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Electromagnetic Radiation Safety

Does exposure to 4G LTE cell phone radiation impair cell phone users' health?

4G or the fourth generation of cellular technology is called Long Term Evolution or LTE.  This technology employs new digital signal processing and modulation to increase the capacity and speed of wireless telecommunications networks. 
The standard for LTE was finalized in December, 2008, and the first mobile phone to employ this technology was released in September, 2010. By the end of 2017, 41 countries supported LTE coverage over at least 75% of their land area. In North America, the number of LTE mobile devices in use, 365 millionnow exceeds the size of the population.

LTE was launched without any pre-market safety testing. To date, I have found several peer-reviewed studies that examined the acute effects of exposure to LTE radiation on brain functioning and no research on human health effects.Thus, we do not know whether long-term exposure to LTE radiation is safe.

The latest study found diminished fertility in male rats exposed to a 4G (LTE) smartphone for 150 days (see below). 

The fifth generation of cellular technology, or 5G, is currently being launched in selected areas in many countries. Although once again no pre-market safety testing was conducted, related research suggests various types of harm to humans and other species from exposure to 5G radiation.

The abstracts for 4G (LTE) studies appear below.

Effects of mobile phone radiation on certain hematological parameters

Christopher B, Sheena MY, Uddin Khandaker M, Bradley DA, Chew MT, Jojo PJ.  Effects of mobile phone radiation on certain hematological parameters. Radiation Physics and Chemistry. Published online September 14, 2019. 108443.


• Mobile phone radiation affects blood hemoglobin level, white blood cell and platelets count and erythrocytes sedimentation rate.
• Effects of mobile phone radiation on hematological factors studied in a controlled condition in the laboratory.
• A matched case control approach was adopted for the investigation.
• Long time and over exposure to mobile phone radiation may affect the individual health.


Exorbitant chronic exposure to any sort of radiation is hazardous to human health. Besides ionizing radiation, exposures to electromagnetic radiation mainly from the use of mobile phones have become a matter of great health concern, especially its extortionate use even by children. At the same time there are several myths related to the ill effects including carcinogenicity of the prolonged exposure continuously. The objective of this investigation was to find the effect on certain vital hematological parameters namely hemoglobin level, white blood cell (WBC) count, platelet count and erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR) level due to the prolonged exposure to mobile radiations through in vitro examination of human blood samples. Matched case control methodology was adopted for the study. Blood samples were collected by clinicians from 27 voluntary subjects for investigation. From each, one sample was kept un-exposed while the other three samples were exposed to mobile microwave radiations for 60 min continuously in identical and controlled conditions. A 4G hand phone of a very popular brand having transmission frequency range from 2.3 to 2.4 GHz including uplink and downlink was used. Hematological analyses were carried out on fresh samples immediately after collection. For comparison of the levels of hematological parameters, blood exposed to 1 h of phone radiation and control were analysed. Experimental results show that there is a significant change on the hematological components. The exposed blood samples were found to have decrease in platelet count only. Hemoglobin level, ESR rate and the WBC counts were found to be increased. While these observations are performed in a controlled laboratory conditions, the tremendous growth in number of mobile phone users, the effects could be many more folds especially in work places and cities even through passive exposure.


Early-life exposure to pulsed LTE radiofrequency fields causes persistent changes in activity and behavior in mice

Broom KA, Findlay R, Addison DS, Goiceanu C, Sienkiewicz Z. Early-life exposure to pulsed LTE radiofrequency fields causes persistent changes in activity and behavior in C57BL/6 J mice. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Sep 15. doi: 10.1002/bem.22217.

Despite much research, gaps remain in knowledge about the potential health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields. This study investigated the effects of early-life exposure to pulsed long term evolution (LTE) 1,846 MHz downlink signals on innate mouse behavior. Animals were exposed for 30 min/day, 5 days/week at a whole-body average specific energy absorption rate (SAR) of 0.5 or 1 W/kg from late pregnancy (gestation day 13.5) to weaning (postnatal day 21). A behavioral tracking system measured locomotor, drinking, and feeding behavior in the home cage from 12 to 28 weeks of age. The exposure caused significant effects on both appetitive behaviors and activity of offspring that depended on the SAR. Compared with sham-exposed controls, exposure at 0.5 W/kg significantly decreased drinking frequency (P ≤ 0.000) and significantly decreased distance moved (P ≤ 0.001). In contrast, exposure at 1 W/kg significantly increased drinking frequency (P ≤ 0.001) and significantly increased moving duration (P ≤ 0.005). In the absence of other plausible explanations, it is concluded that repeated exposure to low-level RF fields in early life may have a persistent and long-term effect on adult behavior.

Long-term exposure to 4G smartphone radiation diminished male reproductive potential by directly disrupting Spock3-MMP2-BTB axis in the testes of adult rats

Yu G, Tang Z, Chen H, Chen Z, Wang L, Cao H, Wang G, Xing J, Shen H, Cheng Q, Li D, Wang G, Xiang Y, Guan Y, Zhu Y, Liu Z, Bai Z.  Long-term exposure to 4G smartphone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation diminished male reproductive potential by directly disrupting Spock3-MMP2-BTB axis in the testes of adult rats. Sci Total Environ. 2019 Aug 31;698:133860. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133860.


The correlation between long-term exposure to SRF-EMR and the decline in male fertility is gradually receiving increasing attention from the medical society. While male reproductive organs are often exposed to SRF-EMR, little is currently known about the direct effects of long-term SRF-EMR exposure on the testes and its involvement in the suppression of male reproductive potential. The present study was designed to investigate this issue by using 4G SRF-EMR in rats. A unique exposure model using a 4G smartphone achieved localized exposure to the scrotum of the rats for 6 h each day (the smartphone was kept on active talk mode and received an external call for 1 min over 10 min intervals). Results showed that SRF-EMR exposure for 150 days decreased sperm quality and pup weight, accompanied by testicular injury. However, these adverse effects were not evident in rats exposed to SRF-EMR for 50 days or 100 days. Sequencing analysis and western blotting suggested Spock3 overexpression in the testes of rats exposed to SRF-EMR for 150 days. Inhibition of Spock3 overexpression improved sperm quality decline and alleviated testicular injury and BTB disorder in the exposed rats. Additionally, SRF-EMR exposure suppressed MMP2 activity, while increasing the activity of the MMP14-Spock3 complexes and decreasing MMP14-MMP2 complexes; these results were reversed by Spock3 inhibition. Thus, long-term exposure to 4G SRF-EMR diminished male fertility by directly disrupting the Spock3-MMP2-BTB axis in the testes of adult rats. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show direct toxicity of SRF-EMR on the testes emerging after long-term exposure.

Short-term radiofrequency exposure from new generation mobile phones reduces EEG alpha power with no effects on cognitive performance.

Vecsei Z, Knakker B, Juhász P, Thuróczy G, Trunk A, Hernádi I. Short-term radiofrequency exposure from new generation mobile phones reduces EEG alpha power with no effects on cognitive performance. Sci Rep. 2018 Dec 20;8(1):18010. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-36353-9.


Although mobile phone (MP) use has been steadily increasing in the last decades and similar positive trends are expected for the near future, systematic investigations on neurophysiological and cognitive effects caused by recently developed technological standards for MPs are scarcely available. Here, we investigated the effects of radiofrequency (RF) fields emitted by new-generation mobile technologies, specifically, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) and Long-Term Evolution (LTE), on intrinsic scalp EEG activity in the alpha band (8-12 Hz) and cognitive performance in the Stroop test. The study involved 60 healthy, young-adult university students (34 for UMTS and 26 for LTE) with double-blind administration of Real and Sham exposure in separate sessions. EEG was recorded before, during and after RF exposure, and Stroop performance was assessed before and after EEG recording. Both RF exposure types caused a notable decrease in the alpha power over the whole scalp that persisted even after the cessation of the exposure, whereas no effects were found on any aspects of performance in the Stroop test. The results imply that the brain networks underlying global alpha oscillations might require minor reconfiguration to adapt to the local biophysical changes caused by focal RF exposure mimicking MP use.

Open access paper:


The Effect of a Single 30-Min Long Term Evolution Mobile Phone-Like Exposure on Thermal Pain Threshold of Young Healthy Volunteers

Vecsei Z, Thuróczy G, Hernádi I. The Effect of a Single 30-Min Long Term Evolution Mobile Phone-Like Exposure on Thermal Pain Threshold of Young Healthy Volunteers. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Aug 27;15(9). pii: E1849. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15091849.


