylglycerol (TAG) in the brain. In conclusion, 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi exposure has the potential to alter rno-miR-181a-5p expression and the fatty acid percentage of some membrane lipids such as phospholipid (PL), phosphatidylserine (PS) and triacylglycerol (TAG), which are depot fats in the brain. However, the uncontrolled use of RFRs, whose use and diversity have reached incredible levels with each passing day and which are increasing in the future, may be paving the way for many diseases that we cannot connect with today.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35435088/
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Evidence Base on the Potential Carcinogenicity of Radiofrequency Radiation
Grimes DR. Radiofrequency Radiation and Cancer: A Review. JAMA Oncol. 2022 Mar 1;8(3):456-461. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.5964. Erratum in: JAMA Oncol. 2022 Apr 21;: PMID: 34882171.

Abstract
Importance: Concerns over radiofrequency radiation (RFR) and carcinogenesis have long existed, and the advent of 5G mobile technology has seen a deluge of claims asserting that the new standard and RFR in general may be carcinogenic. For clinicians and researchers in the field, it is critical to address patient concerns on the topic and to be familiar with the existent evidence base.

Observations: This review considers potential biophysical mechanisms of cancer induction, elucidating mechanisms of electromagnetically induced DNA damage and placing RFR in appropriate context on the electromagnetic spectrum. The existent epidemiological evidence in humans and laboratory animals to date on the topic is also reviewed and discussed.

Conclusions and relevance: The evidence from these combined strands strongly indicates that claims of an RFR-cancer link are not supported by the current evidence base. Much of the research to date, however, has been undermined by methodological shortcomings, and there is a need for higher-quality future research endeavors. Finally, the role of fringe science and unsubstantiated claims in patient and public perception on this topic is highly relevant and must be carefully considered.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34882171/
Critical responses:
Carpenter DO, Hardell L, Sage C. Evidence Base on the Potential Carcinogenicity of Radiofrequency Radiation. JAMA Oncol. 2022 Apr 21. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.0928. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35446341/
Jooyan N, Mortazavi SM. Evidence Base on the Potential Carcinogenicity of Radiofrequency Radiation. JAMA Oncol. 2022 Apr 21. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.0931. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35446369/
Naidenko OV. Evidence Base on the Potential Carcinogenicity of Radiofrequency Radiation. JAMA Oncol. 2022 Apr 21. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.0925. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35446371/
Moskowitz JM. Why did JAMA Oncology publish a paper written by a Telecom industry spokesperson? Electromagnetic Radiation Safety. 2022 Jan 21. https://bit.ly/GrimesRebuttal
EHT. Wireless Industry Spokesperson Pens Article on Wireless Health Effects for Top Academic Journal. Environmental Health Trust. 2022 Jan 18. https://ehtrust.org/wireless-industry-spokesperson-pens-article-on-wireless-health-effects-for-top-academic-journal/
Author's response to criticism:
Grimes DR. Evidence Base on the Potential Carcinogenicity of Radiofrequency Radiation-Reply. JAMA Oncol. 2022 Apr 21. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.0934. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35446368/

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The Microwave Auditory Effect

James C. Lin. The Microwave Auditory Effect. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology. 6(1):16-28. March 2022. doi: 10.1109/JERM.2021.3062826.
Abstract
The microwave auditory effect has been widely recognized as one of the most interesting and significant biological phenomena from microwave exposure. The hearing of pulsed microwaves is a unique exception to sound waves encountered in human auditory perception. The hearing of microwave pulses involves electromagnetic waves. This paper reviews the research in humans and animals leading to scientific documentations that absorption of a single microwave pulse impinging on the head may be perceived as an acoustic zip, click, or knocking sound. A train of microwave pulses may be sensed as buzz, chirp, or tune by humans. It describes neurophysiological, psychophysical, and behavioral observations from laboratory studies involving humans and animals. Mechanistic studies show that the microwave pulse, upon absorption by tissues in the head, launches a pressure wave that travels by bone conduction to the inner ear, where it activates the cochlear receptors via the same process involved for normal sound hearing. Depending on the impinging microwave pulse powers, the level of induced sound pressure could be considerably above the threshold of auditory perception to cause tissue injury. The microwave auditory effects and associated pressures could potentially render damage to brain tissue to cause lethal or nonlethal injuries.

Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9366412&isnumber=9716150
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The effect of mobile phone use at night on the sleep of pre-adolescent, early adolescent, and late adolescent children: A study of 252,195 Australian children

Valentina Salcedo Correa, Stephanie Centofanti, Jillian Dorrian, Andrew Wicking, Peter Wicking, Kurt Lushington. The effect of mobile phone use at night on the sleep of pre-adolescent (8-11 year), early adolescent (12-14 year) and late adolescent (15-18 year) children: A study of 252,195 Australian children. Sleep Health. 2022 Apr 8;S2352-7218(22)00015-8. doi: 10.1016/j.sleh.2022.02.004.

Abstract

Objectives: To examine whether the association previously reported between mobile phone use at night and poor sleep in adolescents also generalizes to pre-adolescent children.

Design: Cross sectional.

Participants: Survey completed by 84,915 pre-adolescent (8-11 years), 99,680 early adolescent (12-14 years) and 67,600 late adolescent Australian children (15-18 years).

Measurement: Children were asked how frequently they obtained 8 hours of sleep on most nights and if they used their mobile phone at night to send and receive messages between 10 PM and 6 AM. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between mobile phone use at night and sleeping 8h or more on most nights with gender, socioeconomic status and year of study (2014-2018) as covariates.

Results: For all age cohorts including pre-adolescent children, mobile phone use at night was associated with lower odds of obtaining 8 hours of sleep on most nights.

Conclusion: The present findings confirm that the association between mobile phone use at night and poor sleep previously reported in adolescent children also generalises to pre-adolescent children. Given the increased uptake of smartphone devices in ever younger children the findings point to the need to provide parents, schools and communities with resources to promote child sleep hygiene and media use at bedtime.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35400615/
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Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure of adolescents in the Greater London area and the association with restrictions on permitted use of mobile communication technologies at school and at home
Claudia Schmutz, Alexandra Bürgler, Narain Ashta, Jana Soenksen, Yasmin Bou Karim, Chen Shen, Rachel B. Smith, Rosemary H. Jenkins, Michael O. Mireku, Julian Mutz, Mikaël J.A. Maes, Rosi Hirst, Irene Chang, Charlotte Fleming, Aamirah Mussa, Daphna Kesary, Darren Addison, Myron Maslanyj, Mireille B. Toledano, Martin Röösli, Marloes Eeftens. Personal radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure of adolescents in the Greater London area and the association with restrictions on permitted use of mobile communication technologies at school and at home. Environmental Research. 2022. 113252. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2022.113252.
Abstract

Personal measurements of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have been used in several studies to characterise personal exposure in daily life, but such data are limitedly available for adolescents, and not yet for the United Kingdom (UK). In this study, we aimed to characterise personal exposure to RF-EMF in adolescents and to study the association between exposure and rules applied at school and at home to restrict wireless communication use, likely implemented to reduce other effects of mobile technology (e.g. distraction). We measured exposure to RF-EMF for 16 common frequency bands (87.5 MHz–3.5 GHz), using portable measurement devices (ExpoM-RF), in a subsample of adolescents participating in the cohort Study of Cognition, Adolescents and Mobile Phones (SCAMP) from Greater London (UK) (n = 188). School and home rules were assessed by questionnaire and concerned the school's availability of WiFi and mobile phone policy, and parental restrictions on permitted mobile phone use. Adolescents recorded their activities in real time using a diary app on a study smartphone, while characterizing their personal RF-EMF exposure in daily life, during different activities and times of the day. Data analysis was done for 148 adolescents from 29 schools who recorded RF-EMF data for a median duration of 47 h. The majority (74%) of adolescents spent part of their time at school during the measurement period. Median total RF-EMF exposure was 40 μW/m2 at home, 94 μW/m2 at school, and 100 μW/m2 overall. In general, restrictions at school or at home made little difference for adolescents' measured exposure to RF-EMF, except for uplink exposure from mobile phones while at school, which was found to be significantly lower for adolescents attending schools not permitting phone use at all, compared to adolescents attending schools allowing mobile phone use during breaks. This difference was not statistically significant for total personal exposure. Total exposure to RF-EMF in adolescents living in Greater London tended to be higher compared to exposure levels reported in other European countries. This study suggests that school policies and parental restrictions are not associated with a lower RF-EMF exposure in adolescents.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935122005795

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Assessment of varied mobile network topologies on human exposure, mobile communication quality and sustainability

Margot Deruyck, German Castellanos, Wout Joseph, Luc Martens, Sven Kuehn, Niels Kuster. Assessment of varied mobile network topologies on human exposure, mobile communication quality and sustainability. Final Report of Project CRR-954. Zurich, Switzerland, IT'IS Foundation. Sep 21, 2021.

Executive Summary
In October 2020, the Swiss Federal Office of Communications (OFCOM) mandated the IT'IS Foundation to evaluate various 5G network topologies regarding human exposure, mobile communication quality, and sustainability to address the questions posed by the political Motion Häberli-Koller (19.4043) dated July 30, 2020. The study was conducted jointly with the IMEC WAVES group of the Department of Information Technology of Ghent University, Belgium, and it supplements an earlier project performed by IT'IS for the Swiss Federal Office for the environment in 2019 [1].

Statement of work Prior to the study, OFCOM specified a number of endpoints in the statement of work (SoW), each of which is addressed below. The study was conducted using a mobile network planning tool developed by the IMEC WAVES group that was adapted to the specifics of the mobile network and regulatory situation in Switzerland. Using this tool, we simulated a variety of mobile networks to address the study endpoints specified by OFCOM. The simulations included 4G and 5G networks in rural, suburban, and urban environments with usage requirements extrapolated to the year 2030. We analyzed the effects of separate operators compared to a unified network, the separation of indoor and outdoor networks, and different data rates and networks optimized for low downlink exposure. Human exposure to the electromagnetic field from the mobile communication system is expressed as the exposure ratio, the induced 6-minute time-averaged electromagnetic field level divided by the safety limits in percent, separately for the uplink (exposure to a user's own mobile device) and downlink (exposure to the base station network). All mobile networks were realized to comply with an approximation to the current precautionary limits imposed by the Swiss Ordinance for Protection against Non-Ionizing Radiation, i.e., the effect of an increase of the precautionary limits was not studied.
Note that for all of the following statements, in general, the user's own mobile device (uplink) exposure ratio contributed to the user's total exposure on average with a minimum tenfold higher level than the downlink (base station) exposure. Therefore, for any active mobile device user, a reduction of the downlink exposure will always remain insignificant in terms of the overall exposure.
Which network structures are possible based on the technologies available today (4G, 5G, Wireless Local Area Network WLAN, etc.), and what influence do they have on the spatial distribution of radiation exposure of the population? In the present study, network infrastructures based on the 4G and 5G communication technologies were simulated. The use of WLAN as a supplementary link for indoor reception was not considered in the simulation models as 4G and 5G provide better spectral efficiency technology and output power control than WLAN. Therefore, the use of WLAN in terms of network quality and exposure reduction is not considered beneficial. Other reasons such as network separation and costs may favor the use of WLAN.

Our results show that the transition from 4G to 5G will reduce human exposure in most simulated scenarios while offering a tenfold capacity.

A unified mobile network results in downlink exposure ratios similar to that of the largest user base in Switzerland; however, the unified network can serve twice as many users. Network unification would improve the uplink exposure compared to the uplink exposure in the networks of the second and third largest user base in Switzerland. A unified network would also reduce the number of required base station locations between -13% and -50% (depending on technology and environment).

In particular, the frequently propagated approaches of the "St. Gallen model", the separation of indoor and outdoor coverage are to be analyzed in depth. We analyzed the coverage of indoor and outdoor locations as well as indoor and outdoor exposure. Our results show that a complete separation of indoor and outdoor coverage will lead to lower (factor o 4) downlink exposure outdoors and uncovered indoor locations on average. Indoor downlink exposure is not affected by the separation of indoor and outdoor coverage. Uplink exposure remained in the same range for separate indoor and outdoor networks despite additional building attenuation. We found a trend towards lower uplink exposure (factor of 4) of the 5G technology compared to 4G. This effect is likely related to the use of the MaMIMO (Massive Multiple Input Multiple Output) capabilities in 5G.

In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of using adaptive antennas, also with regard to the data rate and spatial distribution of radiation exposure, should be shown.
The 5G network employing adaptive antenna systems is well suited to reduce human exposure while increasing the network capacity by a factor of 10. Especially, in less densely populated environments, adaptive antennas improve the exposure ratio. In the rural environment, the exposure ratio is reduced by a factor of two, while in the urban and suburban environments the average exposure is not affected by the use of adaptive antennas. We found a clear trend towards lower uplink and downlink exposure ratios for the 5G networks using adaptive antennas compared to 4G networks not using adaptive antenna technology.

What influence do the various network structures have on the quality of mobile communication coverage in Switzerland?
All networks in the study were planned with a user coverage of at least 95% such that a lack of coverage was compensated by additional base station sites. Our results show that coverage with 5G speeds compared to 4G speeds requires on average three times as many base stations. The coverage of only outdoor locations would primarily reduce the need for base stations in urban environments and only for 4G. 5G will result in a base station densification for outdoor coverage that is already suited for indoor coverage in many locations. Where insufficient, e.g., in large buildings, the full coverage can be obtained by supplementary 5G indoor base stations.

What influence do the various network structures have on the expansion of mobile communications networks in Switzerland (number of antenna systems)?
The transition from a 4G to a 5G network with a tenfold data bandwidth requires, on average, three times more base stations in our network optimization simulations. Base station count is increased by 60% (4G) and 14% (5G) if indoor locations are also covered by the mobile network in the urban environment. The reduction decreases to 20% (4G) and 6% (5G) for the suburban environment and vanishes in the rural environment. Extending the data rate capacity by an additional factor of ten for 5% of the users resulted in only a few additional base station locations but in higher human exposure.

The study also demonstrated that future 5G networks can be realized without an increase of precautionary limits. The number of base stations is mostly driven by the data requirements and not by the exposure limits.
What influence does the number of mobile communication networks have on the radiation exposure of the population or would a single network lead to less radiation exposure than three separate networks? Our results show that a unification of the mobile network infrastructure does not change human exposure considerably compared to multiple operators. However, a unification of the network infrastructure could lead to a smaller number of required base station sites (-13% to -50% depending on the environment and communication system). Due to the user limitation per base station for 5G adaptive antennas, the possible site reduction is greater for 4G (-30% to -50%) than for 5G (-13% to -30%).
What does an ideal network structure look like in order to minimize radiation exposure for the population and at the same time ensure a good quality of cell phone coverage? To minimize human exposure to electromagnetic fields, network planning should always take into account both uplink and downlink exposure. For active users, the uplink exposure is tenfold higher than the downlink exposure. Our results also show that consideration of downlink-only exposure in the planning stage will not reduce the exposure for non-users (members of the society without their own mobile device). A network for minimizing the combined uplink and downlink exposure employs 5G technology and has a dense base station infrastructure, supplemented locally, such as in large buildings, by indoor base stations. Another important outcome is that the 5G base station density is mainly driven by the coverage requirements, i.e., lower base station count under higher limits is not expected. The same rationale leads to the conclusion that relaxed precautionary limits likely increase the uplink exposure, i.e., the overall exposure.
Although the frequencies above 6 GHz are not yet available in Switzerland, the study should also include the future use of these frequencies (millimeter waves, in Switzerland probably in the 24.25-27.5 GHz range). At present, the use of millimeter-wave technologies in Switzerland cannot be predicted. Therefore, we did not include millimeter waves in our mobile network simulation model. Based on initial roll-outs internationally, the current main application of 5G millimeter links is for the last mile. The last mile application (fixed wireless access) is not strictly limited to mobile communication. Here, wireless point-to-point links would replace copper or fiber links. Based on the point-to-point nature, human exposure to last-mile links is unlikely.

Recently, the first mobile devices (US models of Apple iPhone 12, Samsung S21) with millimeter-wave communication capabilities were placed on the market. This development is driven by the unavailability of the 3.5 GHz band in the United States (US) and the attempt to offload the majority of the data volume over millimeter waves. There is still very little use of millimeter-wave communications in the US [2]. Due to shadowing effects of the human body [3] and the highly directive beam-forming in this frequency range, it can be assumed that the usage of millimeter waves for mobile applications will also mostly be limited to line-of-sight situations. This may lower human exposure due to the highly directive and adaptive nature of the communication links required for signal quality reasons.

Study limitations Even though the study includes the most currently advanced simulations on user exposure as a function of network topology, several assumptions were made due to the limitations of the tools and to missing information, which are described in detail in the Methods Section (Section 4). The impact of these assumptions on the results is discussed in detail in Section 6 of this report.

Remaining Knowledge Gaps In the course of this study, we identified future work and research needs to fill the remaining knowledge gaps. As soon as a possible application of millimeter waves emerges in Switzerland, its influence on human exposure should be analyzed. In the present study, we applied harmonized, yet simplified models to analyze indoor exposure to mobile networks. To lower the uncertainties on exposure in indoor scenarios, additional indoor modeling would help to substantiate our results. They could further be strengthened by validation measurements in the up- and downlinks of real 4G and 5G networks in Switzerland. Other areas of future research include the extension of the networks with distributed MaMIMO, mixed technology networks as well as more realistic assignment and weighting of user and base station
locations.
Excerpt

To the knowledge of the authors, this study is currently the most advanced study on user exposure as a function of network topology. In order to perform the study using the developed tools and available information, several assumptions were made and described in detail in the Methods Section (Section 4). The impact of these assumptions on the results are as follows:

• The use of simplified models for the propagation and environments (buildings, etc.) may not exactly represent the propagation environment present in the real mobile network environments.
• The chosen coverage goal of 95% of the users in all the study environments at any user location might be higher in some environments than in real networks.
• The selected configurations for the modeling of mobile networks may be different in the actual network implementation.
• A global 5 V/m downlink exposure limit and a 6 minute average of the exposure were applied to map the regulatory boundaries. This means that not all details of the current regulatory requirement with respect to mobile communication exposure could be modeled 1:1 in the simulation tool.
• Even though the precautionary limits were only approximated, the results imply that the networks can be realized under the current regulation.
• The results were based on average usage, yet due to the dominating effect of the uplink exposure, exposure ratios are strongly dependent on personal mobile device usage which was not studied in detail here.
• Base station locations in the extended set were assigned by the optimization algorithm irrespective of the actual building feasibility.
• Currently, there is relatively limited knowledge about the actual deployment and development of 5G in Switzerland.
• Only frequency ranges currently licensed for mobile communication use in Switzerland were included, i.e., millimeter-wave communication links (5G NR FR2) were neglected in the network planning.
• The statistical-based modeling of exposure and limited environmental details and resolution statements on the absolute levels of exposure have a higher level of uncertainty than relative comparisons between scenarios.
• Other sources of exposure than from the simulated mobile communication networks were not included.
• It was assumed that other mobile communication services, e.g., 2G, 3G, were not present in the analyzed scenarios.
• The currently discussed relaxation of the precautionary limits was not studied in detail; however, the simulations indicate that the 5G base station density is mainly driven by the coverage requirements, i.e., lower base station count under higher limits is not expected. Furthermore, [1] relaxed limits likely increase the uplink exposure, i.e., the overall exposure.