Although the majority of mobile phone (MP) users do not attribute adverse effects on health or well-being to MP-emitted radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs), the exponential increase in the number of RF devices necessitates continuing research aimed at the objective investigation of such concerns. Here we investigated the effects of acute exposure from Long Term Evolution (LTE) MP EMFs on thermal pain threshold in healthy young adults. We use a protocol that was validated in a previous study in a capsaicin-induced hyperalgesia model and was also successfully used to show that exposure from an RF source mimicking a Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) MP led to mildly stronger desensitization to repeated noxious thermal stimulation relative to the sham condition. Using the same experimental design, we did not find any effects of LTE exposure on thermal pain threshold. The present results, contrary to previous evidence obtained with the UMTS modulation, are likely to originate from placebo/nocebo effects and are unrelated to the brief acute LTE EMF exposure itself. The fact that this is dissimilar to our previous results on UMTS exposure implies that RF modulations might differentially affect pain perception and points to the necessity of further research on the topic.
Open access paper:
Modulation of brain functional connectivity by exposure to LTE (4G) cell phone radiation

Wei Y, Yang J, Chen Z, Wu T, Lv B. Modulation of resting‐state brain functional connectivity by exposure to acute fourth‐generation long‐term evolution electromagnetic field: An fMRI study. Bioelectromagnetics. Published online 18 December 2018. 
By now, the neurophysiological effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure and its underlying regulating mechanisms are not well manifested. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether acute long‐term evolution (LTE) EMF exposure could modulate brain functional connectivity using regional homogeneity (ReHo) method and seed‐based analysis on resting‐state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We performed the LTE‐EMF  exposure experiment and acquired the resting‐state brain activities before and after EMF exposure. Then we applied ReHo index to characterize the localized functional connectivity and seed‐based method to evaluate the inter‐regional functional connectivity. Statistical comparisons were conducted to identify the possible evidence of brain functional connectivity modulation induced by the acute LTE‐EMF exposure. We found that the acute LTE‐EMF exposure modulated localized intra‐regional connectivity (p < 0.05, AlphaSim corrected, voxel size ≥ 18) and inter‐regional connectivity in some brain regions (p < 0.05, AlphaSim corrected, voxel size ≥ 18). Our results may indicate that the approaches relying on network‐level inferences could provide deeper insight into the acute effect on human functional activity induced by LTE‐EMF exposure.
"Currently, multiple standards exist for wireless communication, which ranges from second‐generation (2G, GSM) to third‐generation (3G, UMTS) and fourth‐generation (4G, LTE) networks in daily life. Fifth‐generation (5G) networks will start to appear as a commercial infrastructure in the near future. Although we enjoy the convenience of mobile phones, the widespread use of them has raised attention about the possible health effects of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure [ICNIRP, 1998].
With neuroimaging and neuropsychology tools, the effect of EMF on the human brain can be reflected as signals of electrical activity [Hamblin et al., 2006; Croft et al., 2010; Lustenberger et al., 2013; Roggeveen et al., 2015a, b], cortical excitability [Tombini et al., 2013], cerebral blood flow [Aalto et al., 2006], brain glucose metabolism [Volkow et al., 2011], and hemodynamic responses [Volkow et al., 2011; Curcio et al., 2012]. Previous studies reported that GSM signals modulated alpha band power in resting‐state electroencephalogram (EEG) [Croft et al., 2010] or some event‐related potential (ERP) components during cognitive tasks [Hamblin et al., 2006], whereas other studies did not detect any GSM exposure‐induced changes in brain activity [Curcio et al., 2012]. Although some studies showed no significant effects of 3G signals on any neurophysiological measurements [Zhang et al., 2017], recent EEG studies reported significant EEG alterations associated with 3G mobile phone radiation [Roggeveen et al., 2015a, b]. The inconsistency could partly be attributed to different exposure frequencies, modulation modes, and exposure durations [Zhang et al., 2017]. For 4G‐related signals, only our two previous studies have investigated the acute effect of long‐term evolution (LTE) EMF exposure on human brain function [Lv et al., 2014; Yang et al., 2016] using EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We found that 30 min of LTE‐EMF exposure modulated the alpha/beta EEG bands [Yang et al., 2016] and spontaneous low‐frequency fluctuations [Lv et al., 2014] in some brain regions. Since LTE networks have been widely deployed, we should make more effort to evaluate the possible effects of LTE‐EMF exposure from different perspectives."
"In this study, we aimed to investigate whether acute LTE‐EMF exposure could modulate brain functional connectivity using resting‐state fMRI. We performed LTE‐EMF exposure experiments lasting for 30 min under a controllable environment and recorded the resting‐state brain activities before and after EMF exposure. Then, we applied the regional homogeneity (ReHo) index [Zang et al., 2004] to characterize localized intraregional connectivity and the seed‐based functional connectivity method [Margulies et al., 2010] to evaluate interregional brain connectivity. Statistical comparisons were conducted to identify possible evidence of brain functional connectivity modulation induced by acute LTE‐EMF exposure."

“To eliminate study biases, we employed a double‐blind, crossover, randomized, and counterbalanced design. Each participant underwent two experimental sessions including real exposure and sham exposure, which were separated by 1 day….The time‐division LTE signal (2.573 GHz) was produced by a signal generator a standard formulation for LTE signals….The power delivered to the standard dipole of 2.6 GHz was 24 dBm (mean value), which was equivalent to a theoretical maximal emission by an LTE terminal. The experiments were conducted in a shielding room to avoid the influence of environmental EMF. Each exposure session lasted for 30 min.”
“Numerical simulations that yielded spatial peak SAR averaging over 10 g tissues for the subjects was 0.98 ± 0.27 W/kg, with a maximal value of 1.52 W/kg, which was below the safety limits [ICNIRP, 1998].”
“In our previous studies, we found that LTE‐EMF exposure depressed the amplitude of spontaneous low frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) in some brain regions [Lv et al., 2014], such as those surrounding the left superior temporal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus (STG_L and MTG_L), right superior temporal gyrus (STG_R), right medial frontal gyrus, and right paracentral lobule (MFG_R and PCL_R). In the present study, we found new evidence that acute LTE‐EMF exposures lasting for 30 min modulated brain functional connectivity including not only localized intraregional connectivity, but also interregional connectivity.”
"Although the SAR values by LTE‐EMF exposure indicated no obvious temperature increase during the exposure experiments and the brain was excellent in terms of thermal regulation, we could not preclude that thermal changes, even minute changes, could be responsible for the instantaneous changes in neural firing. SAR is a metric averaging over 6 min, and its applicability for neurological studies should be discussed."
"Our results may indicate that approaches relying on network‐level inferences can provide deeper insights into the acute effects of LTE‐EMF exposure with intensities below the current safety limits on human functional connectivity. In the future, we need to investigate the evolution of the effect over time.”

May 2, 2016

By the end of 2013, 100 million cell phones in the U.S. operated on LTE. This number worldwide is expected to exceed 1 billion by the end of this year. 

Following is a summary of the second study published on the effects of 4th generation LTE cell phone radiation on the brain activity of cell phone users by the China Academy of Telecommunication Research of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology.

The original study showed that 30 minutes of exposure to LTE phone radiation affected brain activity in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus and right paracentral lobule. The current study found that a 30-minute exposure to LTE radiation modulated the EEG in the alpha and beta bands at the frontal region of the near and remote sides, and at the temporal region on the near side.


Long-Term Evolution EMF Exposure Modulates Resting State EEG on Alpha and Beta Bands
Yang L, Chen Q, Lv B, Wu T. Long-Term Evolution Electromagnetic Fields Exposure Modulates the Resting State EEG on Alpha and Beta Bands. Clin EEG Neurosci. 
2017 May;48(3):168-175. doi: 10.1177/1550059416644887.


Long-term evolution (LTE) wireless telecommunication systems are widely used globally, which has raised a concern that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) emitted from LTE devices can change human neural function. To date, few studies have been conducted on the effect of exposure to LTE EMF. Here, we evaluated the changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) due to LTE EMF exposure. An LTE EMF exposure system with a stable power emission, which was equivalent to the maximum emission from an LTE mobile phone, was used to radiate the subjects. Numerical simulations were conducted to ensure that the specific absorption rate in the subject's head was below the safety limits. Exposure to LTE EMF reduced the spectral power and the interhemispheric coherence in the alpha and beta bands of the frontal and temporal brain regions. No significant change was observed in the spectral power and the inter-hemispheric coherence in different timeslots during and after the exposure. These findings also corroborated those of our previous study using functional magnetic resonant imaging.


".. the results of resting state EEG experiments have been contradictory. For example, some studies have reported enhancement of the alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (13-30 Hz) band power values after exposure to pulse-modulated 450- and 900-MHz signals, pulse-modulated magnetic fields, and active mobile phone signals. In contrast, some studies have shown decreased alpha band activity after 20 minutes of extremely low-frequency EMF exposure, or 5 minutes of magnetic field exposure, or global system for mobile communications (GSM) EMF exposure. Many studies also found no changes in the EEG after either modulated or unmodulated EMF exposure. These inconsistencies could be attributed not only to the differences in the signal type, the modulation, the exposure frequency, the exposure intensity individual anatomy, the ages of the subjects, and the exposure duration but also to the lack of rigorous experimental designs. Most of the previously published studies have focused on GSM, WiFi, and Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS), signals. An emerging technology, “long term evolution” (LTE) wireless service, has been deployed since 2009 and the number of global LTE subscribers is expected to reach 1.37 billion by the end of 2015. Other than our previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, there are very few reports on the effect of exposure to LTE EMF on brain function. We previously found that 30 minutes of exposure to LTE EMF modulated the spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations. We were interested in confirming our previous results using another neurophysiological method and also sought to assess the evolution of the effect over time during such exposure. In this article, we have investigated for the first time the changes in the resting state EEG caused by exposure to LTE signals. The exposure dose was below the current safety limit. In order to assess brain activities on different levels, we evaluated spectral power and interhemispheric coherence, which allowed investigation of EEG changes in specific brain regions, as well as their correlations, at different time points. We show that exposure to LTE EMF decreased the alpha and beta band power spectrum and interhemisphere coherence."

"The age of the subjects was 30.2 ± 2.7 years."

"A plastic spacer of 1 cm was used to maintain the distance between the right ear and a standard dipole. We applied 2 power meters to ensure a constant incident power to the emission dipole. The power delivered to the dipole was 24 dBm (peak value), equivalent to a theoretical maximum emission by an LTE terminal."

"All 25 subjects participated in the double-blind and counterbalanced experiment."

"The experiment included 2 sessions, which were separated by 1 week. Each session lasted 50 minutes and comprised 5 time slots. We indicated each time slot (10 minutes) in a session as sub1 to sub5. The radiation dipole was power off for the first (preexposure, sub1) and the last 10 minutes (postexposure, sub5) timeslots. Subjects were exposed to real EMF exposure in the 3 time slots (sub2 to sub4) between the first and the last 10 minutes in only 1 of the 2 sessions. The order of the 2 sessions was randomly selected per subject. The subjects were not informed of the sequence of each session; however, they were aware of the possibility of being exposed. On the other hand, the staff who analyzed the data did not know the sources of the EEG traces."

"The simulations yielded 1.34 W/kg (pSAR10g) and 1.96 W/kg (pSAR1g), with the electrodes, and 1.27 W/kg (pSAR10g) and 1.78 W/kg (pSAR1g), without the electrodes (Figure 2) when the dipole emitted radiation. Therefore, the presence of the EEG electrodes increased pSAR10g and pSAR1g by about 5.5% and 10.1%, respectively. Accordingly, the maximum resultant temperature increase was no more than 0.1°C ...."

"Previous studies on GSM and UMTS signal exposure frequently reported changes in interhemispheric coherence and the spectral power in the alpha band in the frontal and temporal regions, which were also confirmed by our results on LTE EMF exposure. Moreover, modulation of the power spectrum in the beta band, including both an increase and a decrease, was reported. Several reasons may account for the inconsistency. First, the signal frequency and its modulation influenced the affected EEG band: for example, exposure to 2G signals affect the alpha rhythms, whilst exposure to 3G signals do not. In contrast, the modulated 450-MHz signals of various intensities can change beta activity much more markedly than alpha band power. Second, gender and the individual sensitivity 38,40 may influence the effect on different bands. Hence, we attempted to reduce the variability by enrolling the subjects with the same gender and age."

"In particular, power spectral analysis has shown significant differences in the left frontal brain regions, that is, the remote side, on exposure. This may be associated with modulation of neural activity in the remote/contralateral brain regions. The remote effects of EMF have been observed in many previous studies. Our results reconfirmed that the effects were also seen with LTE EMF exposure."

"The power spectrum and the interhemispheric coherence did not differ significantly over sub2 to sub5. Thus, the observed effect did not change with the exposure time and the effect was therefore not developing. The reduction in alpha band activity has been associated with a decrease in individual information-processing ability, alertness, and cognitive performance. The decrease in beta band activity could be interpreted as decreased alertness, arousal, and excitement or a low level of fatigue. Notably, EEG power fluctuation was not in one-one correspondence with the change in behavioral/cognitive performance which should be evaluated by specifically designed experiments as the report by Haarala et al. No conclusion could be obtained by our study that the present EMF exposure affected the subjects’ cognitive abilities."

"This work studied EEG changes caused by LTE EMF exposure. An exposure system with a fixed power incident to a radiation dipole was used; this simulation demonstrated that the SAR was within the safety limits. LTE EMF exposure modulated the EEG in the alpha and beta bands at the frontal region of the near and remote sides, and at the temporal region on the near side. No developing effect was found in the periods during and after the exposure. Our results agreed to some extent with those of our previous fMRI study on LTE exposure. Our finding indicated that the LTE EMF exposure with the intensity beneath the safety limits could modulate the brain activities."

"Future studies should focus on the correlation of EEG changes with spatial SAR distribution. By taking individual anatomical structure into consideration, a precise dose-effect relationship can be established. EEG changes with a finer temporal resolution during the exposure session should also be evaluated."


The alteration of spontaneous low frequency oscillations caused by acute electromagnetic fields exposure
Lv B, Chen Z, Wu T, et al. The alteration of spontaneous low frequency oscillations caused by acute electromagnetic fields exposure. Clin Neurophysiol. 2014;125:277-286.


OBJECTIVE: The motivation of this study is to evaluate the possible alteration of regional resting state brain activity induced by the acute radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure (30 minutes) of Long Term Evolution (LTE) signal.

METHODS: We designed a controllable near-field LTE RF-EMF exposure environment. Eighteen subjects participated in a double-blind, crossover, randomized and counterbalanced experiment including two sessions (real and sham exposure). The radiation source was close to the right ear. Then the resting state fMRI signals of human brain were collected before and after the exposure in both sessions. We measured the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and fractional ALFF (fALFF) to characterize the spontaneous brain activity.
RESULTS: We found the decreased ALFF value around in left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus and right paracentral lobule after the real exposure. And the decreased fALFF value was also detected in right medial frontal gyrus and right paracentral lobule.

CONCLUSIONS: The study provided the evidences that 30 minute LTE RF-EMF exposure modulated the spontaneous low frequency fluctuations in some brain regions.

SIGNIFICANCE: With resting state fMRI, we found the alteration of spontaneous low frequency fluctuations induced by the acute LTE RF-EMF exposure.
přeložit | 20.9.2019 01:52

Wireless Radiation TV News

Which wireless radiation risks are covered most by TV news in the U.S.?

Since June, 2014, television stations in the U.S have aired more than 200 news stories about health risks from wireless radiation exposure. Almost half of the stories focus on radiation risks from use of a cell phone, including risks to children. About 30% of stories discussed cell tower radiation risks. More than a dozen stories focus on cell towers or Wi-Fi in schools. Other technologies of concern include wireless smart meters and Wi-Fi-emitting devices. 

CBS and its affiliates have provided the most news coverage about wireless radiation and health. Besides CBS national news coverage, almost all major CBS stations have run stories including stations in Atlanta, Baltimore, Boston, Charleston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, Des Moines, Los Angeles, Las Vegas, Miami, Minneapolis, New York, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Portland, Raleigh, Sacramento, San Antonio, San Francisco, Spokane, and Washington, DC. 

CBS was the only television network to cover the two major wireless policy developments in 2015 (the International EMF Scientist Appeal and the Berkeley cell phone "Right to Know" ordinance), and the only network to cover the release of the California Department of Public Health's cell phone safety guidance in 2017. 

CBS's 60 Minutes has won every broadcast journalism award. In June, 2017, the show aired a story on smartphone addiction,"Hooked on Your Phone?", and in December, 2018, a story on the adverse effects of digital device use on children, "Phones, Tablets, and their Impact on Kids' Brains."  However, 60 Minutes has yet to examine the health risks from the wireless radiation produced by these devices. With the publication of Norm Alster's book,"Captured agency: How the Federal Communications Commission is dominated by the industries it presumably regulates," it is time for 60 Minutes to do an investigative story about why our government has not updated the obsolete wireless regulations adopted in 1997 that fail to protect us from harmful levels of wireless radiation.

The above statistics are based upon Google searches for TV news stories about wireless radiation health risks where a video was posted online; thus, the overall amount of TV news coverage is underestimated.

Links to the TV new stories appear below.