Open access report: https://bit.ly/Deruyck2021
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SAR and thermal distribution of pregnant woman and child inside elevator cabin
Ioanna Karatsi, Sofia Bakogianni, Stavros Koulouridis. (2022). SAR and thermal distribution of pregnant woman and child inside elevator cabin. International Journal of Microwave and Wireless Technologies, 1-14. doi:10.1017/S1759078722000253.

Abstract

A detailed dosimetry study of electromagnetic absorption and temperature rise under real scenarios is delivered when a mobile phone is used inside an elevator cabin. Numerically accurate human models of a 7th month pregnant woman and a 5-year-old female child are utilized as the exposed subjects. The female child acts as the phone user. The mobile phone is modeled in three talk positions (parallel, tilt, and cheek) operating at 1000 MHz and 1800 MHz. From the obtained numerical results for the specific absorption rate (SAR) and temperature rise induced by the mobile radiofrequency (RF) radiation, it is found that the child's RF exposure is significantly affected by the phone position and less affected by the relevant position of the human models. The exact opposite case applies for the pregnant woman model and its fetus. Almost all numerical investigations are carried out inside a metallic elevator cabin.

Open access paper: https://bit.ly/SARelevator
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Exposure to RF Electromagnetic Fields in the Connected Vehicle: Survey of Existing and Forthcoming Scenarios

G. Tognola, M. Bonato, M. Benini, S. Aerts, S. Gallucci, E. Chiaramello, S. Fiocchi, M. Parazzini, B. Masini, W. Joseph, J. Wiart, P. Ravazzani. Exposure to RF Electromagnetic Fields in the Connected Vehicle: Survey of Existing and Forthcoming Scenarios. IEEE Access, doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3170035.
Abstract
Future vehicles will be increasingly connected to enable new applications and improve safety, traffic efficiency and comfort, through the use of several wireless access technologies, ranging from vehicle-to-everything (V2X) connectivity to automotive radar sensing and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies for intra-car wireless sensor networks. These technologies span the radiofrequency (RF) range, from a few hundred MHz as in intra-car network of sensors to hundreds of GHz as in automotive radars used for in-vehicle occupant detection and advanced driver assistance systems. Vehicle occupants and road users in the vicinity of the connected vehicle are thus daily immersed in a multi-source and multi-band electromagnetic field (EMF) generated by such technologies. This paper is the first comprehensive and specific survey about EMF exposure generated by the whole ensemble of connectivity technologies in cars. For each technology we describe the main characteristics, relevant standards, the application domain, and the typical deployment in modern cars. We then extensively characterize the EMF exposure scenarios resulting from such technologies by resuming and comparing the outcomes from past studies on the exposure in the car. Results from past studies suggested that in no case EMF exposure was above the safe limits for the general population. Finally, open challenges for a more realistic characterization of the EMF exposure scenario in the connected car are discussed.
Open access paper: https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9762806&isnumber=6514899
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Design and manufacture of electromagnetic absorber composed of boric acid-incorporated wastepaper composites

ALİ İHSAN KAYA, AHMET ÇİFCİ, FİLİZ KIRDIOĞULLARI, MESUD KAHRİMAN, OSMAN ÇEREZCI. Design and manufacture of electromagnetic absorber composed of boric acid-incorporated wastepaper composites. Turk J Elec Eng & Comp Sci. 2022. 30: 839-854. doi:10.3906/elk-2106-21.

Abstract

With the effect of technological advances, the use of electrical and electronic devices has increased dramatically in recent years. Wireless technologies and related applications are mostly preferred for the communication of these devices with each other. Thus, people are easily exposed to electromagnetic waves in daily life. The extensive global use of these devices raises the question of their possible biological effects on human health. Also, electromagnetic waves influence the functioning of a nearby device. In this study, an electromagnetic absorber based on boric acid (5, 10, 20, and 30 wt%) added wastepaper was developed. Copper (Cu) and aluminum (Al) were also used as mineral additives for comparison. Three different kinds of wastepaper namely, office paper, newsprint, and cardboard paper were selected for the experimental study. The effect of varying boric acid contents on the electromagnetic absorption of the boards manufactured was evaluated and compared to Cu (30 wt%) and Al (30 wt%) added boards. The results show that newsprint has better absorption effectiveness than office and cardboard paper and absorption up to 40 dB was achieved. The absorption effectiveness of Al, Cu, and boric acid added boards was achieved at approximately 40, 30, and 20 dB, respectively. As a result, the electromagnetic absorption effectiveness of boric acid added the board is acceptable levels. Also, apart from the use of boric acid as a powder, it has been determined that the application of the surface as a layer is effective in absorption.

Open access paper: https://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/elektrik/issues/elk-22-30-3/elk-30-3-23-2106-21.pdf
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Cell Responsiveness to Physical Energies: Paving the Way to Decipher a Morphogenetic Code
Ricardo Tassinari, Claudia Cavallini, Elena Olivi, Federica Facchin, Valentina Taglioli, Chiara Zannini, Martina Marcuzzi, Carlo Ventura. 2022. Cell Responsiveness to Physical Energies: Paving the Way to Decipher a Morphogenetic Code. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23(6):3157. doi: 10.3390/ijms23063157.

Abstract
We discuss emerging views on the complexity of signals controlling the onset of biological shapes and functions, from the nanoarchitectonics arising from supramolecular interactions, to the cellular/multicellular tissue level, and up to the unfolding of complex anatomy. We highlight the fundamental role of physical forces in cellular decisions, stressing the intriguing similarities in early morphogenesis, tissue regeneration, and oncogenic drift. Compelling evidence is presented, showing that biological patterns are strongly embedded in the vibrational nature of the physical energies that permeate the entire universe. We describe biological dynamics as informational processes at which physics and chemistry converge, with nanomechanical motions, and electromagnetic waves, including light, forming an ensemble of vibrations, acting as a sort of control software for molecular patterning. Biomolecular recognition is approached within the establishment of coherent synchronizations among signaling players, whose physical nature can be equated to oscillators tending to the coherent synchronization of their vibrational modes. Cytoskeletal elements are now emerging as senders and receivers of physical signals, "shaping" biological identity from the cellular to the tissue/organ levels. We finally discuss the perspective of exploiting the diffusive features of physical energies to afford in situ stem/somatic cell reprogramming, and tissue regeneration, without stem cell transplantation.

Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/23/6/3157/htm
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An International Collaborative Animal Study of the Carcinogenicity of Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Radiation: Considerations for Preparation of a Global Project
Ahn YH, Imaida K, Kim YB, Han KH, Pack JK, Kim N, Jeon SB, Lee AK, Choi HD, Wang J, Kawabe M, Kim HS. An International Collaborative Animal Study of the Carcinogenicity of Mobile Phone Radiofrequency Radiation: Considerations for Preparation of a Global Project. Bioelectromagnetics. 2022 Apr 27. doi: 10.1002/bem.22407

Abstract

Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) was classified as a "possible" human carcinogen in 2011, which caused great public concern. A carcinogenicity study by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) found Code Division Multiple Access-and Global System for Mobile Communications-modulated mobile phone RFR to be carcinogenic to the brain and heart of male rats. As part of an investigation of mobile phone carcinogenesis, and to verify the NTP study results, a 5-year collaborative animal project was started in Korea and Japan in 2019. An international animal study of this type has two prerequisites: use of the same study protocol and the same RF-exposure system. This article discusses our experience in the design of this global study on radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs).

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35476263/

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Transcriptomic and Long-Term Behavioral Deficits Associated with Developmental 3.5 GHz Radiofrequency Radiation Exposures in Zebrafish

Subham Dasgupta, Connor Leong, Michael T Simonich, Lisa Truong, Huaping Liu, Robyn L Tanguay. Transcriptomic and Long-Term Behavioral Deficits Associated with Developmental 3.5 GHz Radiofrequency Radiation Exposures in Zebrafish. Environ Sci Technol Lett. 2022 Apr 12;9(4):327-332. doi: 10.1021/acs.estlett.2c00037.

Abstract

The rapid deployment of the fifth-generation (5G) spectrum by the telecommunication industry is intended to promote better connectivity and data integration among various industries. However, concerns among the public about the safety and health effects of radiofrequency radiations (RFRs) emitted from the newer-generation cell phone frequencies remain, partly due to the lack of robust scientific data. Previously, we used developmental zebrafish to model the bioactivity of 3.5 GHz RFR, a frequency used by 5G-enabled cell phones, in a novel RFR exposure chamber. With RFR exposures from 6 h post-fertilization (hpf) to 48 hpf, we observed that, despite no teratogenic effects, embryos showed subtle hypoactivity in a startle response behavior assay, suggesting abnormal sensorimotor behavior. This study builds upon the previous one by investigating the transcriptomic basis of RFR-associated behavior effects and their persistence into adulthood. Using mRNA sequencing, we found a modest transcriptomic disruption at 48 hpf, with 28 differentially expressed genes. KEGG pathway analysis showed that biochemical pathways related to metabolism were significantly perturbed. Embryos were grown to adulthood, and then a battery of behavioral assays suggested subtle but significant abnormal responses in RFR-exposed fish across the different assays evaluated that suggest potential long-term behavioral effects. Overall, our study suggests the impacts of RFRs on the developing brain, behavior, and the metabolome should be further explored.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9009179/
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Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Fields at 27 GHz on Sperm Quality of Mytilus galloprovincialis
Roberta Pecoraro, Santi C. Pavone, Elena M. Scalisi, Carmen Sica, Sara Ignoto, Martina Contino, Antonio Salvaggio, Dimitra Marmara, Gino Sorbello, Loreto Di Donato, Maria V. Brundo. 2022. Biological Effects of Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Fields at 27 GHz on Sperm Quality of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 10(4):521. doi: 10.3390/jmse10040521

Abstract
Recently, an increasing use of wireless internet technologies has been demonstrated. The devices which use these technologies emit in new spectral regions an electromagnetic radiation (EMF) which could interact with the male reproductive system. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effect of electromagnetic fields at 27 GHz on sperm quality in Mytilus galloprovincialis. Sperm samples were collected from sexually mature males of M. galloprovincialis and placed in seawater. Once we evaluated the number and quality of spermatozoa, sperm cells were exposed to electromagnetic fields radiated by a pyramidal horn antenna. The effect of exposure was evaluated after 10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 min by a light microscope and using an Eosin test. Ten replications were performed for each time series, and statistical analysis was carried out by t-test. Sperm motility decreased after 10 min of exposure, and after 30 min most of the spermatozoa were immobile and not vital. This study provides useful data on the potential ecological impact of the high-band 5G on animal fertility, the effect of which is currently under investigation.
Conclusions
This study indicates that electromagnetic fields at 27 GHz can affect the sperm quality in marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. The significative decrease observed in sperm motility after only 10 min of exposure represents a crucial factor to be considered because it can threaten the reproductivity of the species. This study provides useful data on the potential impact of high frequency EMFs on aquatic animals and cells, which is currently poorly investigated. Future research could benefit from specific investigations into the impact of 5G to better monitor the effects on animal organisms and to fill the gap currently known about the interactions with artificial sources of electromagnetic fields.
Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/2077-1312/10/4/521
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Stereological Study on the Effect of Carnosine on Purkinje Cells in the Cerebellum of Rats Exposed to 900 MHz Electromagnetic Field
Arslan A, Acer N, Kesici H, Sonmez MF, Ertekin T, Gultekin M, Dagdelen U, Saracoglu OG. Stereological Study on the Effect of Carnosine on Purkinje Cells in the Cerebellum of Rats Exposed to 900 MHz Electromagnetic Field. Turk Neurosurg. 2021 Aug 28. doi: 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.35313-21.2.
Abstract

Aim: Electromagnetic fields have been known to reduce the number of Purkinje neurons in the cerebellum, whereas carnosine has been known to protect them. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of carnosine on Purkinje neurons in rats exposed to a 900 Mhz electromagnetic field.

Material and methods: This study evaluated 24 rats divided into the following three different groups: a control group, a group exposed to the electromagnetic field, and a group that was injected with carnosine while being exposed to the electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field group was exposed to a 900 Mhz electromagnetic field for an hour daily over 28 days. Thereafter, stereological analysis was performed histologically on cerebellar sections, and the number of Purkinje cells were counted.

Results: The electromagnetic field group had remarkably fewer Purkinje cell compared to control. The electromagnetic field group plus 20 mg of carnosine had significantly more total Purkinje cells compared to the electromagnetic field group (p 0.05).

Conclusion: The present study showed that electromagnetic field exposure decreases the number of Purkinje cell, whereas carnosine protected the cerebellum from neural damage induced by electromagnetic field exposure.

Open access paper: https://www.turkishneurosurgery.org.tr/pdf/JTNEPUB_35313_online.pdf
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In Vivo Functional Ultrasound (fUS) Real-Time Imaging and Dosimetry of Mice Brain Under Radiofrequency Exposure

Rosa Orlacchio, Yann Percherancier, Florence Poulletier De Gannes, Annabelle Hurtier, Isabelle Lagroye, Philippe Leveque, Delia Arnaud-Cormos. In Vivo Functional Ultrasound (fUS) Real-Time Imaging and Dosimetry of Mice Brain Under Radiofrequency Exposure. Bioelectromagnetics. 2022 Apr 29. doi: 10.1002/bem.22403.

Abstract

This study aims to analyze in real-time the potential modifications induced by low-level continuous-wave and Global System for Mobile Communications radiofrequency (RF) exposure at 1.8 GHz on brain activation in anesthetized mice. A specific in vivo experimental setup consisting of a dipole antenna for the local exposure of the brain was fully characterized. A unique neuroimaging technique based on a functional ultrasound (fUS) probe was used to observe the areas of mice brain activation simultaneously to the RF exposure with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution (~100 μm, 1 ms) following manual whisker stimulation using a brush. Numerical and experimental dosimetry was carried out to characterize the exposure and to guarantee the validity of the biological results. Our results show that the fUS probe can be efficiently used during in vivo exposure without interference with the dipole. In addition, we conclude that exposure to brain-averaged specific absorption rate levels of 2 and 6 W/kg does not introduce significant changes in the time course of the evoked fUS response in the left barrel field cortex. The proposed technique represents a valuable instrument for providing new insights into the possible effects induced on brain activation under RF exposure. For the first time, brain activity under mobile phone exposure was evaluated in vivo with fUS imaging, paving the way for more realistic exposure configurations, i.e. awake mice and new signals such as the 5 G networks.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35485721/
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Neurological effects of static and extremely-low frequency electromagnetic fields (Review)
Henry Lai. Neurological effects of static and extremely-low frequency electromagnetic fields. Electromagn Biol Med. 2022 Apr 15:1-21. doi: 10.1080/15368378.2022.2064489.
Abstract
This is a review of studies on the neurological effects of static/extremely-low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). The review is mainly on research carried out in the last two decades. There are studies that showed effects on various neurotransmitters, including NMDA, serotonin, dopamine, endogenous opioids, etc. Each of these transmitters plays different critical roles on behavior and brain functions. Studies on behavioral effects of static/ELF EMF bear out these connections. Static/ELF EMF-induced behavioral and pathological effects, such as locomotor activity, memory and learning deficits, and neurological diseases (Alzheimer's, Parkinson's disease, Huntinton's diseases and atropical lateral scleroses, etc.) are discussed. Static/ELF EMF exposure has also been shown to have beneficial effects on functional deficits and progression of some neurological diseases. These fields provide a non-invasive treatment or treatment-adjuvant for these detrimental neurological conditions. Results suggest that free radicals, both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitric species could be involved. Depending on the conditions of exposure, either harmful or beneficial effects could result. It is important to carry out further investigation to identify these conditions. However, caution should be taken to extrapolate the experimental data to human exposure, since higher field intensities than environmental levels were used in most laboratory research.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35426330/
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Effects of Moderate to High Static Magnetic Fields on Reproduction (Review)


Chao Song, Biao Yu, Junjun Wang, Yiming Zhu, Xin Zhang. Effects of Moderate to High Static Magnetic Fields on Reproduction. Bioelectromagnetics. 2022 Apr 29. doi: 10.1002/bem.22404.

Abstract

With the wide application of magnetic resonance imaging in hospitals and permanent magnets in household items, people have increased exposure to various types of static magnetic fields (SMFs) with moderate and high intensities, which has caused a considerable amount of public concern. Studies have shown that some aspects of gametogenesis and early embryonic development can be significantly affected by SMFs, while others have shown no effects. This review summarizes the experimental results of moderate to high-intensity SMFs (1 mT-16.7 T) on the reproductive development of different model animals, and we find that the effects of SMFs are variable depending on experimental conditions. In general, the effects of inhomogeneous SMFs seem to be more significant compared to that of homogeneous SMFs, which is likely due to magnetic forces generated by the magnetic field gradient. Moreover, some electromagnetic fields may have induced bioeffects because of nonnegligible gradient and heat effect, which are much reduced in superconducting magnets. We hope this review can provide a starting point for more in-depth analysis of various SMFs on reproduction, which is indispensable for evaluating the safety and potential applications of SMFs on living organisms in the future.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35485707/
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LF-EMF Compound Block Type Signal Activates Human Neutrophilic Granulocytes In Vivo

Jan J M Cuppen, Cristian Gradinaru, Bregje E Raap-van Sleuwen, Anna C E de Wit, Ton A A J van der Vegt, Huub F J Savelkoul. LF-EMF Compound Block Type Signal Activates Human Neutrophilic Granulocytes In Vivo. Bioelectromagnetics. 2022 Apr 28. doi: 10.1002/bem.22406.

Abstract

This research aims to demonstrate in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design study that a nominal 5 μT low-frequency electromagnetic field (LF-EMF) signal for 30 min activates neutrophils in vivo in humans. Granularity of neutrophils was measured in blood samples of healthy human volunteers (n = 32) taken before and after exposure for both the exposure and control sessions. A significant decrease in the granularity, indicative of neutrophil activation, was observed both in the exposure measurements and the exposure minus control measurements. Earlier EMF publications show immune function increase in isolated cells and more effective immune responses in animals with infections. This result, therefore, supports the thesis that the exposure can activate the innate immune system in humans, speed up the innate immune response, and may have potential beneficial effects in infectious disease.

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35481557/
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Exposure to Magnetic Fields Changes the Behavioral Pattern in Honeybees under Laboratory Conditions

Paweł Migdał, Ewelina Berbeć, Paweł Bieńkowski, Mateusz Plotnik, Agnieszka Murawska, Krzysztof Latarowski. Exposure to Magnetic Fields Changes the Behavioral Pattern in Honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) under Laboratory Conditions. Animals (Basel). 2022 Mar 29;12(7):855. doi: 10.3390/ani12070855.