Updated: September 15, 2019
CBS News

Test finds iPhone 7 emitted twice the amount of radiation reported to regulatorsCBS This Morning, Aug 22, 2019
Costa Mesa Residents Air Concerns Over 5G TowersStacey Butler, CBS Los Angeles, Aug 14, 2019
Protest held over 5G zoning ordinance in San Diego
Steve Fiorina, CBS San Diego, Aug 7, 2019

Boulder Holds Study Session On 5G Coverage For Concerned ResidentsTori Mason, CBS Denver, Jul 23, 2019
5G coming to ChicoHayley Watts, KVNV (Chico, CA), Jul 3, 2019

CBS13 Investigates: Could A New Cell Tower Hurt You Financially? 
A new cell tower could put a local preschool out of business.Julie Watts, CBS Sacramento, Jun 28, 2019
CBS San Francisco, Jul 6-7, 2019
Lake Forest residents voice concerns over 5G cell towersCBS Los Angeles, Jun 19, 2019

A look at the arrival of 5G, and just how dangerous it could beAngelina Dixson, KVAL (Eugene, OR), May 22, 2019
5G cell tower critics post 'health warning' signs
Lisa Balick, KOIN (Portland, OR), May 21, 2019

5G cell tower protest in Ashland
KTVL (Ashland, OR), May 15, 2019

Plan For 5G Cell Phone Towers Raises Health Concerns In MoragaSusie Steimle, CBS San Francisco, Apr 10, 2019
After several childhood cancer cases at one school, parents question radiation from cell towerCBS This Morning (CBS Network news), Apr 4, 2019
VERIFY: No, scientists didn't say AirPods cause cancer. But they do have questions.Jason Puckett & David Tregde, WUSA (Washington, DC), Mar 20, 2019

Brain trauma suffered by U.S. diplomats abroad could be work of hostile foreign government
Scott Pelley, 60 Minutes (CBS Network news), Mar 17, 2019

Could Using Wireless Earbuds Be Putting You At Risk For Cancer?Dr. Maria Simbra, CBS Pittsburgh, Mar 13, 2019

Experts: Wireless Headphones Like AirPods Could Pose Cancer RiskKDFW (Dallas, TX), Mar 13, 2019

Recent Articles That Say AirPods Can Cause Cancer Are Not Quite RightTahesha Moise, WFMY (Greensboro, NC), Mar 13, 2019
Parents Blame Elementary School’s Cell Tower After 4th Student Diagnosed With CancerJennifer McGraw, CBS Sacramento, Mar 13, 2019
Some Iowa residents push back against new smart metersHannah Hilyard, KCCI (Des Moines, IA), Dec 5, 2018
New study suggests that use of cell phones may affect memory in teenagersRose Beltz, KREM (Spokane, WA), Jul 27, 2018

New 5G network with ubiquitous antennas raises health concerns among someSteve Sbraccia, WNCN (Raleigh, NC), Jun 5, 2018

Wireless Worries: 5G service is coming – and so are health concerns over the towers that support it
Tony Dokoupil, CBS This Morning (national), May 29, 2018

5G wireless service Is coming, and so are health concerns over the towers that support ItCBS New York, May 29, 2018

5G Service Is Coming – And So Are Health Concerns Over The Towers That Support It
CBS Boston, May 29, 2018

Questions Raised About 5G Health Risks Months Before Sacramento Launches ServiceCBS Sacramento, May 29, 2018

Radiation Concerns Being Raised Over New 5G Wireless ServiceCBS Philadelphia, May 29, 2018

Can Cellphones Cause Cancer? Experts Surprised By Latest TestsCBS Pittsburgh, Mar 29, 2018
Ashland residents protesting 5G tower installationRichie Garza, KTVL (Medford, OR), May 25, 2018
Findings of cancer in rodents exposed to cell-phone-like radiation draws crowd to RTPRobert Richardson, WNCN (Raleigh, NC), Mar 28, 2018

I-Team Report: Cell Phone Dangers
Colette Boyd, WNEW (Saginaw, MI), Feb 14, 2018

Do Cellphones Cause Cancer?Heather Brown, CBS Minnesota, Feb 8, 2018

This Cell Phone Radiation Study Found More Questions Than AnswersCBS Miami, Feb 7, 2018

Cellphone Radiation Linked To Tumors In Male Rats, Government Study SaysAndrea Borba, CBS San Francisco, Feb 2, 2018

ConsumerWatch: 5G Cellphone Towers Signal Renewed Concerns over Impacts on HealthJulie Watts and Abigail Sterling, CBS San Francisco, Jan 25, 2018

California to set guidelines for limiting cellphone radiation exposure
CBS Evening News (network), Dec 15, 2017
California health officials release guidelines on cellphone radiation
Susie Steimle, CBS San Francisco, Dec 14, 2017
CBS (network) News. Dec 14, 2017
CBS Los Angeles, Dec 14, 2017

California Public Health Officials Issue Cellphone Radiation WarningCBS Sacramento, Dec 13, 2017
When Kids Get Their First Cell Phones Around The World
CNN, CBS San Francisco, Dec 11, 2017

East Bay Homeowners Challenge Proposed Cellphone TowersEmily Turner, CBS San Francisco, Nov 15, 2017
Cellphone EMF-Blocking Products Put In A Real World TestJulie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Nov 14, 2017
Long Islanders Sue Over Health Concerns About New Cellphone TowersJennifer McLogan, CBS New York, Oct 19, 2017
Cities, Counties Line Up Against Bill Removing Limits On Cell TransmittersLemor Abrams, CBS Sacramento, Jul 12, 2017
Plan To Install 50,000 Cell Towers In California Faces OppositionPhil Matier, CBS San Francisco, June 28, 2017
Woodbury, L.I. Residents Furious Over Cellphone Repeaters On Their BlockCarolyn Gusoff, CBS New York, May 11, 2017

Cell towers could be built at dozens of Prince George's Co. schoolsScott Broom, WUSA (Washington, DC), May 11, 2017

Draft Fact Sheet From California Health Officials Links Cellphone Use, Cancer Risk
CBS Los Angeles, Mar 3, 2017

Consumer Watch: State Continues To Refuse To Release Records On Cell Phone Radiation
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Feb 26, 2017

Judge Orders California To Release Papers Discussing Risk Of Cell Phone Use
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Feb 24, 2017

Cell phone explosion caught on cameraWGCL (Atlanta, GA), Jan 12, 2017

San Francisco Cellphone Service Shockingly Bad For Global Tech Capitol
Susie Steimle, CBS San Francisco, Jan 3, 2017
Parents upset over proposed cell towerWUSA (Washington, DC), Sep 28, 2016

Berkeley’s Cellphone Radiation Warning Law Disputed Before Appeals CourtCBS SF Bay Area, Sep 13, 2016
Apple Unveils iPhone 7 Without Headphone Jack Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Sep 7, 2016

Man Chains Electric Meter To Prevent Utility From Installing Smart MeterJon Delano, CBS Pittsburgh, Sep 1, 2016
Mt. Tabor neighbors fight plans for cell towers
Chris Holmstrom, KOIN (Portland, OR), Aug 31, 2016

Addressing health concerns of new KUB smart meters
Heather Burian, WVLT (Knoxville, TN), May 31, 2016

Study reignites concern about cell phones and cancer
Paula Cohen, CBS News, May 27, 2016

WiFi in schools: Is it hurting your child?
Paul Joncich, KLAS (Las Vegas, NV), May 10, 2016

New Research Links Cell Phones To Health Issues In Children
Ami Yensi, CBS Baltimore, May 3, 2016

Cell tower proposed behind middle school causing controversy
WDRW (Columbia County, GA), May 3, 2016

Protester Claims Vice President Biden's Son Died from Cell Phone-Related Brain Cancer 
CBS SF Bay Area, Feb 28, 2016

Could Your Cell Phone Be Harming You?
Tess Leonhardt, WDTV (Bridgeport, WV), Feb 21, 2016

Notre Dame researchers target cell phone radiation
Zach Crenshaw, WSBT (Mishiwaka, IN), Jan 27, 2016

Bay Area Residents Worried About Radiation Face Uphill Battle Fighting Cell Towers
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Jan 12, 2016

Scientists: Effects of cell phone radiation on kids is cause for concern
Ashley Daley, Live 5 News (Charleston, SC), Nov 6, 2015

SF Residents Battle Wireless Firms Over Super Bowl Building Boom In Neighborhood Cell Antenna Systems
Julie Watts, CBS San Francisco, Oct 31, 2015

Montgomery County parents concerned about wireless routers in schools
Mola Lenghi, WUSA9 (Maryland), Oct 20, 2015

Will Berkeley Cell Phone Ordinance Harm Consumers?
CBS This Morning, Jul 27, 2015

Retired Electronics Professor Wants To Create Wi-Fi Free Refuge
Mark Ackerman, CBS Denver, Jul 9, 2015

Are Wi-Fi Signals Making You Sick?
Marissa Bailey, CBS Chicago, July 1, 2015

People Believe Wi-Fi Is Making Them Sick
Dr. Mallika Marshall, CBS Boston, Jun 8, 2015

Seen At 11: Is Wi-Fi Making You Sick?
CBS New York, May 20, 2015

Why I Declared Our Bedroom A Wireless-Free Zone
Julie Watts, CBS SF Bay Area, May 20, 2015

Special Report: Upgrade Outage
WMMT (Kalamazoo, MI), May 19, 2015

Berkeley Passes Nation’s First Radiation Warning For New Cellphones
CBS SF Bay Area, May 13, 2015
Berkeley, California, to require cellphone health warnings
CBS News, May 13, 2015

Cellphone safety: Where do you keep your phone? (web article)Elizabeth Hinson, CBS National, May 12, 2015 (last updated May 14, 2015)
       KMOV (St. Louis, MO)
       KPAX (Missoula, MT)
       WCTV (Tallahassee, FL)
       WDTV  (Weston, West Virginia)
       WFMY (Greensboro, NC)
       WIVB (Buffalo, NY)
       WKBN (Youngstown, OH)
       WREQ (Memphis,TN)
       WTSP (Tampa Bay, FL)

Can you get radiation poisoning from your cellphone?
CBS News, May 12, 2015

Woman Cuts Family Off From WiFi Over Health Concerns
Gerri Constant, CBS Los Angeles, May 5, 2015

LA County Firefighters Address Lawmakers Over Cell Tower Concerns
CBS Los Angeles, Mar 24, 2015

Local parents concerned about WiFi radiation

Andrea McCarren, WUSA (Washington, DC), Mar 7, 2015

Planned Smart Electric Meters On Long Island Draw Fears About Privacy, Radiation
CBS New York, Mar 6, 2015

Woman believes cell phone radiation nearly killed her husbandSamantha Cortese, KESQ (Palm Desert, CA), Feb 18, 2015 (also ABC affiliate)

In-depth investigation: Examining reports of a cancer cluster at La Quinta Middle School
Natalie Brunnell, KESQ (Palm Desert, CA), Feb 12, 2015 (also ABC affiliate)

Failure to follow cellular antenna regulations raises safety issues
CBS Atlanta, Nov 17, 2014 (updated Feb 10, 2015)

Some residents worried about health effects of smart meters
WMMT (Kalamazoo, MI), Dec 3, 2014

New smart meters installed in Spokane raise questions

KREM (Spokane, WA), Dec 2, 2014
CPS Energy's smart meters show random spikes in radiation outputKENS (San Antonio, TX), Nov 18, 2015

Cell phone towers raise new concerns about safety
Jason Barry, KPHO (Phoenix), Nov 10, 2015 (updated Nov. 25)

FPL, Foes Of Smart Meters Square Off
CBS Miami, Sep 30, 2014

Are Cell Phones Really Giving Us Cancer?CBS Pittsburgh, Sep 15, 2014

Brain Cancer Warning Stickers Proposed For Cellphones Sold In Berkeley
CBS SF Bay Area, Aug 22, 2014

NBC News

5G Whiz
Staff, Full Measure (NBC Network), Sep 15, 2019

Chicago Tribune: FCC investigating phone radiation findingsAli Velshi, MSNBC, Aug 23, 2019 (interview w/ Sam Roe)

Neighbors fight losing battle against 5G tower right next to Denver home
Nelson Garcia, KUSA (Denver, CO), Aug 9, 2019
Concern grows over electromagnetic frequency radiation as cell phones turn to 5GAnnaliese Garcia, WBBH (Fort Myers, FL), Aug 6, 2019
Cell tower causes some concern for Catalina residents
Eric Fink, KVOA (Tucson, AZ), Jun 6, 2019

Germantown withdraws plan for cell phone tower near elementary school
WMC (Memphis, TN), Jun 5, 2019

Cell phone radiation: Just how dangerous is it for you?
Angelina Dixson, KMTR (Eugene, OR), May 22, 2019

Locals plan rally against 5G rollout
KOBI (Medford, OR), May 15, 2019

Is 5G technology safe? The debate intensifies
Jennifer Lewke, WHEC (Rochester, NY), May 2, 2019

VERIFY: Does 5G cause health problems?
Gordon Severson, KARE (Minneapolis, MN), Apr 22, 2019

5G fears: Homeowners worry about mini towers in streetJohn Matarese, WTMJ (Milwaukee, WI), Feb 8, 2019

Testicular cancer: Why it's difficult to talk about, and why it's risingChris Hrapsky, KARE (Minneapolis, MN), Nov 21, 2018

People concerned about 5G as FCC approves installationAllie Potter, KVOA (Tucson, AZ), Nov 16, 2018
Poor cell phone reception could increase your radiation exposure by 10,000xBob Segall, WTHR (Indianapolis, IN), Oct 5, 2018
Protecting yourself from cellular radiation
Denelle Confair, KVOA (Tucson, AZ), Sep 23, 2018

Protestors rally against Pacific Power’s smart metersRayvan Vares, KOBI (Medford, OR), Sep 22, 2018

Not in my backyard: Are cell towers coming to your neighborhood?
Nate Morabito, WCNC (Charlotte, NC), Jul 27, 2018

Pacific Power Installing Smart Meters in Jackson County
Elizabeth Ruiz, KOBI (Medford, OR), Jul 2, 2018

Palo Alto City Leaders Approve Verizon Cell TowersIan Cull, NBC Bay Area, May 22, 2018

Construction halted on cell tower near elementary school playground
Laura Wilson, KOAA (Colorado Springs, CO), Apr 25, 2018

City Council denies cell phone tower being built on church propertyNatassia Paloma, KTSM (El Paso, TX), Apr 17, 2018

New Study Links Cancer to Cell Phone UseBianca Castro, KXAS (Dallas, TX), Mar 28, 2018
KOBF (Albuquerque, NM), Apr 3, 2018
WCMH (Columbus, OH), Apr 3, 2018
WBBH (Fort Myers, FL), Apr 3, 2018
WTHR (Indianapolis, IN), Apr 3, 2018
KPRC (Houston, TX), Apr 4, 2018

Verify: Are electromagnetic fields harmful to your health?Tami Tremblay, KTVB (Boise, ID), Feb 8, 2018

New study reigniting cell phone, cancer debate
Rob Hughes, WCNC (Charlotte, NC), Feb 6, 2018

Study of rats reveals cellphone radiation risk is low
Erika Edwards, NBC Connecticut (West Hartford, CT), Feb 5, 2018
NBC Southern California, Feb 5, 2018

Aiken County Planning Commission recommends denying request for new cell phone tower
Ben Billmyer & Lia Fernandez, WRDW (Aiken County, SC), Jan 18, 2018

New guidance issued for avoiding cell phone radiation
Bob Segall, WTHR (Indianapolis, IN), Dec 26, 2017

How worried do we need to be about cell phone radiation?
Sean Franklin, WBIR (Knoxville, TN), Dec 22, 2017

Health officials release guidelines on dangerous cellphone radiation
Madeline Cuddihy, WXIA (Atlanta, GA), Dec 19, 2017

Debate over Cell Towers in Hillsborough
NBC Bay Area, Dec 18, 2017

Proposed bill would cover potential injuries from microwaves, cellphonesElisha Machado, WWLP (Springfield, MA), Nov 28, 2017

New cellphone tower has some residents concerned
Kaylie Spotts, WNWO (Whitehouse, OH), Sep 4, 2017

Controversial T-Mobile cell phone tower back on Roswell's agenda
Christopher Hopper, WXIA (Atlanta, GA), Jul 11, 2017

Texas teen electrocuted after cell phone incident in bathtub
Presley Fowler, KCBD (Lubbock, Tx), Jul 11, 2017

2 students get cancer; Ripon parents want cell towers removed from schools
Natalie Brunell, KCRA (Sacramento, CA), Jun 20, 2017

Government Study Links Cellphone Radiation to Cancer
NBC Nightly News with Lester Holt, May 27, 2017

Greenbelt Residents Worried About Health Effects of Cellphone TowerDarcy Spencer, NBC Washington (DC), Apr 25, 2017

Cellphone safety tips to limit radiation exposure
Natalie Brunell, KCRA (Sacramento, CA), Apr 9, 2017

Sign puts Berkeley in center of cellphone debate
Natalie Brunell, KCRA (Sacramento, CA), Apr 9, 2017

How to reduce electromagnetic fields created by electricityMeredyth Censullo, KFLA (Tampa, FL), Mar 31, 2017

Cell Phone Cancer Debate Heats up With Document Release
Scott Budman, NBC Bay Area, Mar 3, 2017

NBC Southern California, Mar 3, 2017
State health officials accused of keeping cell phone dangers secret
Vicki Gonzalez, KCRA (NBC Sacramento), Mar 3, 2017
Cell phones safe? Flap in California revives debateJeff Gillan, KSNV (NBC Las Vegas), Mar 3, 2017
Researchers: Long-term cell phone use may increase your risk for a brain tumor
Bob Segall, WTHR (Indianapolis, IN), Feb 21, 2017

Special Report: The Facts about Smart Meters
Joy Wang, WILX (Lansing, MI), Feb 12, 2017

Board denies proposed Greendale cell towerRebecca Klopf, WTMJ (Milwaukee, WI), Feb 7, 2017