Abstract

Earth's magnetic field (MF) plays an important role for many species, including the honeybee, in navigation. Nowadays, much larger alternating fields are emitted by miscellaneous electric infrastructure components, such as transformers and power lines, and the environment is therefore polluted by an anthropogenic electromagnetic field, though little is known regarding its impact on living organisms. The behavior of animals is the first and easiest way to establish the impact of stress. It shows if the animal can detect the exposure and react to it. To investigate this, one-day-old bees were exposed to a 50 Hz magnetic field of induction at 1 mT and 1.7 mT for 10 min, 1 h, and 3 h under laboratory conditions. All groups exposed to the magnetic field showed differences in behavioral patterns. What is more, they presented a behavior absent in the control: loss of balance. There were differences, both in the ratio of behaviors and in the number of bouts-exposed bees more often changed behavior. Occurrence of differences is an indication of the reaction of the honeybee organism to the magnetic field. Loss of balance is a disturbing symptom, and behavior changes indicate a disturbance of the honeybee by the electromagnetic field.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8996969/
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Exposure to the electromagnetic field alters the transcriptomic profile in the porcine endometrium during the peri-implantation period
Kozlowska W, Drzewiecka EM, Paukszto L, Zmijewska A, Wydorski PJ, Jastrzebski JP, Franczak A. Exposure to the electromagnetic field alters the transcriptomic profile in the porcine endometrium during the peri-implantation period. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2021 Dec;72(6). doi: 10.26402/jpp.2021.6.04.
Abstract

A low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) is an environmental pollutant that may influence female reproduction. This research was undertaken to test the hypothesis that EMF causes alterations in the transcriptomic profile of the endometrium. This study investigated the in vitro effects of EMF treatment (50 Hz, 2 h) on global transcriptome alterations in the endometrium isolated from pigs during the peri-implantation period. The control endometrium was not treated with EMF. The EMF treatment altered the expression of 1561 transcriptionally active regions (TARs) in the endometrium. In the group of 461 evaluated DEGs, 156 were up-regulated (34%), 305 were down-regulated (66%) and 341 (74%) had known biological functions. A total of 210 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) with changes in expression profiles, and 146 predicted RNA editing sites were also evaluated. Exposure to EMF changes the expression of genes encoding proteins that are involved in proliferation and metabolism in endometrial tissue. These results provide useful inputs for further research into the impact of EMF on molecular changes in the uterus during the peri-implantation period and, consequently, pregnancy outcome.

Open access paper: https://www.jpp.krakow.pl/journal/archive/12_21/pdf/10.26402/jpp.2021.6.04.pdf
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Electromagnetic field exposure alters in vitro estrogen biosynthesis and its release by the porcine endometrium in the peri-implantation period

Wiktoria Kozlowska, Ewa Monika Drzewiecka, Agata Zmijewska, Anita Franczak. Electromagnetic field exposure alters in vitro estrogen biosynthesis and its release by the porcine endometrium in the peri-implantation period. Reprod Biol. 2022 Apr 26;22(2):100642. doi: 10.1016/j.repbio.2022.100642.

Abstract

The electromagnetic field (EMF) is an environmental risk factor that may impair living organisms. This study aims to determine the functional effects of EMF exposure at 50 and 120 Hz for 2 or 4 h on estrogen synthesis and release in the endometrium. Endometrial slices were isolated from pigs (n = 5) during the peri-implantation period. To check whether progesterone (P4) exerts any protective effects against EMF, selected EMF-treated slices were also treated with P4. CYP19A3 mRNA transcript abundance was higher in slices exposed to EMF (50 Hz, 4 h) and treated with P4. HSD17B4 mRNA transcript abundance was higher in slices exposed to EMF (50 and 120 Hz, 2 h) without P4 treatment. Both EMF (50 Hz, 2 h) and EMF (50 and 120 Hz, 4 h) increased HSD17B4 mRNA transcript abundance in the presence of P4; EMF (120 Hz, 2 h, and 50 Hz, 4 h) decreased cytochrome P-450arom protein abundance in tissue slices not treated with P4. Under exposure to EMF at 120 Hz (2 h), the abundance of hydroxysteroid 17β dehydrogenase decreased in P4-treated slices and increased in slices not treated with P4 (4 h). Progesterone treatment decreased the release of estradiol-17β (E2) in endometrial slices exposed to EMF at 50 Hz (2 h), whereas in slices not treated with P4, EMF (120 Hz, 2 h) increased estrone (E1) release compared to control (without EMF). The EMF could disrupt the synthesis and release of E1 and E2 by the porcine endometrium during the peri-implantation period.

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1642431X22000419?via%3Dihub
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Searching for unity in diversity of animal magnetoreception: From biology to quantum mechanics and back

Can Xie. Searching for unity in diversity of animal magnetoreception: From biology to quantum mechanics and back. Innovation (N Y). 2022 Mar 11;3(3):100229. doi: 10.1016/j.xinn.2022.100229.

Abstract

How animals sense the geomagnetic field remains a mystery today. A remarkable diversity has been revealed in animal magnetoreception and several sophisticated models have been put forward in the past few decades, but none have been commonly accepted yet. Cryptochrome (Cry) has been proposed in both the radical pair model and the MagR/Cry-based biocompass model. How exactly it participates in magnetic sensing is an ongoing discussion. Here we wish to suggest an intermolecular electron transport (ET) pathway conserved in evolution in the MagR/Cry complex, in which electrons travel stepwise along a flavin-tryptophan chain as described in the classic radical pair model, and further extends to iron-sulfur clusters in MagR via a series of stepping-stone amino acids as an ET bridge. The hypothesis we presented here may provide a solution to unite different models, and a feasible explanation for the intrinsic magnetic features of MagR, as well as a mechanism for signaling in animal magnetoreception, which are of considerable interest in both biology and physics.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8966150/
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Individual variability in space use near power lines by a long-lived territorial raptor
Marques AT, Palma L, Lourenço R, Cangarato R, Leitão A, Mascarenhas M, Tavares JT, Tomé R, Moreira F, Beja P. Individual variability in space use near power lines by a long-lived territorial raptor. Ecol Evol. 2022 Apr 7;12(4):e8811. doi: 10.1002/ece3.8811.

Abstract
Evaluating species responses to anthropogenic infrastructures and other habitat changes is often used to assess environmental impacts and to guide conservation actions. However, such studies are generally carried out at the population level, disregarding inter-individual variability. Here, we investigate population- and individual-level responses toward power lines of a territorial raptor, the Bonelli's eagle Aquila fasciata. We used GPS-PTT tracking data of 17 adult eagles to model space use as a function of distance to transmission and distribution lines, while accounting for other habitat features known to affect this species. At population level, eagles increased the intensity of space use in the proximity of power lines (up to 1,000 m), suggesting an attraction effect. At individual level, some eagles shared the general population attraction pattern, while others showed reduced intensity of space use in the proximity of power lines. These differential responses were unrelated to the sex of individuals, but were affected by the characteristics of the power grid, with a tendency for apparent attraction to be associated with individuals occupying home ranges with a denser network of transmission lines and transmission pylons. However, the study could not rule out the operation of other potentially influential factors, such as individual idiosyncrasies, the spatial distribution of prey availability, and the availability of natural perches and nesting sites. Overall, these results suggest that power lines may drive different behaviors and have differential impacts across individuals, with those attracted to the proximity of power lines potentially facing increased risk of mortality through electrocution and collision, and those avoiding power lines being potentially subject to exclusion effects. More generally, our results reinforce the need to understand individual variability when assessing and mitigating impacts of anthropogenic infrastructures.

Open access paper: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8987490/
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
12.5.2022 23:51

WHO Radiofrequency EMF Health Risk Assessment Monograph (EHC series)


September 1, 2021 (Updated May 12, 2022)
The World Health Organization (WHO) is undertaking a health risk assessment of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) which will be published as a monograph in the Environmental Health Criteria (EHC) series.
This monograph will update the 1993 monograph on radiofrequency fields (EHC #137).

According to Microwave News, the WHO originally began work on the new monograph in January 2012 (WHO, 2016*) and released 11 chapters of a draft report in 2014 for public comment. Comments on the draft report from other scientists were highly critical. "After that the process stalled, and the RF EHC was stuck in limbo."
In October 2019, the WHO issued a call for ten systematic reviews of the RF effects research (see list below). This call had a short timeline to apply. "The lack of advance notice and the fast deadline have led some to question whether the WHO engineered the schedule to help ICNIRP stay in control." In 2020, WHO reissued the call for three of these reviews (SR2, SR4, SR10).Although the WHO refused to state publicly whom they selected to conduct these reviews, most of the scientists' identities are now available since papers describing the research protocols for nine (all but SR10) of the forthcoming ten reviews have been published online. See abstracts below.
The ten research protocols are being published in a special issue of Environment International (see https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/environment-international/special-issue/109J1SL7CXT).
To conduct the research reviews, the scientists will use a "tailored version" of the National Toxicology Program's OHAT risk of bias rating tool "for evaluating individual study risk of bias or internal validity – the assessment of whether the design and conduct of a study compromised the credibility of the link between exposure and outcome" (1-3). This tool has been recommended for assessing risk of bias in human environmental epidemiology studies (Eick et al., 2021; see abstract below).
For the EHC monograph, "Confidence in evidence will be assessed in line with the GRADE approach."

A tool is only as good as the persons using it. Will the scientists that the WHO chose to conduct these reviews apply these tools in an unbiased manner? Or will they employ them to manufacture doubt about the validity of the thousands of peer-reviewed studies that assessed biologic and health effects from exposure to radio frequency fields?

Lagorio et al. (2021) while describing their research protocols forecast the conclusion of their review paper: "As systematic reviews cannot remedy limitations of the original studies, those (and our) syntheses are unlikely to produce conclusive evidence." So this review will likely call for more definitive research.
We should not forget there has never been a perfect study--every study has either limited internal or construct validity and/or limited generalizability (external validity).
According to the National Research Council (2007):
"The extent to which particular scientific results constitute progress in knowledge or contribute to societal well-being is often contested. This is especially the case when scientific findings are uncertain or controversial and when they can be interpreted to support controversial policy choices....Assessing science, no matter how rigorous the methods that may be used, is ultimately a matter of interpretation. The possibility of competing interpretations of evidence is ever-present when using science indicators or applying any other analytic method for measuring the progress and impact of science." (4)
Papers describing the protocols have been published for nine of the ten reviews (all but SR10). Six current and former members of ICNIRP are involved in seven of these nine reviews: Feychting (SR1,SR3, SR5, SR7), Roosli (SR1, SR7, SR8), Karipidis (SR1, SR5), Danker-Hopfe (SR6), Marino (SR4), and Oftedal (SR8).
ICNIRP is a group of self-selected scientists who engage in "groupthink" and promote weak RF exposure guidelines that protect humans only from health risks due to acute heating. According to Investigate Europe, a team of investigative journalists, members of ICNIRP have a history of coopting national health and international reviews of health effects to ensure support for their weak exposure limits. Hence, these scientists who have a vested interest in preserving weak RF exposure limits should not be allowed to participate in this official review of RF effects by the WHO.
References
(1) National Toxicology Program. Handbook for Conducting Systematic Reviews for Health Effects Evaluations. https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/whatwestudy/assessments/noncancer/handbook/index.html
(2) National Toxicology Program. Handbook for Conducting a Literature-Based Health Assessment Using OHAT Approach for Systematic Review and Evidence Integration (March 4, 2019): https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/ohat/pubs/handbookmarch2019_508.pdf

(3) National Toxicology Program. 2019 OHAT Handbook Update and Clarification Summary Document (March 4, 2019). https://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/ohat/pubs/handbookclarificationmarch2019_508.pdf
(4) National Research Council. 2007. A Strategy for Assessing Science: Behavioral and Social Research on Aging. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/11788.
Research Protocols for Radiofrequency EHC ReviewsSR1: The effect of exposure to radiofrequency fields on cancer risk in the general and working population: A protocol for a systematic review of human observational studies
Susanna Lagorio, Maria Blettner, Dan Baaken, Maria Feychting, Ken Karipidis, Tom Loney, Nicola Orsini, Martin Röösli, Marilia Silva Paulo, Mark Elwood. The effect of exposure to radiofrequency fields on cancer risk in the general and working population: A protocol for a systematic review of human observational studies. Environ Int. 2021 Aug 22;157:106828. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106828.

Highlights
• RF-EMF was classified by IARC as possibly carcinogenic to humans (2B) in May 2011
• A systematic review of all subject-relevant epidemiological studies is now needed.
• A detailed protocol ensures the review's transparency, utility and credibility.
• Original study validity will be evaluated with a customized OHAT risk of bias tool.
• Internal coherence and external plausibility will inform conclusions.

Abstract

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) has an ongoing project to assess potential health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in the general and working population. Here we present the protocol for a systematic review of the scientific literature on cancer hazards from exposure to RF-EMF in humans, commissioned by the WHO as part of that project.

Objective: To assess the quality and strength of the evidence provided by human observational studies for a causal association between exposure to RF-EMF and risk of neoplastic diseases.

Eligibility criteria: We will include cohort and case-control studies investigating neoplasia risks in relation to three types of exposure to RF-EMF: near-field, head-localized, exposure from wireless phone use (SR-A); far-field, whole body, environmental exposure from fixed-site transmitters (SR-B); near/far-field occupational exposures from use of handheld transceivers or RF-emitting equipment in the workplace (SR-C). While no restriction on tumour type will be applied, we will focus on selected neoplasms of the central nervous system (brain, meninges, pituitary gland, acoustic nerve) and salivary gland tumours (SR-A); brain tumours and leukaemias (SR-B, SR-C).

Information sources: Eligible studies will be identified through Medline, Embase, and EMF-Portal.

Risk-of-bias assessment: We will use a tailored version of the OHAT's tool to evaluate the study's internal validity.

Data synthesis: We will consider separately studies on different tumours, neoplasm-specific risks from different exposure sources, and a given exposure-outcome pair in adults and children. When a quantitative synthesis of findings can be envisaged, the main aims of the meta-analysis will be to assess the strength of association and the shape of the exposure-response relationship; to quantify the degree of heterogeneity across studies; and explore the sources of inconsistency (if any). When a meta-analysis is judged inappropriate, we will perform a narrative synthesis, complemented by a structured tabulation of results and appropriate visual displays.

Evidence assessment: Confidence in evidence will be assessed in line with the GRADE approach.

Funding: This project is supported by the World Health Organization. Co-financing was provided by the New Zealand Ministry of Health; the Istituto Superiore di Sanità in its capacity as a WHO Collaborating Centre for Radiation and Health; ARPANSA as a WHO Collaborating Centre for Radiation Protection.

Registration: PROSPERO CRD42021236798.

Financial support

This project is supported by the World Health Organization (grant numbers: RAD 2020/1031788–0; RAD 2020/994756–0). Co-financing was provided by the New Zealand Ministry of Health; the Istituto Superiore di Sanit`a in its capacity as a WHO Collaborating Centre for Radiation and Health; ARPANSA as a WHO Collaborating Centre for Radiation Protection.

Role of funders

A strict oversight was exercised by the WHO Secretariat to ensure that all commissioned systematic reviews were planned according to a harmonized and good practice standard. The other sponsors had no role in developing the protocol.
Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021004530?via%3Dihub

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SR2: Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) on cancer in laboratory animal studies
Meike Mevissen, Jerrold M. Ward, Annette Kopp-Schneider, James P. McNamee, Andrew W. Wood, Tania M. Rivero, Kristina Thayer, Kurt Straif. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) on cancer in laboratory animal studies. Environment International. Volume 161, 2022. 107106. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2022.107106.
Abstract

Background The carcinogenicity of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF) has been evaluated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2011. Based on limited evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and in animals, RF EMF were classified as possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B). In 2018, based on a survey amongst RF experts, WHO prioritized six major topics of potential RF EMF related human health effects for systematic reviews. In the current manuscript, we present the protocol for the systematic review of experimental laboratory animal studies (cancer bioassays) on exposure to RF fields on the outcome of cancer in laboratory animals.
Objective In the framework of WHO's Radiation Program, the aim of this work is to systematically evaluate effects of RF EMF exposure on cancer in laboratory animals.

Study eligibility and criteria WHO's Handbook (2014) for guideline development will be followed with appropriate adaptation. The selection of eligible studies will be based on Population, Exposures, Comparators, and Outcomes (PECO) criteria. We will include peer-reviewed articles and publicly available reports from government agencies reporting original data about animal cancer bioassays on exposure to RF EMF. The studies are identified by searching the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), Science Citation Index Expanded and Emerging Sources Citation Indes (Web of Science), Scopus, and the EMF Portal. No language or year-of-publication restrictions are applied. The methods and results of eligible studies will be presented in accordance with the PRISMA 2020 guidelines.

Study appraisal method Study evaluation of individual studies will be assessed using a risk of bias (RoB) tool developed by the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) with appropriate considerations including sensitivity for evaluating RF EMF exposure in animal cancer bioassays. The final evaluation on the certainty of the evidence on a carcinogenic risk of RF EMF exposure in experimental animals will be performed using the OHAT Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach with appropriate considerations. The protocol has been registered in an open-source repository (PROSPERO).

Funding The study is partly financially supported by the World Health Organization. No additional funding was provided outside author salaries through their places of employment.

Declaration of Competing Interest
The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests: AWW directs a research group, which includes three technical associates who are telecommunications company employees.
JM receives employment and research support from The government of Canada related to the topic. KS has been the Head of the IARC Monographs program until his regular retirement (11/2018). Since 10/2019, he is a member of the International Scientific Advisory Committee of the Ramazzini Institute. This involves one 3 h advisory group meeting per year. He does not receive remuneration for his advisory activity.
MM is a member of the scientific advisory board of The Swiss Research Foundation for Electricity and Mobile Communication (FSM) that receives research money from commercial entities. She does not receive remuneration for his advisory activity. Her partner does consulting relating to cell phone safety. All remaining authors declare no conflict of interest.
Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412022000320
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SR3: The effects of radiofrequency exposure on male fertility and adverse reproductive outcomes: A protocol for two systematic reviews of human observational studies with meta-analysis

Ryan P.W. Kenny, Evelyn Barron Millar, Adenike Adesanya, Catherine Richmond, Fiona Beyer, Carolina Calderon, Judith Rankin, Mireille Toledano, Maria Feychting, Mark S Pearce, Dawn Craig, Fiona Pearson. The effects of radiofrequency exposure on male fertility and adverse reproductive outcomes: A protocol for two systematic reviews of human observational studies with meta-analysis. Environ Int. 158, 2022, 106968. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106968.

Abstract

Background The World Health Organization (WHO) is bringing together evidence on radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure in relation to health outcomes, previously identified as priorities for evaluation by experts in the field, to inform exposure guidelines. A suite of systematic reviews are being undertaken by a network of topic experts and methodologists in order to collect, assess and synthesise data relevant to these guidelines. Here, we present the protocol for the systematic review on the effect of exposure to RF on adverse reproductive outcomes (human observational studies), also referred to as Systematic Review (SR) 3 within the series of systematic reviews currently being commissioned.

Objectives Following the WHO handbook for guideline development and the COSTER conduct guidelines, we will systematically review the effect of RF-EMF exposure on both male fertility (SR3A) and adverse pregnancy outcomes (SR3B) in human observational studies. Herein we adhere to the PRISMA-P reporting guidelines.

Data sources We will conduct a broad search for potentially relevant records relevant for both reviews within the following bibliographic databases: MEDLINE; Embase; and EMF Portal. We will also conduct searches of grey literature through relevant databases and organisational websites. RF-EMF experts will also be consulted. We will hand search citation and reference lists of included study records.

Study eligibility criteria We will include quantitative human observational studies on the effect of RF-EMF exposure: (in SR3A) in adult male participants on infertility, sperm morphology, concentration or total sperm count or motility; and (in SR3B) in preconception adults or pregnant women on preterm birth, small for gestational age (associated with intrauterine growth restriction), miscarriage, stillbirth and congenital anomalies.

Study appraisal and synthesis methods Titles, abstracts and then full texts will be screened in blinded duplicate against eligibility criteria with input from a third reviewer as required. Data extraction from included studies will be completed by two reviewers as will risk of bias assessment using the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) tool. If appropriate we will undertake meta-analysis to pool effect measures and explore heterogeneity using sub-group analyses or meta-regression as feasible. We will conduct sensitivity analysis to assess the impact of any assumptions made throughout the review process. The OHAT methodology, based on the GRADE guidelines for evidence assessment, will be used to evaluate the certainty of evidence per outcome and to conclude the level of evidence of a health effect.

Conclusion This manuscript details the protocols for two systematic reviews. The aims of publishing details of both protocols are to: pre-specify their scope and methods; reduce the impact of reviewer bias; promote transparency and replicability; and improve the review process.

Prospero registration CRD42021265401 (SR3A), CRD42021266268 (SR3B).

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests: Maria Feychting has a permanent position as Professor of Epidemiology at Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Sweden since 2005. She has served as advisor to a number of national and international public advisory and research steering groups concerning the potential health effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation, including the WHO (ongoing), Public Health England Advisory Group on Non-ionising Radiation - AGNIR (2009–2017), the Norwegian Public Health Institute (2010–2012), the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (2003–2012), the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority's independent scientific expert group on electromagnetic fields (2003–2011). She was member of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), an independent body setting guidelines for non-ionizing radiation protection (2008–May 2020), and vice chairman of the Commission (May 2016–May 2020).

Mireille Toledano has been involved in funded research assessing mobile phone and other wireless technologies usage on health outcomes. The SCAMP (study cognition adolescents and mobile phones) prospective cohort study which is currently ongoing (2015–2021). The COSMOS (cohort study of mobile phone use and health) a longitudinal cohort study which is completed (2019).

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021005936

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SR4: Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field (RF-EMF) exposure on male fertility and pregnancy and birth outcomes: Protocols for a systematic review of experimental studies in non-human mammals and in human sperm exposed in vitro

Francesca Pacchierotti, Lucia Ardoino, Barbara Benassi, Claudia Consales, Eugenia Cordelli, Patrizia Eleuteri, Carmela Marino, Maurizio Sciortino, Martin H.Brinkworth, Guangdi Chen, James P. McNamee, Andrew William Wood, Carlijn R. Hooijmans. Rob B.M. de Vries. Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Field (RF-EMF) exposure on male fertility and pregnancy and birth outcomes: Protocols for a systematic review of experimental studies in non-human mammals and in human sperm exposed in vitro. Environment Int. Volume 157, December 2021, 106806.
Highlights

• Male infertility and adverse pregnancy outcomes are relevant human health problems.
• Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields are widespread in the human environment.
• A link between radiofrequency and adverse reproductive outcomes is controversial.
• This is the protocol of WHO-funded systematic review and meta-analysis on this issue.

Abstract

Background Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields (RF-EMF) at environmental level have been reported to induce adverse effects on the male reproductive system and developing embryos. However, despite the number of experiments conducted since the 1970s, the diversity of testing approaches and exposure conditions, inconsistencies among results, and dosimetric flaws have not yet permitted a solid assessment of the relationship between RF-EMF exposure and such effects, warranting a more systematic and methodologically rigorous approach to the evaluation of available data.

Objectives This study aims at evaluating the effects of RF-EMF exposure on male fertility and pregnancy outcomes by a systematic review (SR) of experimental studies, conducted in compliance with international guidelines. The evidence will be organized into three streams: 1) Studies evaluating the impact of RF-EMF on the male reproductive system of experimental mammals; 2) studies evaluating the impact of RF-EMF on human sperm exposed in vitro; 3) studies evaluating the impact of RF-EMF on adverse pregnancy, birth outcomes and delayed effects in experimental mammals exposed in utero.

Study eligibility and criteria Eligible studies will include peer-reviewed articles reporting of original results about effects of controlled exposures to RF-EMF in the frequency range 100 kHz–300 GHz on the selected outcomes without any language or year-of-publication restrictions. Eligible studies will be retrieved by calibrated search strings applied to three electronic databases, PubMed, Scopus and EMF Portal and by manual search of the list of references of included papers and published reviews.

Study appraisal and synthesis method The internal validity of the studies will be evaluated using the Risk of Bias (RoB) Rating Tool developed by National Toxicology Program/Office of Health Assessment and Translation (NTP/OHAT) integrated with input from the SYRCLE RoB tool. Given sufficient commensurate data, meta-analyses will be performed, otherwise narrative syntheses will be produced. Finally, the certainty of the effects of RF-EMF exposure on male fertility and pregnancy and birth outcomes will be established following GRADE.

Funding The study is financially supported by the World Health Organization.

Registration OSF Registration DOI https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/7MUS3; PROSPERO CRD42021227729, CRD42021227746.

Financial support This project is partially funded by the World Health Organization (contract 2020/1026306-0). Additional in-kind funds are provided by ENEA, Health Canada and Swinburne University of Technology.
Declaration of Competing Interest
AWW directs a research group, which includes three technical associates who are telecommunications company employees. The group is also providing advice for a local government authority and a utility on electric and magnetic field exposure issues on a fee-for-service basis. AWW has been member of the ICNIRP Scientific Expert Group (SEG) from 2013 until 2021 and collaborates with the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency.
JPM was a member for IARC Monograph 102 Working Group assessing the carcinogenicity of RF-EMF (Mechanistic Studies sub-group), a co-author of Canada's Safety Code 6 (which are the de facto national human exposure limits applied in Canada) and a member of the WHO EMF Project International Advisory Committee (Canadian representative). Health Canada financially contributed to the WHO EMF Project to support the completion of the systematic reviews on RF-EMF.
CM has been member of Technical Consultation on the WHO RF Research Agenda (2010), member of ICNIRP main commission since May 2012, confirmed in 2016 and 2020, Italian delegate for the European Cost Actions BM0704 and BM1309 "EMF-MED".
All other authors declare that they have no known conflicts of interest.
Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021004311

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SR5: The effect of long-term radiofrequency exposure on cognition in human observational studies: A protocol for a systematic review
Geza Benke, Michael J Abramson, B M Zeleke, Jordy Kaufman, Ken Karipidis, Helen Kelsall, Steve McDonald, Chris Brzozek, Maria Feychting, Sue Brennan. The effect of long-term radiofrequency exposure on cognition in human observational studies: A protocol for a systematic review. Environ Int. 158, 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106972.
Highlights

• This protocol outlines the steps required for a systematic review of the effect of long-term radiofrequency exposure on cognition in human observational studies.
• The protocol allows for an assessment of possible cognitive effects due to RF-EMFs from personal, environmental and occupational exposure.• The protocol follows the best methodology for synthesis and risk of bias assessment for RF-EMF exposure and cognition in human observational studies.
Abstract

Background: The long term effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) for frequencies from 100 kHz to 300 GHz on cognitive performance are best assessed using observational studies. In recent years, the use of mobile (cell) phones has been the main source of RF EMF exposure to the brain, although other sources of exposure may be significant. Cognitive function includes various mental and psychological abilities, which can be measured in a range of domains, such as learning, memory, reasoning, problem solving, decision making and attention. Although effects on cognitive function may be most evident later in life, in the experimental setting acute and immediate effects can only be studied. Observational studies are needed when effects are observed after months or years following short or long-term exposure. The importance of the effects of exposure on children has also been recently identified.

Objectives: To assess the long-term effects of RF EMF local and whole-body exposure compared to no or a lower level of exposure on indicators of cognition, including complex attention, executive function, learning and memory, perceptual motor ability and social cognition, but excluding cognitive effects caused by neurodegenerative diseases or neurodevelopmental disorders, and to assess if there is evidence of a dose response relationship.

Study eligibility and criteria: We will include observational studies that have evaluated cognitive effects of RF energy including a comparator group with a different level of exposure. Studies must report at least one validated measure of cognitive function, including global or domain specific measures, or cognitive impairment, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Cohort or case-control studies published in the peer review literature in any language are eligible. We will exclude cross-sectional studies and any that only report brain structure or biomarkers.

Study appraisal and synthesis method: We will conduct searches of PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and the EMF-Portal. At least two authors will independently screen the titles/abstracts of all records, with any conflicts resolved by a third reviewer. Full-text screening will also be conducted independently by two authors with conflicts resolved by consensus. Data will be extracted from the studies included, such as identifiers and characteristics of the study design, exposure and comparator groups, participants, outcomes assessed and results. Risk of bias will be assessed with the Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) tool. We will conduct a meta-analysis of similar studies with a random effects model in STATA or similar software, if two or more studies are available for a given exposure-outcome combination. Confidence in the body evidence will be judged using GRADE methods as adapted by OHAT for reviews of environmental exposures.

Funding This project is funded by the World Health Organization. Co-financing was provided by ARPANSA in its capacity as a WHO Collaborating Centre for Radiation Protection.

Declaration of Competing Interest

The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Open access paper:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021005973?via%3Dihub
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SR6: The effect of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on cognitive performance in human experimental studies: A protocol for a systematic review

Blanka Pophof, Jacob Burns, Heidi Danker-Hopfe, Hans Dorn, Cornelia Egblomassé-Roidl, Torsten Eggert, Kateryna Fuks, Bernd Henschenmacher, Jens Kuhne, Cornelia Sauter, Gernot Schmid. The effect of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on cognitive performance in human experimental studies: A protocol for a systematic review. Environ Int. 2021 Jul 29;157:106783. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106783.

Abstract

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) is currently assessing the potential health effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) in the general and working population. Related to one such health effect, there is a concern that RF-EMFs may affect cognitive performance in humans. The systematic review (SR) aims to identify, summarize and synthesize the evidence base related to this question. Here, we present the protocol for the planned SR.

Objectives: The main objective is to present a protocol for a SR which will evaluate the associations between short-term exposure to RF-EMFs and cognitive performance in human experimental studies.

Data sources: We will search the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and the EMF-Portal. The reference lists of included studies and retrieved review articles will be manually searched.

Study eligibility and criteria: We will include randomized human experimental studies that assess the effects of RF-EMFs on cognitive performance compared to no exposure or lower exposure. We will include peer-reviewed articles of any publication date in any language that report primary data.

Data extraction and analysis: Data will be extracted according to a pre-defined set of forms developed and piloted by the review author team. To assess the risk of bias, we will apply the Rating Tool for Human and Animal Studies developed by NTP/OHAT, supplemented with additional questions relevant for cross-over studies. Where sufficiently similar studies are identified (e.g. the heterogeneity concerning population, exposure and outcome is low and the studies can be combined), we will conduct random-effects meta-analysis; otherwise, we will conduct a narrative synthesis.

Assessment of certainty of evidence: The certainty of evidence for each identified outcome will be assessed according to Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). Performing the review according to this protocol will allow the identification of possible effects of RF-EMFs on cognitive performance in humans. The protocol has been registered in PROSPERO, an open-source protocol registration system, to foster transparency.

Financial support This project is funded by the World Health Organization.

Registration PROSPERO CRD42021236168.

Declaration of Competing Interest
The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper.

Open access paperhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021004086?via%3Dihub
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SR7: The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields exposure on tinnitus, migraine and non-specific symptoms in the general and working population: A protocol for a systematic review on human observational studies
Martin Röösli, Stefan Dongus, Hamed Jalilian, Maria Feychting, John Eyers, Ekpereonne Esu, Chioma Moses Oringanje, Martin Meremikwu, Xavier Bosch-Capblanch. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields exposure on tinnitus, migraine and non-specific symptoms in the general and working population: A protocol for a systematic review on human observational studies. Environ Int, Volume 157, 2021. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106852.
Highlights

• There is public concern to develop non-specific symptoms from EMF.
• No up to date comprehensive systematic review is available.
• Priority outcomes for head exposure are tinnitus, migraine, and headaches.
• Further priority outcomes are sleep disturbances and composite symptom scores.

Abstract

Background Applications emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF; 100 kHz to 300 GHz) are widely used for communication (e.g. mobile phones), in medicine (diathermy) and in industry (RF heaters). Concern has been raised that RF-EMF exposure affects health related quality of life, because a part of the population reports to experience a variety of symptoms related to low exposure levels below regulatory limits.

Objectives To systematically review the effects of longer-term or repeated local and whole human body RF-EMF exposure on the occurrence of symptoms evaluating migraine, tinnitus, headaches, sleep disturbances and composite symptom scores as primary outcomes.

Methods We will follow the WHO handbook for guideline development. For the development of the systematic review protocol we considered handbook for conducting systematic reviews for health effects evaluations from the National Toxicology Program-Office of Health Assessment and Translation (NTP-OHAT) and COSTER (Recommendations for the conduct of systematic reviews in toxicology and environmental health research).

Eligibility criteria Peer-reviewed epidemiological studies in the general population or workers aiming to investigate the association between local or whole-body RF-EMF exposure for at least one week and symptoms are eligible for inclusion. Only cohort, case-control and panel studies will be included.

Information sources We will search the scientific literature databases Medline, Web of Science, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Epistemonikos and Embase, using a predefined search strategy. This search will be supplemented by a search in the EMF-Portal and checks of reference lists of relevant papers and reviews.

Study appraisal and synthesis method Data from included papers will be extracted according to predefined forms. Findings will be summarized in tables, graphical displays and in a narrative synthesis of the available evidence, complemented with meta-analyses. We will separately review effects of local, far field and occupational exposure.

Risk of bias The internal validity of included studies will be assessed using the NTP-OHAT Risk of Bias Rating Tool for Human and Animal Studies, elaborated to observational RF-EMF studies.

Evidence appraisal To rate certainty of the evidence, we will use the OHAT GRADE-based approach for epidemiological studies.

Framework and funding This protocol concerns one of the ten different systematic reviews considered in a larger systematic review of the World Health Organization to assess potential health effects of exposure to RF-EMF in the general and working population.

Registration PROSPERO CRD42021239432.

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021004773?via%3Dihub

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SR8: The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields exposure on human self-reported symptoms: A protocol for a systematic review of human experimental studies
Xavier Bosch-Capblanch, Ekpereonne Esu, Stefan Dongus, Chioma Moses Oringanje, Hamed Jalilian, John Eyers, Gunnhild Oftedal, Martin Meremikwu, Martin Röösli. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields exposure on human self-reported symptoms: A protocol for a systematic review of human experimental studies. Environ Int. 158, 2022, 106953. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106953.
Abstract
Background The technological applications of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have been steadily increasing since the 1950s across multiple sectors exposing large proportions of the population. This fact has raised concerns related to the potential consequences to people's health. The World Health Organization (WHO) is assessing the potential health effects of exposure to RF-EMF and has carried out an international survey amongst experts, who have identified six priority topics to be further addressed through systematic reviews, whereof the effects on symptoms is one of them. We report here the systematic review protocol of experimental studies in humans assessing the effects of RF-EMF on symptoms.
Objective Our objectives are to assess the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields (compared to no or lower exposure levels) on symptoms in human subjects. We will also assess the accuracy of perception of presence of exposure in volunteers with and without idiopathic environmental intolerance attributed to electromagnetic fields (IEI-EMF).

Eligibility criteria We will search relevant literature sources (e.g. the Web of Science, Medline, Embase, Epistemonikos) for randomized trials (comparing at least two arms) and randomised crossover trials of RF-EMF exposure that have assessed the effects on symptoms. We will also include studies that have measured the accuracy of the perception of the presence or absence of exposure. We will include studies in any language.
Study appraisal and synthesis Studies will be assessed against inclusion criteria by two independent reviewers. Data on study characteristics, participants, exposure, comparators and effects will be extracted using a specific template for this review, by two independent reviewers. Discrepancies will be solved by consensus. Risk of bias (ROB) will be assessed using the ROB Rating Tool for Human and Animal Studies and the level of confidence in the evidence of the exposure-outcome relations will be assessed using the GRADE approach. For the perception studies, we will use adapted versions of the ROB tool and GRADE assessment. Where appropriate, data will be combined using meta-analytical techniques.

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016041202100578X

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SR9: The effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on biomarkers of oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro: A protocol for a systematic review
Bernd Henschenmacher, Annette Bitsch, Tonia de las Heras Gala, Henry Jay Forman, Athanassios Fragoulis, Pietro Ghezzi, Rupert Kellner, Wolfgang Koch, Jens Kuhne, Dmitrij Sachno, Gernot Schmid, Katya Tsaioun, Jos Verbeek, Robert Wright. The effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on biomarkers of oxidative stress in vivo and in vitro: A protocol for a systematic review. Environ Int. 158, 2022, 106932. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106932.

Abstract

Background Oxidative stress is conjectured to be related to many diseases. Furthermore, it is hypothesized that radiofrequency fields may induce oxidative stress in various cell types and thereby compromise human and animal health. This systematic review (SR) aims to summarize and evaluate the literature related to this hypothesis.

Objectives The main objective of this SR is to evaluate the associations between the exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and oxidative stress in experimental models (in vivo and in vitro).

Methods The SR framework has been developed following the guidelines established in the WHO Handbook for Guideline Development and the Handbook for Conducting a Literature-Based Health Assessment). We will include controlled in vivo and in vitro laboratory studies that assess the effects of an exposure to RF-EMF on valid markers for oxidative stress compared to no or sham exposure. The protocol is registered in PROSPERO.

We will search the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science Core Collection, Scopus, and the EMF-Portal. The reference lists of included studies and retrieved review articles will also be manually searched.

Study appraisal and synthesis method Data will be extracted according to a pre-defined set of forms developed in the DistillerSR online software and synthesized in a meta-analysis when studies are judged sufficiently similar to be combined. If a meta-analysis is not possible, we will describe the effects of the exposure in a narrative way.