Radiation-blocking underwear and five other crazy CES gadgetsMatt Granite, WGRZ (Buffalo, NY), Jan 7, 2016
Rat Study Launches New Debate over Cell Phone Radiation and Cancer
Rachel Polansky, WBBH (Fort Myers, FL), Dec 19, 2016

13 Investigates cellphones and cancer: Is the risk real?
Bob Segall, WTHR (Indianapolis, IN), Nov 14, 2016

Are Kids at Risk? Scores of Chicago-Area Schools Allow Cell Towers on their Buildings, Grounds
Phil Rogers, Katy Smyser, NBC Chicago, Oct 3, 2016

Parents Fight Plans for Cell Tower at Virginia Elementary School
David Culver, NBC Washington (DC), Sep 21, 2016

Berkeley Cellphone Ordinance Challenged in Appeals CourtMark Matthews & Stephen Ellison, NBC Bay Area (San Jose, CA), Sep 13, 2016
Montgomery County Residents Shocked by Proposal to Build Cell Towers in Front of HomesJackie Bensen, NBC Washington (DC), Sep 2, 2016

Government study links cell phone radiation to cancer
Maggie Fox, NBC News, May 27, 2016

Piper Glenn residents cite eagles in cell tower fightBill McGinty, WCNC (Charlotte, NC), Apr 7, 2016

Berkeley's 'Right to Know' Cell Phone Radiation Warning Ordinance Now in EffectJean Elle, NBC Bay Area (San Jose, CA), Mar 21, 2016

BGE makes case for another rate hike
George Lettis, WBAL (Baltimore, MD), Mar 18, 2016

North Kingstown teacher says she's being fired because she believes WiFi is health hazard
Brian Crandall, WJAR (Providence, RI), Feb 23, 2016

Kids Face Potential Radiation Danger Using Cell Phones
Shanay Campbell, WSAV (Savannah, GA), Nov 6, 2015

Scientists: Effects of cell phone radiation on kids is cause for concern
Ashley Daley, WMBF (Myrtle Beach, SC), Nov 6, 2015

Pediatricians express concern over growing cellphone use, radiation exposure for children
Meghan McRoberts, WPTV (West Palm Beach, FL), Nov 6, 2015

Potential radiation danger to kids using cell phones

Shannon Wolfson, KXAN (Austin, TX), Nov 5, 2015

Pediatricians' new warning: Limit children's exposure to cellphones
Danielle Dellorto, NBC Today Show, Nov 5, 2015

Report Examines Cell Phone Radiation
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area, Sep 24, 2015

Group wants cell towers gone
Barry Sims, WBAL (Anne Arundel County, MD), Sep 22, 2015

Neighborhood fights possible new cell tower on church property
Forrest Sanders, WSMV (Nashville, TN), Jul 30, 2015

Residents protest cell tower installation citing health concerns
Sophia Kunthara and Melissa Etezadi, NBC Southern California, Jul 20, 2015

Wireless companies sue Berkeley over cellphone radiation warning ordinanceTamara Palmer, NBC Bay Area (San Jose, CA), Jun 8, 2015

Berkeley approves "Right to Know" cell phone radiation warning ordinance
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area 
 (San Jose, CA), May 12, 2015

West Seattle residents protest new cell phone antennas
Alex Rozier, KING (Seattle, WA), May 7, 2015

Bay Area documentary "Mobilize" examines cell phone dangers
Jean Elle, NBC Bay Area 
 (San Jose, CA), Mar 28, 2015

ABC News

5G could come with health risks, critics say
Sharyl Attkisson, WBFF (Baltimore, MD), Sep 15, 2019

Concern, opposition grows to 5G in Colorado Springs
Scott Harrison, KRDO (Colorado Springs, CO), Aug 28, 2019

Los Altos man leads effort to keep AT&T wireless nodes away from daughter's bedroom, neighborhoodAmanda del Castillo, KGO (San Francisco, CA), Jul 11, 2019
Protesters in WDSM for new Verizon 5G installationsAdam Cron, KCWI (Des Moines, IA), Jun 14, 2019
Denver Public Schools faces backlash from parents about placement of cell towers on schools
Russell Haythorn, KMGH (Denver, CO), Jun 7, 2019

West Boca tower proposal meets resistance at zoning meeting
Ron Burke, WPBF (Boca Raton, FL), Jun 7, 2019

Albany residents debate safety of 5G
WNYT (Albany, NY), May 17, 2019

Protesters rally against 5G in San Diego
KGTV (San Diego, CA), May 15, 2019 

Local group rallies in Asheville as part of national protest over 5G technology
WLOS (Asheville, NC), May 15, 2019

Group rallies against 5G roll out
KDRV (Medford, OR), May 15, 2019

'On Your Side' West Jacksonville community opposed to cell phone tower
Kenneth Amaro, WTLV (Jacksonville, FL), Mar 29, 2019
5G speeds: National City seeks public input for Small Cells InstallationRina Nakano, KGTV (San Diego, CA), Mar 12, 2019
5G wireless technology comes with big promises, but city of Portland has big concernsKeaton Thomas, KATU (Portland, OR), Mar 11, 2019

5G fears: Homeowners worry about mini towers in streetJohn Matarese, WCPO (Cincinnati, OH), Feb 8, 2019
Local group protests 5G cell tower in Eugene
Madison Glassman, KEZI (Eugene, OR), Jan 26, 2019

5G Fight: Greendale residents don't want cell towers in their yardsCaroline Reinwald, WISN (Milwaukee, WI), Jan 4, 2019
Some Duke Energy customers claim smart meters are making them sickTonya Simpson & Diane Wilson, WTVD (Raleigh, NC), Oct 1, 2018
The health effects with 'smart' utility metersJennifer Emert, WLOS (Asheville, NC), Sep 27, 2018
Smart meter workshop met with protesters
KDRV (Medford, OR), Sep 22, 2018

Some San Mateo residents upset over planned installation of Verizon antennas on utility polesVic Lee, KGO (San Mateo, CA), Sep 20, 2018
Concerned Talent citizens say new smart meters are unhealthyKDRV (Medford, OR), May 31, 2018

Verify: Do diode stickers protect you from cellphone radiation?WVEC (Norfolk, VA), Apr 18, 2018

Are mini-cell phone towers a health risk in your neighborhood?WJLA (Washington, DC), Apr 6, 2018
New study on link between cancer and cell phonesTiffany Neely, KAIT (Jonesboro, AR), Apr 3, 2018
Does cell phone radiation cause cancer? Scientists gather at RTP to discuss
WTVD (Raleigh, NC), Mar 28, 2018

The potential health risks of cell phones, explainedSam Benson Smith & Zak Dalheimer, KESQ (Thousand Palms, CA), Feb 15, 2018

New warning links cell phones to health risks
Good Morning America / ABC Network News, Dec 18, 2017

Ask Dr. Nandi: California sets guidelines to limit cell phone radiation exposure
WXYZ-TV (Detroit, MI), Dec 18, 2017

Hillsborough homeowners fight proposed cell towersKatie Marzullo, KGO (San Francisco, CA), Dec 9, 2017

Can mobile phone use lead to health problems?Abigail Elise, WISN (Milwaukee, WI), May 14, 2017

Long Island Residents Outraged by Cellphone Towers in Front of Homes
N.J. Burkett, WABC (New York, NY), May 11, 2017 

Cell phones and cancer, is there a connection?
Kerri O'Brien, WRIC (Richmond, VA), Mar 20, 2017

CA Health Dept. Releases Report Saying Cellphone Use May Cause Cancer
Lyanne Melendez, KGO (San Franciscom CA), Mar 3, 2017

Parents fight plan to put cell tower near playground at Virginia elementary school
Richard Reeve, Jay Goldberg, WJLA (Washington, DC), Sep 28, 2016

San Jose residents fight cellphone tower proposal over radiation concerns
Lisa Amin Gulezian, KGO (San Francisco, CA), Aug 13, 2016

Alpine residents outraged over EMF levels from Sunrise Powerlink
Ariel Wesler, KGTV (San Diego, CA), Feb 24, 2016

Notre Dame researchers making a faster and safer phone
Brandon Pope, WBND (South Bend, IN), Feb 5, 2016

New concerns over kids and electronics
Shannon Murray, KVUE (Austin, TX), Dec 3, 2015

Parents upset over cell tower possibly being installed near Weho school
Mayde Gomez, KABC (Los Angeles, CA), Dec 1, 2015

City leaders, neighbors raise concerns about cell towers
Kayla Moody, WHAS (Louisville, KY), Oct 28, 2015

Cell phone industry sues city of Berkeley
Lyanne Melendez, KGO (San Francisco, CA), Aug 20, 2015

Alki Beach residents protest plan for cell antennas near schoolTheron Zahn, KOMO (Seattle, WA), May 7, 2015