Risk of bias The risk of bias will be assessed with the NTP/OHAT risk of bias rating tool for human and animal studies.

We will use GRADE to assess the certainty of the conclusions (high, moderate, low, or inadequate) regarding the association between radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and oxidative stress.

Funding This work was funded by the World Health Organization (WHO).

Registration The protocol was registered on the PROSPERO webpage on July 8, 2021.

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412021005572

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Prioritizing health outcomes when assessing the effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: A survey among experts
Jos Verbeek, Gunnhild Oftedal, Maria Feychting, Eric van Rongen, Maria Rosaria Scarfì, Simon Mann, Rachel Wong, Emilie van Deventer. Prioritizing health outcomes when assessing the effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: A survey among experts. Environ Int. 146, 2021. 106300.
doi:10.1016/j.envint.2020.106300.
Highlights
• RF EMF may lead to other than heat-related health effects by yet unknown mechanisms
• Prioritizing health effects is needed for review utility and resource efficiency.
• RF EMF experts prioritized all peer-reviewed published biological and health outcomes.
• Cancer, heat-related effects, and adverse birth outcomes were rated most critical.
• WHO commissioned ten systematic reviews of the most critical health outcomes.

Abstract

Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF) (frequencies of 100 kHz to 300 GHz) has been steadily increasing. In addition to heat-related effects of RF EMF, other yet-unspecified biological effects, might exist which could possibly lead to health effects. Given the large number of health endpoints that have been studied, we wanted to prioritize those that would merit systematic reviews.

We developed a survey listing of all health endpoints reported in the literature and we asked 300 RF EMF experts and researchers to prioritize these health effects for systematic review as critical, important or unimportant. We also asked the experts to provide the rationale for their prioritization.

Of the 300 RF EMF experts queried, 164 (54%) responded. They rated cancer, heat-related effects, adverse birth outcomes, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, cognitive impairment, adverse pregnancy outcomes and oxidative stress as outcomes most critical regarding RF EMF exposure. For these outcomes, systematic reviews are needed. For heat-related outcomes, the experts based their ranking of the critical outcomes on what is known from human or animal studies, and for cancer and other outcomes, they based their rating also on public concern.

To assess health risks of an exposure in a robust manner, it is important to prioritize the health outcomes that should be systematically reviewed. Here we have shown that it feasible to do so in an inclusive and transparent way.
Excerpts
Given the limited resources available for systematic reviews, it was decided to include male fertility but not brain electrical function. The ratings of these two outcomes as critical were similar, but more experts rated male fertility as important....

Declaration of Competing Interest

MF was vice chairman (May 2016 – May 2020) of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, an independent body setting guidelines for non-ionizing radiation protection. She has served as advisor to several national and international public advisory and research steering groups concerning the potential health effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation.

MRS is in the Scientific Council of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority for preparing reports on the evaluation of the scientific literature related to electromagnetic fields and health.

GO is member of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. She has been member of groups appointed by Norwegian authorities to evaluate potential health effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields.

EvR was chairman (May 2016 – May 2020) of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and is currently vice-chairman. He is also member of the Scientific Council of the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority.

SM is a member of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection's Scientific Expert Group. Within the UK, he is Secretary to the Committee on Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment and he was Secretary (until 2017) to the Advisory Group on Non-Ionising Radiation.

All other authors have declared no conflict of interest.

Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412020322558

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Assessing risk of bias in human environmental epidemiology studies using three tools: different conclusions from different tools
Stephanie M. Eick, Dana E. Goin, Nicholas Chartres, Juleen Lam, Tracey J. Woodruff. Assessing risk of bias in human environmental epidemiology studies using three tools: different conclusions from different tools. Syst Rev 9, 249 (2020). doi: 10.1186/s13643-020-01490-8.

Abstract

Background Systematic reviews are increasingly prevalent in environmental health due to their ability to synthesize evidence while reducing bias. Different systematic review methods have been developed by the US National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT), the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), and by the US EPA under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), including the approach to assess risk of bias (ROB), one of the most vital steps which is used to evaluate internal validity of the studies. Our objective was to compare the performance of three tools (OHAT, IRIS, TSCA) in assessing ROB.

Methods We selected a systematic review on polybrominated diphenyl ethers and intelligence quotient and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder because it had been endorsed by the National Academy of Sciences. Two reviewers followed verbatim instructions from the tools and independently applied each tool to assess ROB in 15 studies previously identified. We documented the time to apply each tool and the impact the ROB ratings for each tool had on the final rating of the quality of the overall body of evidence.

Results The time to complete the ROB assessments varied widely (mean = 20, 32, and 40 min per study for the OHAT, IRIS, and TSCA tools, respectively). All studies were rated overall "low" or "uninformative" using IRIS, due to "deficient" or "critically deficient" ratings in one or two domains. Similarly, all studies were rated "unacceptable" using the TSCA tool because of one "unacceptable" rating in a metric related to statistical power. Approximately half of the studies had "low" or "probably low ROB" ratings across all domains with the OHAT and Navigation Guide tools.

Conclusions Tools that use overall ROB or study quality ratings, such as IRIS and TSCA, may reduce the available evidence to assess the harms of environmental exposures by erroneously excluding studies, which leads to inaccurate conclusions about the quality of the body of evidence. We recommend using ROB tools that circumvent these issues, such as OHAT and Navigation Guide.

Open access paper: https://systematicreviewsjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13643-020-01490-8
==
EHC on Radiofrequency fields* (WHO, 2016)
Excerpt from:
World Health Organization. The International EMF Project Progress Report. June 2015-2016. page 10. https://cdn.who.int/media/docs/default-source/radiation-international-emf-project-reports/emf-iac-2016-progress-report.pdf?sfvrsn=7b2836c0_2. Accessed 01/17/2022.
"Following on the publication of the INTERPHONE study (May 2010) and the IARC classification of RF fields (May 2011), the health risk assessment of radiofrequency fields by WHO was started with a kick-off meeting in January 2012. A core group of 6 experts has been gathered to help with the development of the monograph. They, in turn, have enlisted the help of close to 30 experts to develop different sections of the first draft. Monthly conference calls have been held over the past year. A face-to-face meeting was convened in Istanbul in May 2015.
A number of systematic reviews have been performed based on published peer-reviewed data. Search strategies, inclusion/exclusion criteria and quality criteria have been developed for the different types of studies. A first draft was uploaded on the WHO website in the Fall of 2014. Over 90 entries were filed electronically through the consultation providing around 700 comments to different chapters and section of the draft. Over 300 missing papers were identified through this useful step. Each submission has been carefully considered by the Core Group and the draft has been revised to take account of relevant comments and of papers published since December 2012. As a result of the consultation, a new chapter on biochemical and biological effects was added.
The drawing of conclusions from the literature and the drafting of these chapters is the remit of a formal Task Group that will be convened by WHO following due process. The meeting of the Task Group is currently slated to be held in the Fall of 2016."

==

In March 1993, almost 30 years ago, the WHO published the last EHC monograph on radiofrequency radiation:


Electromagnetic fields (‎300 Hz to 300 GHz)

Environmental Health Criteria Monograph No.137

13 March 1993 | Technical document


Download table of contents for this report (360.6 kB) Overview

"WHO's assessment of any health risks produced by EMF emitting technologies falls within the responsibilities of the International EMF Project. One of the goals of the International EMF Project is therefore to carry out health risk assessments of RF, ELF and static fields, published in the Environmental Health Criteria.

The health risk assessments are the result of in-depth critical reviews conducted through independent, scientific peer-review groups. The are usually undertaken if new data are available that would substantially change the evaluation, if there is public concern for health or environmental effects of the agent because of greater exposure, or if an appreciable time period has elapsed since the last evaluation."

https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9241571373

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
21.5.2022 02:17

Key Cell Phone Radiation Research Studies


Note: This is not a comprehensive list. I have focused on more recent papers and tried to be parsimonious. The links to all abstracts and open access papers below were checked and updated on June 7, 2019. I update this list periodically.


National Toxicology Program cell phone radiation studies
Tumor risk review papers
Myung et al (2009) Mobile phone use and risk of tumors: a meta-analysis. J Clinical Oncology. https://bit.ly/2F0IdUS Khurana et al (2009) Cell phones and brain tumors: a review including long-term epidemiologic data. Surgical Neurology. https://bit.ly/2WTQwfk Levis et al (2011) Mobile phones and head tumours: the discrepancies in cause-effect relationships in the epi studies-how do they arise. Environ Health. https://bit.ly/2IsQy4r Levis et al (2012) Mobile phones and head tumours: a critical analysis of case-control epi studies. Open Environ Sciences. https://bit.ly/2EXT5ml WHO (2013) IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans. Volume 102: Non-ionizing radiation, Part 2: Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. https://bit.ly/10oIE3o Morgan et al (2015) Mobile phone radiation causes brain tumors and should be classified as a probable human carcinogen (2A) (Review). Int J Oncology. https://bit.ly/2XwgVNa
Wang & Guo (2016) Meta-analysis of association between mobile phone use and glioma risk. J Cancer Research Therapy https://bit.ly/2o1dVcn
Bortkiewicz et al (2017) Mobile phone use and risk of intracranial tumors and salivary gland tumors - A meta-analysis. Int J Occ Med Envir Health. https://bit.ly/2nVJC5d
Prasad et al (2017) Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours: a systematic review of association between study quality, source of funding, and research outcomes. Neurol Sci. https://bit.ly/2Xxp83P
Carlberg, Hardell (2017) Evaluation of mobile phone and cordless phone use and glioma risk using the Bradford Hill viewpoints from 1965 on association or causation. Biomed Res Int. https://bit.ly/2WwBX1K

Miller, et al (2018). Cancer epidemiology update, following the 2011 IARC evaluation of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (Monograph 102). Environ Res. https://bit.ly/2rJD7Fu
Choi, Moskowitz, et al (2020). Cellular phone use and risk of tumors: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Environ Res Public Health. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218079.
Also see Long-Term Cell Phone Use Increases Brain Tumor Risk
Tumor risk studies
Interphone Study Group (2010) Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile phone use: results of the Interphone international case-control study. Int J Epidemiol. https://bit.ly/2MzsceR Interphone Study Group (2011) Acoustic neuroma risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study. Cancer Epidemiol. https://bit.ly/2Ix7BlQ Aydin et al (2011) Mobile phone use & brain tumors in children & adolescents: a multi-center case-control study. (CEFALO Study). JNCI. https://bit.ly/31j0JBa Hardell et al (2013) Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use. Int J Oncology. https://bit.ly/2ZaVJg5 Hardell et al (2013) Pooled analysis of case-control studies on acoustic neuroma diagnosed 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 and use of mobile and cordless phones. Int J Oncology. https://bit.ly/31gbDaO Coureau et al (2014) Mobile phone use and brain tumours in the CERENAT case-control study. https://bit.ly/1DWgzRi
Grell et al (2016) The intracranial distribution of gliomas in relation to exposure from mobile phones: Analyses from the INTERPHONE Study. Am J Epidemiol. https://bit.ly/2ZcawHu

Also see: Acoustic neuroma risk and cell phone use studies and
Should Cellphones Have Warning Labels?

Breast cancer
West et al (2013) Multifocal breast cancer in young women with prolonged contact between their breasts and their cellular phones. Case Rep Med. https://bit.ly/2WW8n52
Brain tumor incidence trends
Inskip et al (2010) Brain cancer incidence trends in relation to cellular telephone use in the United States. Neuro Oncology. https://bit.ly/2K6rEuz Zada et al (2012) Incidence trends in the anatomic location of primary malignant brain tumors in the United States: 1992-2006. World Neurosurg. https://bit.ly/2Wq1Dbm Hardell & Carlberg (2015) Increasing rates of brain tumours in the Swedish National Inpatient Register & the Causes of Death Register. Int J Environ Res Public Health. https://bit.ly/1aDHJm Devocht (2016) Inferring the 1985–2014 impact of mobile phone use on selected brain cancer subtypes using Bayesian structural time series and synthetic controls. Environ Int. https://bit.ly/2jJlbZu corrigendum (2017): https://bit.ly/2Cuq2nU
Hardell & Carlberg (2017) Mobile phones, cordless phones and rates of brain tumors in different age groups in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cancer Register during 1998-2015. PLOS One. https://bit.ly/H-C2017
Philips et al (2018) Brain tumours: Rise in Glioblastoma Multiforme incidence in England 1995-2015 suggests an adverse environmental or lifestyle factor. J Environ Public Health https://bit.ly/2KIY4aI

Also see: Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising in the US: The Role of Cell Phone & Cordless Phone Use


Mechanisms
Ruediger (2009) Genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Pathophysiology. https://bit.ly/2EXGaRb Behari (2010) Biological responses of mobile phone frequency exposure. Indian J Exp Biology. https://bit.ly/2Xx0Gzr
Giuliani and Soffritti (2010). Nonthermal effects and mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic fields and living matter. ICEMS Monograph. Ramazzini Institute. 403 pp. https://bit.ly/2HUnO7R
Juutilainen et al (2011) Review of possible modulation-dependent biological effects of radiofrequency fields. Bioelectromagnetics. https://bit.ly/2MAQ7KJ Volkow et al (2011) Effects of cell phone radiofrequency signal exposure on brain glucose metabolism. JAMA. https://bit.ly/2KyjIBT Pall (2013) EMFs act via activation of voltage-gated calcium channels to produce beneficial or adverse effects. J Cell Mol Med. https://bit.ly/2K5yO2e Calderon et al (2014) Assessment of extremely low frequency magnetic field exposure from GSM mobile phones. https://bit.ly/2EA1N7e Dasdag & Akdag (2015) The link between radiofrequencies emitted from wireless technologies & oxidative stress. J Chem Neuroanat. https://bit.ly/2EXN88W Yakymenko et al (2016) Oxidative mechanisms of biological activity of low-intensity radiofrequency radiation. Electromagnet Biol Med. https://bit.ly/2qCGM4F Barnes & Greenenbaum (2016) Some effects of weak magnetic fields on biological systems: RF fields can change radical concentrations and cancer cell growth rates. IEEE Power Electronics J. https://bit.ly/1WvQGiY Tamrin et al (2016) Electromagnetic fields and stem cell fate: When physics meets biology. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. https://bit.ly/2b6Ht3y Terzi et al (2016) The role of electromagnetic fields in neurological disorders. J Chem Neuroanat. https://bit.ly/3j9if6b Havas (2017) When theory and observation collide: Can non-ionizing radiation cause cancer? Environ Pollution. https://bit.ly/2DssMS2 Barnes & Kandala (2018) Effects of time delays on biological feedback systems and electromagnetic field exposures. Bioelectromagnetics. https://bit.ly/2EZkZPS Belpomme et al (2018) Thermal and non-thermal health effects of low intensity non-ionizing radiation: An international perspective. Environ Pollution. https://bit.ly/IntlEMFreview Hinrikus et al (2018) Understanding physical mechanism of low-level microwave radiation effect. Int J Radiation Biol. https://bit.ly/2EwNyoU Mortazavi et al (2019) Evaluation of the validity of a nonlinear J-shaped dose-response relationship in cancers induced by exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. J Biomed Phys Eng. https://bit.ly/37FlDxP Nielsen et al (2019) Towards predicting intracellular radiofrequency radiation effects. PLOS One. https://bit.ly/2uaeFxY Panagopoulos (2019) Comparing DNA damage induced by mobile telephony and other types of man-made electromagnetic fields. Mutation Res. https://bit.ly/2HACI1O
Halgamuge et al (2020) A meta-analysis of in vitro exposures to weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phones (1990–2015). Environmental Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109227.
Bertagna et al (2021) Effects of electromagnetic fields on neuronal ion channels: a systematic review. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. https://bit.ly/2R3TigS Panagopoulos et al (2021) Human‑made electromagnetic fields: Ion forced‑oscillation and voltage‑gated ion channel dysfunction, oxidative stress and DNA damage (Review). Int J Oncol. https://www.spandidos-publications.com/ijo/59/5/92
Reproductive Health Effects
LaVignera et al (2011) Effects of the exposure to mobile phones on male reproduction: a review of the literature. J Andrology. https://bit.ly/2wL7zRO Aldad et al (2012) Fetal radiofrequency radiation exposure from 800-1900 Mhz-rated cellular telephones affects neurodevelopment and behavior in mice. Science Reports. https://bit.ly/2Z6H45I Divan et al (2012) Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children. J Epidemiol Commun Health. https://bit.ly/2EV1bw8 Adams et al (2014) Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Reproduction. https://bit.ly/1pUnmDq Houston et al (2016) The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function. Reproduction. https://bit.ly/2cJJ2pE
Also see: Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality and Pregnancy & Wireless Radiation Risks
Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity

See: Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity

Exposure

Kelsh et al (2010) Measured radiofrequency exposure during various mobile-phone use scenarios. J Exposure Sci Environ Epidemiol. https://bit.ly/2IuYH8s Gandhi et al (2012) Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children. Electromagnetic Biol Med. https://bit.ly/2EZilbN Schmid & Kuster (2015) The discrepancy between maximum in vitro exposure levels and realistic conservative exposure levels of mobile phones operating at 900/1800 MHz. Bioelectromagnetics. https://bit.ly/31j46be Sagar et al (2018) Comparison of radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure levels in different everyday microenvironments in an international context. Environ Int. https://bit.ly/2E5QR10 Gandhi OP (2019) Microwave emissions from cell phones exceed safety limits in Europe and the US when touching the body. IEEE Access. https://bit.ly/2QUTI4N Calderón et al (2022) Estimation of RF and ELF dose by anatomical location in the brain from wireless phones in the MOBI-Kids study. Environ Int. https://bit.ly/3Or2x3F

Genetic Effects

Lai H (2021) Genetic effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15368378.2021.1881866
Blood-Brain Barrier Studies

AirPods: Are Apple's New Wireless Earbuds Safe? (Blood-Brain Barrier Effects)


5G and Millimeter Wave Studies
5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health Effects
Other

Huss et al (2007) Source of funding and results of studies of health effects of mobile phone use: systematic review of experimental studies. Environ Health Perspec. https://bit.ly/2wBEmYp Fragopoulou et al (2010) Scientific panel on electromagnetic field health risks: consensus points, recommendations, and rationales. Rev Environ Health. https://bit.ly/2tWiXHP
Alster, N (2015) Captured agency: How the FCC is dominated by the industries it presumably regulates. Harvard University. https://bit.ly/FCCcaptured
Consumer Reports (2015) "Does cell-phone radiation cause cancer?" http://bit.ly/CRoncellphoneradiation
International EMF Scientist Appeal (2015) https://emfscientist.org/ International Appeal: Scientists call for protection from non-ionizing electromagnetic field exposure. European J Oncology. 20(3/4). 2015. https://bit.ly/EMFAppealEurOncol
Kostoff R, Lau C (2017). Modified health effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation combined with other agents reported in the biomedical literature. In C.D. Geddes (ed.), Microwave Effects on DNA and Proteins. https://b.gatech.edu/2uyMAz0 Bandara P, Carpenter DO (2018). Planetary electromagnetic pollution: it is time to assess its impact. The Lancet Planetary Health. https://bit.ly/2GqpJQF
Foerster et al (2018). A prospective cohort study of adolescents' memory performance and individual brain dose of microwave radiation from wireless communication. Environ Health Perspect. https://bit.ly/2wJs0Pm
Hertsgaard, M, Dowie, M (2018). "How Big Wireless Made Us Think That Cell Phones Are Safe: A Special Investigation." The Nation, March 29, 2018. https://bit.ly/BigWireless
Miller et al (2019). Risks to health and well-being from radio-frequency radiation emitted by cell phones and other wireless devices. Front. Public Health https://bit.ly/2TsUNlN
Kostoff et al (2020). Adverse health effects of 5G mobile networking technology under real-life conditions. Toxicology Letters. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31991167/ Hardell & Carlberg (2021). Lost opportunities for cancer prevention: historical evidence on early warnings with emphasis on radiofrequency radiation. Rev Envir Res. https://bit.ly/Hardell2021 Lai H, Levitt BB (2022). The roles of intensity, exposure duration, and modulation on the biological effects of radiofrequency radiation and exposure guidelines. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. https://bit.ly/RFLaiLevitt2022 Grigoriev YG (2022). Frequencies used in Telecommunications – An Integrated Radiobiological Assessment (ORSAA translation; free 198 page book). https://bit.ly/GrigorievBook
Also see:
Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields (1500+ abstracts from 2016 on)
Effects of Cell Phone Use on AdolescentsCell Tower Health EffectsRecent Research on WiFi EffectsEffects of Wireless Radiation on Birds and Other WildlifeElectromagnetic fields threaten wildlifePowerWatch: 1,670 Scientific Papers on EMF (1979 - 2018)Effects of Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (studies published from 1990 - 2020)
Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
23.5.2022 21:20

Overview of Contents


Overview
Welcome to EMR Safety

"Health Effects of Cellphone & Cell Tower Radiation: Implications for 5G" (Joel Moskowitz, UC Center for Occupational & Environmental Health webinar / video & slides, 2021)
"Wireless Radiation: What Environmental Health Leaders Should Know" (Multiple presenters, Jonas Philanthropies and Health & Environmental Funders Network webinar / video, 2021
"Radio Frequency Radiation Health Risks: Implications for 5G" (Occupational & Environmental Medicine Grand Rounds, UC San Francisco webinar / video & slides, 2020)
"Cell Phones, Cell Towers, and Wireless Safety" (Invited UC Berkeley public presentation / transcript, video, podcast & slides, 2019)

"Why experts believe wireless radiation is harmful" (Slides & comments from brief presentation, 2019)International EMF Scientist Appeal - also see https://emfscientist.org/ (video)
"Cellphone radiation is harmful, but few want to believe it" (Joel Moskowitz, UC Berkeley News, 2021)Wall Street Journal asks "Should Cellphones Have Warning Labels?"
Mobilize: A Film About Cell Phone Radiation (documentary video)Wireless Radiation TV News Coverage (300+ TV news videos)
Overview Articles

Tips to Reduce Your Wireless Radiation Exposure

5G: Health and Environmental Impact

"Regulators Steamroll Health Concerns as the Global Economy Embraces 5G" (The Washington Spectator)"We Have No Reason to Believe 5G is Safe" (Scientific American)Scientific American Created Confusion about 5G's Safety: Will They Clear It Up?
5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health Effects
Scientists and Doctors Demand Moratorium on 5GGovernment Accountability Office (GAO) 2020 Report on 5G5G and Health (Netherlands Health Council)European Parliament: 5G Health Effects and Environmental Impact
5G Wireless Technology: Cutting Through the Hype
5G Global Protest
5G Day of Action
5G Wireless Technology: Major newspaper editorials oppose "small cell" antenna bills
FCC Open Letter Calls for Moratorium on New Applications of Radiofrequency Radiation

Cell Tower Health Effects
Mobile Phone Health Effects
Key Cell Phone Radiation Research Studies
Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields (since 2016)
Scientific Evidence of Harm from Cell Phone Radiation: Two Years of Research


Cancer or Tumor Risk
Animal Studies
NTP Cell Phone Radiation Study: Final Reports
National Toxicology Program (NTP) Finds Cell Phone Radiation Causes Cancer
National Toxicology Program: Peer & public review of cell phone radiation study reports
NTP: Not the First Govt. Study to Find Wireless Radiation Can Cause Cancer in Lab Rats
Ramazzini Institute Cell Phone Radiation Study Replicates NTP Study

Head and Neck Tumor Risk
New review study finds that heavier cell phone use increases tumor riskExpert report by former U.S. govt. official: High probability RF radiation causes brain tumorsCell phone and cordless phone use causes brain cancer: New review
Long-Term Cell Phone Use Increases Brain Tumor Risk
Why do many scientists believe mobile phone use increases cancer risk?
WHO Monograph on Cancer Risk from Mobile Phone UseStoryline vs. Rest-of-the-story: Brain cancer incidence, cellphone use & trends dataAcoustic Neuroma and Cell Phone UseThyroid Cancer and Mobile Phone Use
Cell Phone Use and Salivary Gland Tumor Risk
MOBI-KIDS: Childhood Brain Tumor Risk & Mobile Phone Use Study
The UK Million Women Study of Cell Phone Use and Brain Tumor Risk
Brain Tumor Incidence
Brain Tumor Rates Are Rising in the US:The Role of Cellphone & Cordless Phone Use
Trends in Brain Tumor Incidence Outside the U.S.
The Incidence of Meningioma, a Non-Malignant Brain Tumor, is Increasing in the U.S.


Reproductive Harm
Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm QualityPregnancy & Wireless Radiation RisksFemale Infertility & Cell Phone Radiation


Other Health Risks
Research on Wireless Radiation Exposure to the Immune SystemDoes long-term exposure to 4G LTE cell phone radiation impair cell phone users' health?
Secondhand Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation: An Emerging Public Health Problem?

Effects of Cell Phone Use on Adolescents
Research on Smart Phone and Internet Addiction
Has the Smart Phone Replaced the Cigarette?

Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS)
The "Havana syndrome": A special case of electrohypersensitivitySymptoms Experienced by Persons with EHS (FCC Docket #13-84)

Does Cell Phone and Wi-Fi Radiation Cause Alzheimer's Disease?Cellphone use may be harmful for people with dental braces

Cell Phone and Wireless Radiation
Wireless Radiation Exposure LimitsStudy: Wireless radiation exposure for children should be hundreds of times lower than federal limits (based on NTP study)What's Wrong with Cell Phone Radiation Exposure Limits? (SAR)
Children are more exposed to cell phone radio-frequency radiation than adults

Product Safety
Buyer Beware: Cell Phone Radiation-Reducing Products
Cell Phone Cases Can Increase Radiation Exposure
Do iPhones emit more radiation than Samsung Galaxy phones?

iPhone XS and XR: Specific Absorption Rates or RF Exposure
iPhone X Models: Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) or RF Exposure
iPhone 8 Models: Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) or RF Exposure
iPhone 7 Models: Specific Absorption Rates (SAR) or RF Exposure
iPhone 6 SAR: Radiation Levels & Separation DistanceiPhone SE SAR: Radiation Levels & Separation Distance

Samsung Galaxy S9 and S9 Plus Specific Absorption Rates (SAR)
Samsung Galaxy S8 and S8 Plus Specific Absorption Rates (SAR)
Samsung Galaxy S7 and S7 Edge Specific Absorption Rates (SAR)
Samsung Galaxy S6 and S6 Edge Specific Absorption Rates (SAR)


AirPods: Are Apple's New Wireless Earbuds Safe? (Blood-brain barrier effects)New Apple Watch Reignites Concerns over Cell Phone Radiation
Google Glass Alert: Potential health risks from wireless radiation


Wireless Radiation Health Risks
Cell Tower Health Effects
Cell Phone Towers are Largest Contributor to Environmental Radiofrequency Radiation

Recent Research on WiFi Effects
Wi-Fi in Schools & Other Public PlacesCouncil of Europe: Restrict Wi-Fi and Mobile Phone Use in Schools

Health Experts Caution About Smart Meters
Hybrid & Electric Cars: Electromagnetic Radiation Risks

International Perspective on Health Effects of Low Intensity Non-Ionizing Radiation
Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields (since 2016)
PowerWatch: 1,670 Scientific Papers on EMF (1979 - 2018)
Effects of Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (studies published from
1990 - 2020)Four lectures on wireless radiation health effectsHow does wireless radiation produce harmful health effects?EMF Controversies in NeurobiologyGenetic effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields
Research on Wireless Radiation Exposure to the Immune System

Environmental Health Risks
Electromagnetic fields threaten wildlifeEffects of Wireless Radiation on Birds and Other WildlifeCell Tower Radiation Affects Wildlife: Dept. of Interior Attacks FCC
Power Line Frequencies (Extremely Low Frequency Fields)
PowerWatch: 1,670 Scientific Papers on EMF (1979 - 2018)Effects of Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields (studies published from 1990 - 2020)
Cancer Risks from Exposure to Power Lines and Electrical Appliances
Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields (since August 2016)
Politics of Wireless Radiation Research & Regulation
American Academy of Pediatrics
American Academy of Pediatrics: Protect Children from Cell Phone & Wireless Radiation

American Cancer Society
American Cancer Society: Cell Phone Radiation Risk

Berkeley Model Cell Phone Ordinance
Berkeley Cell Phone "Right to Know" Ordinance
Berkeley Cell Phone "Right to Know" Ordinance: Media Coverage
California Public Health Department
Cell Phone Safety Guidance from the California Public Health Department
California's Cell Phone Safety Guidance: Media Coverage
California's Cell Phone Safety Guidance: 2017 vs 2009

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
New York Times' Exposé of CDC's Retraction of Warnings about Cell Phone Radiation

Federal Communications Commission
FCC Open Letter: Moratorium on New Commercial Applications of RF Radiation
FCC needs input regarding allocation of spectrum for 5G
An Exposé of the FCC: An Agency Captured by the Industries it RegulatesFCC: Why We Need Stronger Cell Phone Radiation Regulations--Key TestimonyFCC: Why We Need Stronger Cell Phone Radiation Regulations--Research PapersCell Tower Radiation Affects Wildlife: Dept. of Interior Attacks FCC
Cell Phone Radiation Hazards in 2002

Government Accountability Office (GAO)
GAO 2012 Mobile Phone Report to the CongressGovernment Accountability Office (GAO) 2020 Report on 5G
Industry Influence
IEEE Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR)
Industry-funded Scientists Undermine Cell Phone Radiation Science
Government Failure to Address Wireless Radiation RisksCell Phone Industry Product Liability Lawsuit

International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection
ICNIRP's Exposure Guidelines for Radio Frequency Fields
Worldwide Radio Frequency Radiation Exposure Limits versus Health Effects

World Health Organization / International Agency for Research on CancerWHO Radiofrequency EMF Health Risk Assessment Monograph (EHC series) WHO Radiofrequency Radiation PolicyInternational Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO) Position on Radiofrequency Radiation

Electromagnetic Radiation Safety
30.4.2022 19:47

Hybrid & Electric Cars: Electromagnetic Radiation Risks


Hybrid and electric cars may be cancer-causing as they emit extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). Recent studies of the EMF emitted by these automobiles have claimed either that they pose a cancer risk for the vehicles' occupants or that they are safe.
Unfortunately, much of the research conducted on this issue has been industry-funded by companies with vested interests on one side of the issue or the other which makes it difficult to know which studies are trustworthy.
Meanwhile, numerous peer-reviewed laboratory studies conducted over several decades have found biologic effects from limited exposures to ELF EMF. These studies suggest that the EMF guidelines established by the self-appointed, International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) are inadequate to protect our health. Based upon the research, more than 240 EMF experts have signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal which calls on the World Health Organization to establish stronger guidelines for ELF and radio frequency EMF. Thus, even if EMF measurements comply with the ICNIRP guidelines, occupants of hybrid and electric cars may still be at increased risk for cancer and other health problems.

Given that magnetic fields have been considered "possibly carcinogenic" in humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organization since 2001, the precautionary principle dictates that we should design consumer products to minimize consumers' exposure to ELF EMF. This especially applies to hybrid and electric automobiles as drivers and passengers spend considerable amounts of time in these vehicles, and health risks increase with the duration of exposure.

In January 2014, SINTEF, the largest independent research organization in Scandinavia, proposed manufacturing design guidelines that could reduce the magnetic fields in electric vehicles (see below). All automobile manufacturers should follow these guidelines to ensure their customers' safety.

The public should demand that governments adequately fund high-quality research on the health effects of electromagnetic fields that is independent of industry to eliminate any potential conflicts of interest. In the U.S., a major national research and education initiative could be funded with as little as a 5 cents a month fee on mobile phone subscribers.
Following are summaries and links to recent studies and news articles on this topic.


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Exposure to RF Electromagnetic Fields in the Connected Vehicle: Survey of Existing and Forthcoming Scenarios
G. Tognola, M. Bonato, M. Benini, S. Aerts, S. Gallucci, E. Chiaramello, S. Fiocchi, M. Parazzini, B. Masini, W. Joseph, J. Wiart, P. Ravazzani. Exposure to RF Electromagnetic Fields in the Connected Vehicle: Survey of Existing and Forthcoming Scenarios. IEEE Access. doi: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3170035.
Abstract
Future vehicles will be increasingly connected to enable new applications and improve safety, traffic efficiency and comfort, through the use of several wireless access technologies, ranging from vehicle-to-everything (V2X) connectivity to automotive radar sensing and Internet of Things (IoT) technologies for intra-car wireless sensor networks. These technologies span the radiofrequency (RF) range, from a few hundred MHz as in intra-car network of sensors to hundreds of GHz as in automotive radars used for in-vehicle occupant detection and advanced driver assistance systems. Vehicle occupants and road users in the vicinity of the connected vehicle are thus daily immersed in a multi-source and multi-band electromagnetic field (EMF) generated by such technologies. This paper is the first comprehensive and specific survey about EMF exposure generated by the whole ensemble of connectivity technologies in cars. For each technology we describe the main characteristics, relevant standards, the application domain, and the typical deployment in modern cars. We then extensively characterize the EMF exposure scenarios resulting from such technologies by resuming and comparing the outcomes from past studies on the exposure in the car. Results from past studies suggested that in no case EMF exposure was above the safe limits for the general population. Finally, open challenges for a more realistic characterization of the EMF exposure scenario in the connected car are discussed.
Open access paper:https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/stamp/stamp.jsp?tp=&arnumber=9762806&isnumber=6514899
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Complex Electromagnetic Issues Associated with the Use of Electric Vehicles in Urban Transportation

Krzysztof Gryz, Jolanta Karpowicz, Patryk Zradziński. Complex Electromagnetic Issues Associated with the Use of Electric Vehicles in Urban Transportation. Sensors (Basel). 2022 Feb 22;22(5):1719. doi: 10.3390/s22051719.
Abstract

The electromagnetic field (EMF) in electric vehicles (EVs) affects not only drivers, but also passengers (using EVs daily) and electronic devices inside. This article summarizes the measurement methods applicable in studies of complex EMF in EVs focused on the evaluation of characteristics of such exposure to EVs users and drivers, together with the results of investigations into the static magnetic field (SMF), the extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) EMF related to the use of the EVs in urban transportation. The investigated EMF components comply separately with limits provided by international labor law and guidelines regarding the evaluation of human short-term exposure; however other issues need attention-electromagnetic immunity of electronic devices and long-term human exposure. The strongest EMF was found in the vicinity of direct current (DC) charging installations-SMF up to 0.2 mT and ELF magnetic field up to 100 µT-and inside the EVs-up to 30 µT close to its internal electrical equipment. Exposure to RF EMF inside the EVs (up to a few V/m) was found and recognized to be emitted from outdoor radio communications systems, together with emissions from sources used inside vehicles, such as passenger mobile communication handsets and antennas of Wi-Fi routers.
Excerpts
4.5. Health Aspects of Exposure to EMF in EVs

An EV driver's long-lasting daily exposure to EMF, even if compliant with the exposure limits, cannot be counted to be negligible when the context of possible adverse health effects due to chronic exposure to EMF is considered. The ELF MF was classified to be a possible carcinogenic to human (2B classification) based on the epidemiologically proven elevated carcinogenic health risks in populations chronically exposed to MF exceeding 0.4 μT (attention level related to yearly averaged exposure) [38,39,40]. The level of ELF MF exposure reported in various studies focused on EMF in EVs and discussed in this article may significantly contribute to the total long-lasting exposure to drivers.

The effects of EMF exposure induced in exposed objects are frequency-dependent, but the significant majority of studies performed so far in the area of EMF safety have referred to the populations exposed to high-voltage power lines (i.e., to chronic exposure to EMF of sinusoidal power frequency), and the outcome of such observations was a base for the abovementioned 2B classification for ELF MF exceeding 0.4 μT. Because of differences in the frequency patterns of the discussed exposures (near power lines and in EVs), there needs to be very careful analysis of how far the studied health and safety outcomes from ELF EMF exposures vary in such cases, and which exposure metrics are relevant to evaluate them. Consistently, the mentioned differences in frequency characteristics of ELF EMF in EVs and EMF near regular electric power installations also need attention with respect to the exposure evaluation protocol, which in practice means that studies of the parameters of EMF exposure associated with the use of EVs require not only measurements of the RMS value (which, in practice, is usually almost equal to the RMS value of the dominant frequency component of exposure), but also attention to the higher harmonics of this exposure, the components of fundamental frequencies other than 50 Hz, the parameters of transient EMF over rapid changes in the mode of EV driving, and combined exposure including the above mentioned components.

Similar to ELF MF, RF EMF was classified by the IARC in the group of 2B carcinogenic environmental factors [41]. This component of driver EMF exposure also needs attention because of its level at least comparable to office exposure, where wireless radio communication facilities are in use and daily long-lasting exposure, potentially significantly contributing to total driver chronic exposure, combines with other components of lower frequencies (covering together exposure to: static, low frequency and radiofrequency fields).