Lake Ronkonkomo residents speak out against proposed cell tower in neighborhood
Kristin Thorne, WABC (New York, NY), Apr 29, 2015

Workers say cell tower sites putting them at risk
Cristin Severance, KGTV (San Diego, CA), Mar 19, 2015 (updated Mar 24, 2015)

Ann Arbor family has power shut off by DTE in dispute over installing new SMART meter on their home
Dave LewAllen, WXYZ (Detroit, MI), Mar 18, 2015

Smart meters' slammed at House committee hearingWZZM (Lansing, MI), Dec 2, 2014

Man claims OUC's smart meter made him sick, files federal lawsuitWFTV (Orlando, FL), Dec 2, 2014

Alamo Heights residents voice concerns over smart readersKSAT (San Antonio), Sep 22, 2014 (updated Sep 23, 2014

3 Reasons Not to Sleep With Your Phone in the Bed
Camille Chatterjee, ABC News, Aug 5, 2014

City pushes for cancer warning stickers on cell phones
WCVB (Boston), Jul 15, 2014

Berkeley City Council proposes ordinance to get warning labels on cellphones
Tiffany Wilson, KGO (San Francisco), Jul 15, 2014

Fox News

5G warning posters placed around Downtown Orlando
Matthew Trezza, WOFL (Orlando, FL), Jun 14, 2019

San Francisco is resisting 5G, calling it 'ugly' and 'dangerous'
Brooke Crothers, Fox News network, Jun 1, 2019

Locals plan rally against 5G rolloutKMVU (Medford, OR), May 15, 2019

Parents upset about possible cell tower near Germantown elementary school
Jacque Masse, WHBQ (Memphis, TN), Mar 18, 2019

Are Apple AirPods putting you at risk for cancer?Dr. Marc Siegel, Tucker Carlson Tonight / Fox News Network, Mar 13, 2019
STL Moms: Kids cellphone safetyKTVI, (St. Louis, Mo), Mar 8, 2019

Town of Union Residents "Devastated" Over Possibility of Cell Tower in Neighborhood
Amanda Pitts, WICZ (Binghamton, NY), Jun 4, 2018

Parents worry cellphone tower could expose children to radiation
Keagan Harsha, KDVR (Denver, CO), Apr 23, 2018

Montgomery County residents fighting rezoning to allow new 5G cell towersWTTG (Washington, D.C.), April 4, 2018

Could your cell phone be endangering your health?Jeff Abell, WBFF (Baltimore, MD), Feb 20, 2018

Opposition to cell towers in Hillsborough
Tom Vacar, KTVU (Oakland, CA), Dec 19, 2017

Health officials warn sleeping near cell phone could cause cancer and infertility
Darren Sweeney, WJW (Cleveland, OH), Dec 18, 2017
Family chooses to live with no power rather than a DTE Smart MeterHilary Golston, WJBK (Detroit, MI), Nov 9, 2017

Ashland residents meet to discuss potential health risks of wireless radiationTed Daniel, WFXT (Boston, MA), Jun 20, 2017

Parents of Cancer Survivors Still Waiting for School District’s Response Regarding Cell Phone TowerEric Rucker, KTXL (Sacramento, CA), Jun 19, 2017

After 2 Ripon Children Diagnosed with Cancer, Kids and Parents Protest Cell Tower on School Grounds
Kay Recede, KTXL (Sacramento, CA), May 31, 2017
More than 400 MTEMC customers reject company’s request to install smart meters
Jeremy Finley, WBRC (Birmingham, AL), May 23, 2016

Controversy surrounding EMF exposure: Do wireless devices pose dangers?Danielle Miller, KSAZ (Phoenix, AZ), Feb 22, 2016

Cell phones and fertility
Dr. Devi Nampiaparampil, WNYW (New York City, NY), Feb 21, 2016

Health concerns over Wi-Fi technology exposures in schools
Laura Evans, WTTG (Washington, DC), Feb 15, 2016

Cell Phone Dangers?
Stacey Delikat, WNYW (New York City, NY), Jan 16, 2016

High Point neighbors speak out against cell tower projectJasmine Spencer, WGHP (High Point, NC), Dec 8, 2015

More than 400 MTEMC customers reject company’s request to install smart metersJeremy Finley, WBRC (Franklin, TN), Nov 23, 2015

Pediatricians express concern over growing cellphone use, radiation exposure for children
WFLX (West Palm Beach, FL), Nov 6, 2015

Scientists: Effects of cell phone radiation on kids is cause for concern
Ashley Daley, Fox Carolina News (Greenville, SC), Nov 6, 2015
Mount Tabor neighbors fight cell phone tower proposal
KPTV (Beaverton, OR), Jun 4, 2015 (updated Jul 2, 2015)

Berkeley passes cell phone safety ordinance
Amber Lee, KTVU (Oakland, CA), May 12, 2015

How to spot potential radiation hiding in your home

Fox News (national), Feb 1, 2015

Experts: Why wearable tech could pose health risks
Brooke Crothers, Fox News (national), Oct 20, 2014


Cell phone radiation study finds more questions than answersJacqueline Howard, CNN, Feb 7, 2018
Electrosensitivity, Vital Signs with Dr. Sanjay Gupta, Oct 24, 2017 (also CNN International)
Part 1: Welcome to the National Quiet ZonePart 2: Wireless ExposurePart 3: Living in the National Quiet Zone
Cell phone radiation increases cancers in rats, but should we worry?Carina Storrs, CNN, May 27, 2016

Half of teens think they're addicted to their smartphonesKelly Wallace, CNN, May 3, 2016

Other TV News

Activists protest against 5G towers
WDVM (Hagerstown, MD), May 15, 2019

Germantown residents protest cell phone tower installation near elementary schoolWMC (Memphis, TN), Mar 18, 2019

Cell Phone Safety for Kids
Tonya Harris, WISH (Indianapolis, IN), Mar 5, 2019

Is 5G Technology Dangerous?
Stephanie Whitfield, KHOU (Houston, TX), Feb 11, 2019

Local Neighborhood Concerned for Possible AT&T Tower
Dan Garrett, KSNT (Topeka, KS), Feb 4, 2019

U.S. Sen. Blumenthal briefing on concerns with possible health risks posed by 5G wireless technology
Congressional news briefing, Connecticut Network (Hartford, CT), Dec 3, 2018
Senator Blumenthal pushes to investigate link between 5G wireless tech and cancerHector Ramirez, WTNH (New Haven, CT), Dec 3, 2018
Controversy in Ozark over where a cell phone tower will be builtBrandon Berg, KY3 (Springfield, MO), Nov 16, 2018
5G wireless will provide faster cellular service. But how safe is it?Sara Girard, WINK (Fort Myers, FL), Nov 7, 2018
Debate continues over 5G wireless towers placed in residential areasShennikia Grimshaw, WDVM (Montgomery County, MD), Sep 25, 2018
Concern grows over cellphone towers on Crown Heights buildingNews 12 Brooklyn (Brooklyn, NY), Sep 24, 2018

Some Danville residents express radiation concerns over building of small cell towersGabe Slate, KRON, (San Francisco, CA), Apr 17, 2018

Homeowners file lawsuit over potential wireless transmitter health risksShari Einhorn, News 12 Long Island, NY, Oct 19, 2017
Allergic to Wi-Fi: Woman helps locals suffering from electromagnetic radiation sensitivityWGN (Chicago, IL), Jun 6, 2017
WQAD (Moline, IL), Jun 6, 2017

Can Wireless Technology Make You Sick?Azia Celestino, Channel One News, May 18, 2017

Cell Phone Radiation Warning Law Causes ControversyAzia Celestino, Channel One News, May 17, 2017

No Wi-Fi or cellphones allowed in the ‘Quietest Town in America’Julie Unruh, WGN (Chicago, IL), May 15, 2017
The secret inside your cellphoneCBC Marketplace, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Mar 24, 2017

Berkeley's Cellphone Crusade
The National, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Mar 23, 2017

California Department of Public Health releases draft of document warning against cellphone radiation
Gabe Slate, KRON (San Francisco, CA), Mar 3, 2017

Smart meter opt out fees could be nixed in legislative session

Emily Ikeda, WHAG (Montgomery County, MD), Feb 2, 2017

City Light takes feedback on opt-out for smart meters
Joel Moreno, KOMO (Seattle, WA), Aug 12, 2016

Special Report: The facts about smart meters
Joy Wang, WILX (Lansing, MI), Feb 12, 2016

Very easy changes could limit your exposure to cell phone radiation
Jenny Day, San Diego 6 News, Nov 6, 2015

Cell phones believed to cause sleep problemsKXII (Denison, TX), Jun 26, 2014
přeložit | 16.9.2019 00:45

Effect of Mobile Phones on Sperm Quality

Diagrammatic representation of various sources of RF EMF exposure effect on brain and testicular organ and deleterious outcomes
(Kesari, Agarwal & Henkel, 2018)
Review Papers
Jaffar FHF, Osman K, Ismail NH, Chin KY, Ibrahim SF. Adverse Effects of Wi-Fi Radiation on Male Reproductive System: A Systematic Review. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2019;248(3): 169-179. doi: 10.1620/tjem.248.169. (Note: Smartphones emit Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and various types of cellular radiation.)