5. Conclusions

In every urban area, there is a daily mass of passengers traveling by public transportation. Ecological and economic reasons, as well as technological development, mean that a significant percentage of the population already use EVs (trams, metro, trolleys, buses) daily, seeing as they are an increasing majority of transportation resources in various large cities. During the journeys, passengers and drivers are exposed to a specific complex EMF, with a dominant ELF component emitted by the driving systems and their supply installations, and an RF component emitted by various wireless communications systems (e.g., Wi-Fi routers located often inside vehicles, handsets of mobile communications used by passengers, and mobile communication BTS located outside vehicles). Depending on the location of the electric equipment inside the EVs, a higher exposure to EMF may affect passengers, or in some cases drivers.
Investigations into SMF, ELF and RF EMF emitted by various electrical equipment associated with the use of EV urban transportation showed that their levels, considered separately, comply with the limits provided by international labor law and guidelines aimed at protecting against the direct effects of short-term influence on humans of EMF of a particular frequency range (set up to prevent thermal load or electrical stimulation in exposed tissue) [12,13,17,20,21,22]. International guidelines and labor law do not provide rules on how to evaluate simultaneous exposure at various frequency ranges (e.g., SMF together with ELF and RF). This needs also specific attention, given that electronic devices and systems used inside EVs need to have sufficient electromagnetic immunity to ensure that their performance is not negatively affected by the impact from EMF emitted by the use of EVs.

Considering the chronic nature of exposure to EMF in EVs (in particular with respect to potential exposure to drivers when various EMF sources are located near their cabins), and the potential specific risks from exposure to EMF of complex composition in time and frequency domains, there is a need to collect research data on the complex characteristics of EMF exposure related to the use of EVs in public transportation and the associated health outcome in chronically exposed workers, as well as decreasing the level of their exposure by applying relevant preventive measures (e.g., locating indoor Wi-Fi routers, and other such electrical equipment, away from the driver's cabin) [17,23,42,43,44].

Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1424-8220/22/5/1719
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Review of Safety and Exposure Limits of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging (WEVC) Applications

Erdem Asa, Mostak Mohammad, Omer C. Onar, Jason Pries, Veda Galigekere, Gui-Jia Su. Review of Safety and Exposure Limits of Electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging (WEVC) Applications. 2020 IEEE Transportation Electrification Conference & Expo (ITEC). 23-26 June 2020. doi: 10.1109/ITEC48692.2020.9161597.

Abstract
This study reviews the exposure limits and safety of intermediate frequency (IF) electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions for wireless electric vehicle charging (WEVC) applications. A review of the electromagnetic field exposure limits identified in international guidelines are presented. An overview of the electromagnetic field shielding technologies is provided including recommended geometries, materials, and performances of the methods available in the literature. Available laboratory results of EMF emissions are summarized considering several wireless power transfer studies in different power levels. Possible EMF reduction techniques are discussed with shielding practices and ORNL [Oak Ridge National Laboratory] case studies. Also, living object detection (LOD) and foreign object detection (FOD) methods are reviewed from a safety aspect.
Conclusions
This study reviews and compiles the EMF emission limitations identified in international guidelines and standards including IEEE, ICNIRP, ACGIH, and SAE. EMF emissions can be substantial particularly at high-power transfer levels and misaligned conditions and should be reduced below the limits identified in the ICNIRP 2010 guidelines which are more conservative and thought to be safer. This study also provides a review of the shielding methods and presents two case studies from ORNL experiences and practices on EMF shielding. EMF exposure levels and shielding methodologies for high-power and dynamic wireless power transfer applications should be analyzed in future studies with possible standards development activities.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9161597
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Electromagnetic Exposure Study on a Human Located inside the Car Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources
Jeladze VB, Nozadze TR, Tabatadze VA, et al. Electromagnetic Exposure Study on a Human Located inside the Car Using the Method of Auxiliary Sources. J Communications Technology Electronics. 65(5): 457-464. May 2020.

Abstract

The article studies the effect of the electromagnetic field of wireless communications on a human inside a car in the frequency ranges of 450, 900, and 1800 MHz, corresponding to the operational range of police radios and modern mobile phones. A comparative analysis of the influence of the Earth's surface under the car is presented. The results of numerical calculations using the Method of Auxiliary Sources show the presence of resonance phenomena and a high reactive field inside the car, which leads to an undesirable increase in the level of absorbed energy in human tissues.

Conclusions
The Method of Auxiliary Sources was used to study the exposure of the electromagnetic field of a mobile phone's antenna on a human inside a car. The calculations took into account the effect of Earth's reflective surface under the car. The results showed that high-amplitude reactive fields inside the car can lead to a multiple increase in the SAR coefficient in human tissues compared to values obtained in the free space. It is recommended to reduce the duration of mobile phone calls inside a car.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1064226920050034
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Patients with pacemakers or defibrillators do not need to worry about e-Cars: An observational study

Lennerz C, Horlbeck L, Weigand S, Grebmer C, Blazek P, Brkic A, Semmler V, Haller B, Reents T, Hessling G, Deisenhofer I, Lienkamp M, Kolb C, O'Connor M. Technol Health Care. 2019 Nov 8. doi: 10.3233/THC-191891.

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Electric cars are increasingly used for public and private transportation and represent possible sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI). Potential implications for patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) range from unnecessary driving restrictions to life-threatening device malfunction. This prospective, cross-sectional study was designed to assess the EMI risk of electric cars on CIED function.

METHODS: One hundred and eight consecutive patients with CIED presenting for routine follow-up between May 2014 and January 2015 were enrolled in the study. The participants were exposed to electromagnetic fields generated by the four most common electric cars (Nissan Leaf, Tesla Model S, BMW i3, VW eUp) while roller-bench test-driving at Institute of Automotive Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University, Munich. The primary endpoint was any abnormalities in CIED function (e.g. oversensing with pacing-inhibition, inappropriate therapy or mode-switching) while driving or charging electric cars as assessed by electrocardiographic recordings and device interrogation.

RESULTS: No change in device function or programming was seen in this cohort which is representative of contemporary CIED devices. The largest electromagnetic field detected was along the charging cable during high current charging (116.5 μT). The field strength in the cabin was lower (2.1-3.6 μT).

CONCLUSIONS: Electric cars produce electromagnetic fields; however, they did not affect CIED function or programming in our cohort. Driving and charging of electric cars is likely safe for patients with CIEDs.


Open access paper: https://content.iospress.com/articles/technology-and-health-care/thc191891
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Long-Term Monitoring of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Electric Vehicles

Yang L, Lu M, Lin J, Li C, Zhang C, Lai Z, Wu T. Long-Term Monitoring of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields in Electric Vehicles. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Oct 7;16(19). pii: E3765. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16193765.

Abstract

Extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) exposure in electric vehicles (EVs) has raised public concern for human health. There have been many studies evaluating magnetic field values in these vehicles. However, there has been no report on the temporal variation of the magnetic field in the cabin . This is the first study on the long-term monitoring of actual MFs in EVs. In the study, we measured the magnetic flux density (B) in three shared vehicles over a period of two years. The measurements were performed at the front and rear seats during acceleration and constant-speed driving modes. We found that the B amplitudes and the spectral components could be modified by replacing the components and the hubs, while regular checks or maintenance did not influence the B values in the vehicle. This observation highlights the necessity of regularly monitoring ELF MF in EVs, especially after major repairs or accidents, to protect car users from potentially excessive ELF MF exposure. These results should be considered in updates of the measurement standards. The ELF MF effect should also be taken into consideration in relevant epidemiological studies.

Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/19/3765
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Effect of static magnetic field of electric vehicles on driving performance and on neuro-psychological cognitive functions
He Y, Sun W, Leung PS, Chow YT.
Effect of static magnetic field of electric vehicles on driving performance and on neuro-psychological cognitive functions. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Sep 12;16(18). pii: E3382. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16183382.

Abstract

Human neuropsychological reactions and brain activities when driving electric vehicles (EVs) are considered as an issue for traffic and public safety purposes; this paper examined the effect of the static magnetic field (SMF) derived from EVs. A lane change task was adopted to evaluate the driving performance; and the driving reaction time test and the reaction time test were adopted to evaluate the variation of the neuro-psychological cognitive functions. Both the sham and the real exposure conditions were performed with a 350 μT localized SMF in this study; 17 student subjects were enrolled in this single-blind experiment. Electroencephalographs (EEGs) of the subjects were adopted and recorded during the experiment as an indicator of the brain activity for the variations of the driving performance and of the cognitive functions. Results of this study have indicated that the impact of the given SMF on both the human driving performance and the cognitive functions are not considerable; and that there is a correlation between beta sub-band of the EEGs and the human reaction time in the analysis.

Open access paper: https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/16/18/3382

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Possible Health Impacts of Advanced Vehicles Wireless Technologies

Judakova Z, Janousek L. Possible Health Impacts of Advanced Vehicles Wireless Technologies. Transportation Research Procedia. 40:1404-1411. 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trpro.2019.07.194

Abstract

Modern vehicles contain various security systems including vehicular networking where vehicles receive relevant traffic information using wireless communications from their peers. This wireless communication is mediated by the radiofrequency electromagnetic field. Exposure to electromagnetic fields caused by the transportation system is a cause of concern for many people. Plenty of dosimetric analysis of electromagnetic field carried out by various research groups found out the highest exposure values in the transport. How long-term effects of these fields affect the human organism and what is the mechanism of action, are questions without known answers. Several studies point to the possible association of different diseases with electromagnetic field exposure. The key to understanding the effect of the electromagnetic field on the human organism is to reveal the mechanism of action of these fields.


Open access paper: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352146519303643?via%3Dihub

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Evaluating extremely low frequency magnetic fields in the rear seats of the electric vehicles

Lin J, Lu M, Wu T, Yang L, Wu TN. Evaluating extremely low frequency magnetic fields in the rear seats of the electric vehicles. Radiation Protection Dosimetry. 182(2):190-199. Dec 2018.
Abstract
In the electric vehicles (EVs), children can sit on a safety seat installed in the rear seats. Owing to their smaller physical dimensions, their heads, generally, are closer to the underfloor electrical systems where the magnetic field (MF) exposure is the greatest. In this study, the magnetic flux density (B) was measured in the rear seats of 10 different EVs, for different driving sessions. We used the measurement results from different heights corresponding to the locations of the heads of an adult and an infant to calculate the induced electric field (E-field) strength using anatomical human models. The results revealed that measured B fields in the rear seats were far below the reference levels by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Although small children may be exposed to higher MF strength, induced E-field strengths were much lower than that of adults due to their particular physical dimensions.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29584925

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Radiofrequencies in cars: A public health threat

According to Theodore P. Metsis, Ph.D., an electrical, mechanical, and environmental engineer from Athens, Greece, modern conventional gas- and diesel-powered automobiles incorporate many EMF-emitting devices.
"EMFs in a car in motion with brakes applied + ABS activation may well exceed 100 mG. Adding RF radiation from blue tooth, Wi Fi, the cell phones of the passengers, the 4G antennas laid out all along the major roads plus the radars of cars already equipped with, located behind, left or right of a vehicle, the total EMF and EMR fields will exceed any limits humans can tolerate over a long period of time."
https://www.radiationdangers.com/automotive-radiation/automotive-radiation/


PDF of Dr. Metsis' graphics (2 pages): https://bit.ly/RFcarsMetsis

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Mobile Phone Antenna's EM Exposure Study on a Human Model Inside the Car

Nozadze T, Jeladze V, Tabatadze V, Petoev I, Zaidze R. Mobile phone antenna's EM exposure study on a homogeneous human model inside the car. 2018 XXIIIrd International Seminar/Workshop on Direct and Inverse Problems of Electromagnetic and Acoustic Wave Theory (DIPED). Tlibisi, Georgia. Sep 24-27, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/DIPED.2018.8543310

Abstract

Mobile phones' radiation influence on a homogenous human model located inside a car is studied in this research. One of the novelty of proposed research is earth surface influence consideration under the car on EM field formation inside it. The inner field and its amplification by the car's walls that in some cases act like a resonator are studied. The problem was solved numerically using the Method of Auxiliary Sources. Numerical simulations were carried out at the 450, 900, 1800 [MHz] standard communication frequencies. Obtained results showed the presence of resonant phenomena inside the car.
Excerpts
On Fig. 9 are presented point SAR peak values at the considered non-resonant and resonant frequencies. As it seen, point SAR peak values for resonant frequencies are approximately 5–8 times higher than non-resonant frequencies.
Based on the analysis of the obtained results we can conclude that at some frequencies car's walls acts as the resonator and amplifies the field radiated from the mobile phones; which is cause of high point SAR values inside the human body. For the low frequency the EM field energy deeply penetrates into the human body, while for the high frequencies is mostly absorbed in the skin.
Conclusions
The mobile phone's EM exposure problem for a homogenous human model inside the car is studied using the MAS. MAS were used to simulate earth reflective surface. The obtained results, conducted with the MAS based program package, showed the presence of resonance and reactive fields inside the car, that causes high SAR in human tissues. The reason of this is that at the considered frequencies car's metallic surface acts as the resonator. So, it isn't desirable speak on phones for a long time inside the car, that can be hazardous for the cell phone users located in it.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8543310

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Electric cars and EMI with cardiac implantable electronic devices: A cross-sectional evaluation

Lennerz C, O'Connor M, Horlbeck L, Michel J, Weigand S, Grebmer C, Blazek P, Brkic A, Semmler V, Haller B, Reents T, Hessling G, Deisenhofer I, Whittaker P, Lienkamp M, Kolb C. Letter: Electric cars and electromagnetic interference with cardiac implantable electronic devices: A cross-sectional evaluation. Annals of Internal Medicine. Apr 24, 2018.
No Abstract
Excerpts
Cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) are considered standard care for bradycardia, tachycardia, and heart failure. Electromagnetic interference (EMI) can disrupt normal function … Electric cars represent a potential source of EMI. However, data are insufficient to determine their safety or whether their use should be restricted in patients with CIEDs.
Objective: To assess whether electric cars cause EMI and subsequent CIED dysfunction.
Methods and Findings: We approached 150 consecutive patients with CIEDs seen in our electrophysiology clinic … 40 patients declined to participate, and 2 withdrew consent … Participants were assigned to 1 of 4 electric cars with the largest European market share…we excluded hybrid vehicles.
Participants sat in the front seat while cars ran on a roller test bench … Participants then charged the same car in which they had sat. Finally, investigators drove the cars on public roads.
Field strength was generally highest during charging (30.1 to 116.5 µT) and increased as the charging current increased. Exposure during charging was at least an order of magnitude greater than that measured within 5 cm of the CIED in the front seat (2.0 to 3.6 µT). Field strength did not differ between the front and back seats. Peak field strength measured outside the cars ranged between the values measured during charging and those measured within the cars during testing … Field strength measured inside the cars during road driving was similar to that measured during test bench studies.
We found no evidence of EMI with CIEDs ...The electrocardiographic recorder did observe EMI, but CIED function and programming were unaffected.
Our sample was too small to detect rare events ... Nevertheless, other evidence supports a lack of EMI with CIEDs. Magnetic fields are generated in gasoline-powered vehicles if the vehicles' steel-belted tires are magnetized (3); average fields of approximately 20 µT were reported in the back seat of 12 models, and those as high as 97 µT were reported close to the tires (4). Similar values were reported in electric trains and trams (5). The lack of anecdotal reports of CIED malfunction associated with such transportation is consistent with our findings.
Electric cars seem safe for patients with CIEDs, and restrictions do not appear to be required. However, we recommend vigilance to monitor for rare events, especially those associated with charging and proposed "supercharging" technology.

https://bit.ly/2Hs9s9Y
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Evaluating ELF magnetic fields in the rear seats of electric vehicles

Lin J, Lu M, Wu T, Yang L, Wu T. Evaluating extremely low frequency magnetic fields in the rear seats of the electric vehicles. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2018 Mar 23. doi: 10.1093/rpd/ncy048.

Abstract
In the electric vehicles (EVs), children can sit on a safety seat installed in the rear seats. Owing to their smaller physical dimensions, their heads, generally, are closer to the underfloor electrical systems where the magnetic field (MF) exposure is the greatest. In this study, the magnetic flux density (B) was measured in the rear seats of 10 different EVs, for different driving sessions. We used the measurement results from different heights corresponding to the locations of the heads of an adult and an infant to calculate the induced electric field (E-field) strength using anatomical human models. The results revealed that measured B fields in the rear seats were far below the reference levels by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Although small children may be exposed to higher MF strength, induced E-field strengths were much lower than that of adults due to their particular physical dimensions.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29584925
Excerpts
Small children and infants sitting in a safety seat at the rear part of the vehicle is a common occurrence. Children have smaller physical dimensions and, thus, their heads are generally much closer to the car floor, where the MF strength has been reported to be higher due to tire magnetization and the operation of the underfloor electrical systems (6, 7). The matter of children being potentially subject to greater magnetic field exposure may be relevant as leukemia is the most common type of childhood cancer (8). In particular, Ahlbom et al. (9) and Greenland et al. (10) indicated that the exposure to 50 and 60 Hz MF exceeding 0.3–0.4 μT may result in an increased risk for childhood leukemia although a satisfactory causal relationship has not yet been reliably demonstrated. Also, it was reported that a combination of weak, steady and alternating MF could modify the radical concentration, which had the potential to lead to biologically significant changes (11).
... the B field values measured at location #4 (floor in from of rear seat) were the highest, followed by values from location #3 (rear seat cushion), #2 (child's head position) and #1 (adult's head position) (p < 0.012, α = 0.05/3 = 0.017). There was a significant difference between the driving scenarios (F(3, 117) = 3.72, p = 0.013). The acceleration and deceleration scenarios generated higher B fields compared with the stationary and the 40 km/h driving scenarios (p < 0.01, α = 0.05/3 = 0.017) while no difference was identified between acceleration and deceleration (p = 0.16).
... The results demonstrate that the induced E-field strength was lower for the infant model compared with that of the adult in terms of both the head and body as a whole.
The infant was reported to have higher electrical conductivity (29) but there was no database dedicated to the infant. Furthermore, below 1 MHz, the database was hard to be measured and the uncertainty was large (30). Therefore, we would not include the issue in the study.

Although several SCs (spectral components) on higher frequencies have been observed (can spread to 1.24 kHz), the spectral analysis revealed that the SCs concentrated on bands below 1000 Hz. The EVs under test used aluminum alloy wheel rims, which have low magnetic permeability. However, the steel wire in the reinforcing belts of radial tires pick up magnetic fields from the terrestrial MF. When the tires spin, the magnetized steel wire in the reinforcing belts generates ELF MF usually below 20 Hz, that can exceed 2.0 μT at seat level in the passenger compartment (6). The measurement did not identify the ELF MF by different sources because the purpose of the study was to investigate the realistic exposure scenario for the occupants. To note, degaussing the tires or using the fiberglass belted tires can eliminate this effect and provide the MF results solely introduced by the operation of the electrified system.

ICNIRP proposed guidelines to evaluate the compliance of the non-sinusoidal signal exposure(3). The measurements rendered the maximal B field at the level of one-tenth to several μT, far below the reference level of the guidelines (e.g. 200 μT for 20–400 Hz). The similar non-sinusoidal MF signal magnitudes can only account for 6–10% of the reference levels according to the previous reports(32). However, as noted in the Introduction, '… 50 and 60 Hz MF exceeding 0.3–0.4 μT may result in an increased risk for childhood leukemia'. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the MF in the EVs to limit the exposure and for the purpose of epidemiological studies.
In this study, we measured ELF MF in the rear seats of ten types of EVs. The measurements were performed for four different driving scenarios. The measurement results were analyzed to determine the worst-case scenario and those values were used for simulations. We made numerical simulations to compare the induced E-field strength due to the physical difference between children and adults using detailed anatomical models. The results support the contention that the MF in the EVs that we tested was far below the reference levels of the ICNIRP guidelines. Furthermore, our findings show that children would not be more highly exposed compared to adults when taking into consideration of their physical differences. However, the measurement results indicated that further studies should be performed to elucidate the concerns on the incidence of the childhood leukemia for infant and child occupants.
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Evaluation of electromagnetic exposure during 85 kHz wireless power transfer for electric vehicles

SangWook Park. Evaluation of Electromagnetic Exposure During 85 kHz Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics. Volume: PP, Issue: 99. Sep 1, 2017. doi: 10.1109/TMAG.2017.2748498.

Abstract
The external fields in the proximity of electric vehicle (EV) wireless power transfer (WPT) systems requiring high power may exceed the limits of international safety guidelines. This study presents dosimetric results of an 85 kHz WPT system for electric vehicles. A WPT system for charging EVs is designed and dosimetry for the system is evaluated for various exposure scenarios: a human body in front of the WPT system without shielding, with shielding, with alignment and misalignment between transmitter and receiver, and with a metal plate on the system for vehicle mimic floor pan. The minimum accessible distances in compliance are investigated for various transmitting powers. The maximum allowable transmitting power are also investigated with the limits of international safety guidelines and the dosimetric results.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8024022/
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Electric and magnetic fields <100 KHz in electric and gasoline-powered vehicles

Tell RA, Kavet R. Electric and magnetic fields <100 KHz in electric and gasoline-powered vehicles. Radiat Prot Dosimetry. 2016 Dec;172(4):541-546.
Abstract
Measurements were conducted to investigate electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) from 120 Hz to 10 kHz and 1.2 to 100 kHz in 9 electric or hybrid vehicles and 4 gasoline vehicles, all while being driven. The range of fields in the electric vehicles enclosed the range observed in the gasoline vehicles. Mean magnetic fields ranged from nominally 0.6 to 3.5 µT for electric/hybrids depending on the measurement band compared with nominally 0.4 to 0.6 µT for gasoline vehicles. Mean values of electric fields ranged from nominally 2 to 3 V m-1 for electric/hybrid vehicles depending on the band, compared with 0.9 to 3 V m-1 for gasoline vehicles. In all cases, the fields were well within published exposure limits for the general population. The measurements were performed with Narda model EHP-50C/EHP-50D EMF analysers that revealed the presence of spurious signals in the EHP-50C unit, which were resolved with the EHP-50D model.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26769905
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Passenger exposure to magnetic fields due to the batteries of an electric vehicle

Pablo Moreno-Torres Concha; Pablo Velez; Marcos Lafoz; Jaime R. Arribas. Passenger Exposure to Magnetic Fields due to the Batteries of an Electric Vehicle. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology. 65(6):4564-4571. Jun 2016.
Abstract
In electric vehicles, passengers sit very close to an electric system of significant power. The high currents achieved in these vehicles mean that the passengers could be exposed to significant magnetic fields (MFs). One of the electric devices present in the power train are the batteries. In this paper, a methodology to evaluate the MF created by these batteries is presented. First, the MF generated by a single battery is analyzed using finite-elements simulations. Results are compared with laboratory measurements, which are taken from a real battery, to validate the model. After this, the MF created by a complete battery pack is estimated, and results are discussed.
Conclusion
Passengers inside an EV could be exposed to MFs of considerable strength when compared with conventional vehicles or to other daily exposures (at home, in the office, in the street, etc.). In this paper, the MF created by the batteries of a particular electric car is evaluated from the human health point of view by means of finite-elements simulations, measurements, and a simple analytical approximation, obtaining an upper bound for the estimated MF generated by a given battery pack. These results have been compared with ICNIRP's recommendations concerning exposure limitation to low-frequency MFs, finding that the field generated by this particular battery pack should be below ICNIRP's field reference levels, and conclusions concerning the influence of the switching frequency have been drawn. Finally, some discussion regarding other field sources within the vehicle and different vehicles designs has been presented. Due to the wide variety of both available EVs and battery stacks configurations, it is recommended that each vehicle model should be individually assessed regarding MF exposure.
https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=7297855

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Magnetic field exposure assessment in electric vehicles

Vassilev A et al. Magnetic Field Exposure Assessment in Electric Vehicles. IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility. 57(1):35-43. Feb 2015.
Abstract
This article describes a study of magnetic field exposure in electric vehicles (EVs). The magnetic field inside eight different EVs (including battery, hybrid, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell types) with different motor technologies (brushed direct current, permanent magnet synchronous, and induction) were measured at frequencies up to 10 MHz. Three vehicles with conventional powertrains were also investigated for comparison. The measurement protocol and the results of the measurement campaign are described, and various magnetic field sources are identified. As the measurements show a complex broadband frequency spectrum, an exposure calculation was performed using the ICNIRP "weighted peak" approach. Results for the measured EVs showed that the exposure reached 20% of the ICNIRP 2010 reference levels for general public exposure near to the battery and in the vicinity of the feet during vehicle start-up, but was less than 2% at head height for the front passenger position. Maximum exposures of the order of 10% of the ICNIRP 2010 reference levels were obtained for the cars with conventional powertrains.

https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/6915707/
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Characterization of ELF magnetic fields from diesel, gasoline and hybrid cars under controlled conditions

Hareuveny R, Sudan M, Halgamuge MN, Yaffe Y, Tzabari Y, Namir D, Kheifets L. Characterization of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields from Diesel, Gasoline and Hybrid Cars under Controlled Conditions. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Jan 30;12(2):1651-1666.

Abstract
This study characterizes extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF) levels in 10 car models.
Extensive measurements were conducted in three diesel, four gasoline, and three hybrid cars, under similar controlled conditions and negligible background fields.

Averaged over all four seats under various driving scenarios the fields were lowest in diesel cars (0.02 μT), higher for gasoline (0.04-0.05 μT) and highest in hybrids (0.06-0.09 μT), but all were in-line with daily exposures from other sources. Hybrid cars had the highest mean and 95th percentile MF levels, and an especially large percentage of measurements above 0.2 μT. These parameters were also higher for moving conditions compared to standing while idling or revving at 2500 RPM and higher still at 80 km/h compared to 40 km/h. Fields in non-hybrid cars were higher at the front seats, while in hybrid cars they were higher at the back seats, particularly the back right seat where 16%-69% of measurements were greater than 0.2 μT.

As our results do not include low frequency fields (below 30 Hz) that might be generated by tire rotation, we suggest that net currents flowing through the cars' metallic chassis may be a possible source of MF. Larger surveys in standardized and well-described settings should be conducted with different types of vehicles and with spectral analysis of fields including lower frequencies due to magnetization of tires.
Excerpts
Previous work suggests that major sources of MF in cars include the tires and electric currents [4,5]. The level of MF exposure depends on the position within the vehicle (e.g., proximity to the MF sources) and can vary with different operating conditions, as changes to engine load can induce MFs through changes in electric currents. Scientific investigations of the levels of MF in cars are sparse: only one study evaluated fields only in non-hybrid cars [6], two studies of hybrid cars have been carried out [4,7], and few studies have systematically compared exposures in both hybrid and non-hybrid cars [8,9,10,11,12], some based on a very small number of cars
In hybrid cars, the battery is generally located in the rear of the car and the engine is located in the front. Electric current flows between these two points through cables that run underneath the passenger cabin of the car. This cable is located on the left for right-hand driving cars and on the right for left-hand driving cars. Although in principle the system uses direct current (DC), current from the alternator that is not fully rectified as well as changes to the engine load, and therefore the current level, can produce MFs which are most likely in the ELF range. While most non-hybrid cars have batteries that are located in the front, batteries in some of them are located in the rear of the car, with cables running to the front of the car for the electrical appliances on the dashboard. In this study, all gasoline and diesel cars had batteries located in the front of the car.
...the percent of time above 0.2 µT was the most sensitive parameter of the exposure. Overall, the diesel cars measured in this study had the lowest MF readings (geometric mean less than 0.02 μT), while the hybrid cars had the highest MF readings (geometric mean 0.05 μT). Hybrid cars had also the most unstable results, even after excluding outliers beyond the 5th and 95th percentiles. With regard to seat position, after adjusting for the specific car model, gasoline and diesel cars produced higher average MF readings in the front seats, while hybrid cars produced the highest MF readings in the back right seat (presumably due to the location of the battery). Comparing the different operating conditions, the highest average fields were found at 80 km/h, and the differences between operating conditions were most pronounced in the back right seat in hybrid cars. Whether during typical city or highway driving, we found lowest average fields for diesel cars and highest fields for hybrid cars.
Previous works suggest that the magnetization of rotating tires is the primary source of ELF MFs in non-hybrid cars [5,15]. However, the relatively strong fields (on the order of a few μT within the car) originating from the rotating tires are typically at 5–15 Hz frequencies, which are filtered by the EMDEX II meters. ....
Overall, the average MF levels measured in the cars' seats were in the range of 0.04–0.09 μT (AM) and 0.02–0.05 μT (GM). These fields are well below the ICNIRP [17] guidelines for maximum general public exposure (which range from 200 μT for 40 Hz to 100 μT for 800 Hz), but given the complex environments in the cars, simultaneous exposure to non-sinusoidal fields at multiple frequencies must be carefully taken into account. Nevertheless, exposures in the cars are in the range of every day exposure from other sources. Moreover, given the short amount of time that most adults and children spend in cars (about 30 minutes per day based on a survey of children in Israel (unpublished data), the relative contribution of this source to the ELF exposure of the general public is small. However, these fields are in addition to other exposure sources. Our results might explain trends seen in other daily exposures: slightly higher average fields observed while travelling (GM = 0.096 μT) relative to in bed (GM = 0.052 μT) and home not in bed (GM = 0.080 μT) [1]. Similarly, the survey of children in Israel found higher exposure from transportation (GM = 0.092 µT) compared to mean daily exposures (GM = 0.059 µT). Occupationally, the GM of time-weighted average for motor vehicle drivers is 0.12 μT [18].
Open access paper: https://bit.ly/1u9lUTN
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Design guidelines to reduce the magnetic field in electric vehicles

SINTEF, Jan 6, 2014

Based on the measurements and on extensive simulation work the project arrived on the following design guidelines to, if necessary, minimize the magnetic field in electric vehicles.

Cables
  • For any DC cable carrying significant amount of current, it should be made in the form of a twisted pair so that the currents in the pair always flow in the opposite directions. This will minimise its EMF emission.
  • For three-phase AC cables, three wires should be twisted and made as close as possible so as to minimise its EMF emission.
  • All power cables should be positioned as far away as possible from the passenger seat area, and their layout should not form a loop. If cable distance is less than 200mm away from the passenger seats, some forms of shielding should be adopted.
  • A thin layer of ferromagnetic shield is recommended as this is cost-effective solution for the reduction of EMF emission as well EMI emission.
  • Where possible, power cables should be laid such a way that they are separated from the passenger seat area by a steel sheet, e.g., under a steel metallic chassis, or inside a steel trunk.
Motors
  • Where possible, the motor should be installed farther away from the passenger seat area, and its rotation axis should not point to the seat region.
  • If weight permits, the motor housing should be made of steel, rather than aluminium, as the former has a much better shielding effect.
  • If the distance of the motor and passenger seat area is less than 500mm, some forms of shielding should be employed. For example, a steel plate could be placed between the motor and the passenger seat region
  • Motor housing should be electrically well connected to the vehicle metallic chassis to minimise any electrical potential.
  • Inverter and motor should be mounted as close as possible to each other to minimise the cable length between the two.
Batteries
  • Since batteries are distributed, the currents in the batteries and in the interconnectors may become a significant source for EMF emission, they should be place as far away as possible from the passenger seat areas. If the distance between the battery and passenger seat area is less than 200mm, steel shields should be used to separate the batteries and the seating area.
  • The cables connecting battery cells should not form a loop, and where possible, the interconnectors for the positive polarity should be as close as possible to those of the negative polarity.
https://bit.ly/1qw29Tb

https://www.sintef.no/projectweb/em-safety/
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Magnetic fields in electric cars won't kill you

Jeremy Hsu, IEEE Spectrum, May 5, 2014
Summary
"The study, led by SINTEF, an independent research organization headquartered in Trondheim, Norway, measured the electromagnetic radiation—in the lab and during road tests—of seven different electric cars, one hydrogen-powered car, two gasoline-fueled cars and one diesel-fueled car. Results from all conditions showed that the exposure was less than 20 percent of the limit recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)."
"Measurements taken inside the vehicles—using a test dummy with sensors located in the head, chest and feet—showed exposure at less than 2 percent of the non-ionizing radiation limit at head-height. The highest electromagnetic field readings—still less than 20 percent of the limit—were found near the floor of the electric cars, close to the battery. Sensors picked up a burst of radiation that same level, when the cars were started."
https://bit.ly/1pUuOxB
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ELF magnetic fields in electric and gasoline-powered vehicles

Tell RA, Sias G, Smith J, Sahl J, Kavet R. ELF magnetic fields in electric and gasoline-powered vehicles. Bioelectromagnetics. 2013 Feb;34(2):156-61. doi: 10.1002/bem.21730.
Abstract
We conducted a pilot study to assess magnetic field levels in electric compared to gasoline-powered vehicles, and established a methodology that would provide valid data for further assessments. The sample consisted of 14 vehicles, all manufactured between January 2000 and April 2009; 6 were gasoline-powered vehicles and 8 were electric vehicles of various types. Of the eight models available, three were represented by a gasoline-powered vehicle and at least one electric vehicle, enabling intra-model comparisons. Vehicles were driven over a 16.3 km test route. Each vehicle was equipped with six EMDEX Lite broadband meters with a 40-1,000 Hz bandwidth programmed to sample every 4 s. Standard statistical testing was based on the fact that the autocorrelation statistic damped quickly with time. For seven electric cars, the geometric mean (GM) of all measurements (N = 18,318) was 0.095 µT with a geometric standard deviation (GSD) of 2.66, compared to 0.051 µT (N = 9,301; GSD = 2.11) for four gasoline-powered cars (P < 0.0001). Using the data from a previous exposure assessment of residential exposure in eight geographic regions in the United States as a basis for comparison (N = 218), the broadband magnetic fields in electric vehicles covered the same range as personal exposure levels recorded in that study. All fields measured in all vehicles were much less than the exposure limits published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE). Future studies should include larger sample sizes representative of a greater cross-section of electric-type vehicles.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22532300
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Mythbuster: EMF levels in hybrids

Consumer Reports News: August 4, 2010

Summary
"Some concern has been raised about the possible health effects of electromagnetic field radiation, known as EMF, for people who drive in hybrid cars. While all electrical devices, from table lamps to copy machines, emit EMF radiation, the fear is that hybrid cars, with their big batteries and powerful electric motors, can subject occupants to unhealthy doses. The problem is that there is no established threshold standard that says what an unhealthy dose might be, and no concrete, scientific proof that the sort of EMF produced by electric motors harms people
"We found the highest EMF levels in the Chevrolet Cobalt, a conventional non-hybrid small sedan."
[The peak EMF readings at the driver's feet ranged from 0.5 mG (milligauss) in the 2008 Toyota Highlander to 30 mG in the Chevrolet Cobalt. The hybrids tested at 2-4 mG. Here are some highlights from the tests. EMF readings were highest in the driver's foot well and second-highest at the waist, much lower higher up, where human organs might be more susceptible to EMF.
"To get a sense of scale, though, note that users of personal computers are subject to EMF exposure in the range of 2 to 20 mG, electric blankets 5 to 30 mG, and a hair dryer 10 to 70 mG, according to an Australian government compilation. In this country, several states limit EMF emissions from power lines to 200 mG. However, there are no U.S. standards specifically governing EMF in cars."
"In this series of tests, we found no evidence that hybrids expose drivers to significantly more EMF than do conventional cars. Consider this myth, busted."
https://bit.ly/TN5q2r

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Israel preps world's first hybrid car radiation scale

Tal Bronfer, the truth about cars, March 1, 2010
Summary
"The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) recommends a limit of 1,000 mG (milligauss) for a 24 hour exposure period. While other guidelines pose similar limits, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) deemed extended exposure to electromagnetic fields stronger than 2 mG to be a "possible cause" for cancer. Israel's Ministry of Health recommends a maximum of 4 mG."
"Last year, Israeli automotive website Walla! Cars conducted a series of tests on the previous generation Toyota Prius, Honda Insight and Honda Civic Hybrid, and recorded radiation figures of up to 100 mG during acceleration. Measurements also peaked when the batteries were either full (and in use) or empty (and being charged from the engine), while normal driving at constant speeds yielded 14 to 30 mG on the Prius, depending on the area of the cabin.
The Ministry of Environmental Protection is expected to publish the results of the study this week. The study will group hybrids sold in Israel into three different radiation groups, reports Israel's Calcalist. It's expected that the current-gen Prius will be deemed 'safe', while the Honda Insight and Civic Hybrid (as well as the prev-gen Prius) will be listed as emitting 'excessive' radiation."
https://bit.ly/1pUu7Ep
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Fear, but few facts, on hybrid risk

Jim Motavalli, New York Times, Apr 27, 2008

Summary
"... concern is not without merit; agencies including the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute acknowledge the potential hazards of long-term exposure to a strong electromagnetic field, or E.M.F., and have done studies on the association of cancer risks with living near high-voltage utility lines.

While Americans live with E.M.F.'s all around — produced by everything from cellphones to electric blankets — there is no broad agreement over what level of exposure constitutes a health hazard, and there is no federal standard that sets allowable exposure levels. Government safety tests do not measure the strength of the fields in vehicles — though Honda and Toyota, the dominant hybrid makers, say their internal checks assure that their cars pose no added risk to occupants."

"A spokesman for Honda, Chris Martin, points to the lack of a federally mandated standard for E.M.F.'s in cars. Despite this, he said, Honda takes the matter seriously. "All our tests had results that were well below the commission's standard," Mr. Martin said, referring to the European guidelines. And he cautions about the use of hand-held test equipment. "People have a valid concern, but they're measuring radiation using the wrong devices," he said."
"Donald B. Karner, president of Electric Transportation Applications in Phoenix, who tested E.M.F. levels in battery-electric cars for the Energy Department in the 1990s, said it was hard to evaluate readings without knowing how the testing was done. He also said it was a problem to determine a danger level for low-frequency radiation, in part because dosage is determined not only by proximity to the source, but by duration of exposure. "We're exposed to radio waves from the time we're born, but there's a general belief that there's so little energy in them that they're not dangerous," he said."
https://nyti.ms/TAQZxL
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