Extensive use of Wi-Fi has contributed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) pollution in environment. Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter on male reproduction health. However, there are conflicting findings between studies. Thus, this review aims to elucidate the possible effects of 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi exposure on both animal and human male reproductive system. A computerized database search performed through MEDLINE via Ovid and PUBMED with the following set of keywords: 'Wi-Fi or WiFi or wireless fidelity or Wi-Fi router or WiFi router or electromagnetic or radiofrequency radiation' AND 'sperm or spermatozoa or spermatogenesis or semen or seminal plasma or testes or testis or testosterone or male reproduction' had returned 526 articles. Only 17 studies conformed to pre-set inclusion criterion. Additional records identified through Google Scholar and reviewed article further revealed six eligible articles. A total of 23 articles were used for data extraction, including 15 studies on rats, three studies on mice, and five studies on human health. Sperm count, motility and DNA integrity were the most affected parameters when exposed to RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter. Unfortunately, sperm viability and morphology were inconclusive. Structural and/or physiological analyses of the testes showed degenerative changes, reduced testosterone level, increased apoptotic cells, and DNA damage. These effects were mainly due to the elevation of testicular temperature and oxidative stress activity. In conclusion, exposure towards 2.45 GHz RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter is hazardous on the male reproductive system.

Open access paper:

Kesari KK, Agarwal A, Henkel R. Radiation and male fertility. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2018 Dec 9;16(1):118. doi: 10.1186/s12958-018-0431-1.During recent years, an increasing percentage of male infertility has to be attributed to an array of environmental, health and lifestyle factors. Male infertility is likely to be affected by the intense exposure to heat and extreme exposure to pesticides, radiation, radioactivity and other hazardous substances. We are surrounded by several types of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and both have recognized causative effects on spermatogenesis. Since it is impossible to cover all types of radiation sources and their biological effects under a single title, this review is focusing on radiation deriving from cell phones, laptops, Wi-Fi and microwave ovens, as these are the most common sources of non-ionizing radiation, which may contribute to the cause of infertility by exploring the effect of exposure to radiofrequency radiation on the male fertility pattern. From currently available studies it is clear that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have deleterious effects on sperm parameters (like sperm count, morphology, motility), affects the role of kinases in cellular metabolism and the endocrine system, and produces genotoxicity, genomic instability and oxidative stress. This is followed with protective measures for these radiations and future recommendations. The study concludes that the RF-EMF may induce oxidative stress with an increased level of reactive oxygen species, which may lead to infertility. This has been concluded based on available evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies suggesting that RF-EMF exposure negatively affects sperm quality. Open access paper:

Ford-Glanton BS, Melendez DA. Male reproductive toxicants: Electromagnetic radiation and heat. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences, 2018.

Human population in today's world lives surrounded by radiofrequency fields (RF) and electromagnetic radiation (EM) fields, transmitting almost all forms of electronic communication and data that humans produce every second. Mobile devices and laptop computers are EMR-emitting devices. The effect of mobile phone emitted radiation and heat on fertility is the subject of recent interest and investigations. Many studies have found a decrease in semen quality which has increased the focus on male reproductive health. Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples of reproductive age, and nearly half of these cases are linked to male fertility (Sharlip et al., 2002). Different harmful environmental influences have led to changes in semen analysis standards by reducing the lower limits of normal ranges, which were declared by the World Health Organization (2010). The possible negative impact of mobile phone radiation on sperm quality has been well established. While no certain conclusions can be drawn from current evidence, a growing number of studies indicate a decrease in male fertility associated with increased cellular phone usage (Agarwal et al., 2011) and laptop computers using Wi-Fi (Avendaño et al., 2012a). Here we review the current evidence regarding the effects of electromagnetic radiation and heat in male fertility.

Yahyazadeh A, Deniz OG, Kaplan AA, Altun G, Yurt KK, Davis D. The genomic effects of cell phone exposure on the reproductive system. Environ Res.  2018 Nov;167:684-693. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.05.017.


Humans are exposed to increasing levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF) at various frequencies as technology advances. In this context, improving understanding of the biological effects of EMF remains an important, high priority issue. Although a number of studies in this issue and elsewhere have focused on the mechanisms of the oxidative stress caused by EMF, the precise understanding of the processes involved remains to be elucidated. Due to unclear results among the studies, the issue of EMF exposure in the literature should be evaluated at the genomic level on the reproductive system. Based on this requirement, a detail review of recently published studies is necessary. The main objectives of this study are to show differences between negative and positive effect of EMF on the reproductive system of animal and human. Extensive review of literature has been made based on well known data bases like Web of Science, PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus. This paper reviews the current literature and is intended to contribute to a better understanding of the genotoxic effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones and wireless systems on the human reproductive system, especially on fertility. The current literature reveals that mobile phones can affect cellular functions via non-thermal effects. Although the cellular targets of global system for mobile communications (GSM)-modulated EMF are associated with the cell membrane, the subject is still controversial. Studies regarding the genotoxic effects of EMF have generally focused on DNA damage. Possible mechanisms are related to ROS formation due to oxidative stress. EMF increases ROS production by enhancing the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) oxidase in the cell membrane. Further detailed studies are needed to elucidate DNA damage mechanisms and apoptotic pathways during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in germ cells exposed to EMF.


This paper reviews the current literature and is intended to contribute to a better understanding of the genotoxic effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones and wireless systems on the human reproductive system, especially on fertility. The current literature reveals that mobile phones can affect cellular functions via non-thermal effects (Diem et al., 2005; Hanci et al., 2013 ;  Odaci et al., 2016a). Although the cellular targets of GSM-modulated EMF are associated with the cell membrane, the subject is still controversial (Eberhardt et al., 2008). Studies regarding the genotoxic effects of EMF have generally focused on DNA damage (Mortelmans and Rupa, 2004; Young, 2002; Zeiger, 2004; Panagopoulos, 2012 ;  Turedi et al., 2016). Possible mechanisms are related to ROS formation due to oxidative stress (Moustafa et al., 2004; Hanukoglu et al., 2006). EMF increases ROS production by enhancing the activity of NADH oxidase in the cell membrane (Friedman et al., 2007b). In this context, EMF affected spermatozoa may have a high degree rate of infertilization. It seems that previous genomic studies do not show definitive evidence regarding EMF affected cells in the fertilization. Although we evaluated broadly the genomic effects of cell phone exposure on the reproductive system using both animal and human studies, one of the weaknesses of this work is insufficient review of human studies. This may come from limited number of EMF based human studies in the literature. Further detailed studies are needed to elucidate DNA damage mechanisms and apoptotic pathways during oogenesis and spermatogenesis in germ cells that are exposed to EMF.


Altun G, Deniz OG, Yurt KK, Davis D, Kaplan S. Effects of mobile phone exposure on metabolomics in the male and female reproductive systems. Environ Res. 2018 Nov;167:700-707. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.02.031. 

• Long-term exposure to EMF decreases sperm motility and fertilization.• Effects of EMF emitted from mobile phones are related to protein synthesis.
• Oxidative stress based EMF exposure modulates nitric oxide level in the germ cells.
• Oxidative stress based EMF exposure inhibits antioxidant mechanisms in the germ cells.

With current advances in technology, a number of epidemiological and experimental studies have reported a broad range of adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on human health. Multiple cellular mechanisms have been proposed as direct causes or contributors to these biological effects. EMF-induced alterations in cellular levels can activate voltage-gated calcium channels and lead to the formation of free radicals, protein misfolding and DNA damage. Because rapidly dividing germ cells go through meiosis and mitosis, they are more sensitive to EMF in contrast to other slower-growing cell types. In this review, possible mechanistic pathways of the effects of EMF exposure on fertilization, oogenesis and spermatogenesis are discussed. In addition, the present review also evaluates metabolomic effects of GSM-modulated EMFs on the male and female reproductive systems in recent human and animal studies. In this context, experimental and epidemiological studies which examine the impact of mobile phone radiation on the processes of oogenesis and spermatogenesis are examined in line with current approaches.


EMF emitted by mobile phones has a number of well-documented adverse metabolomic effects on the male and female reproductive systems and can lead to infertility by increasing ROS production and reducing GSH and other antioxidants. The primary target of the EMF emitted by mobile phones may be the cell membrane (Pall in press, this volume). This then results in accelerated activity of membrane NADH oxidase and, consequently, greater rates of ROS formation that cannot be easily conjugated or detoxified. Although many studies have reported morphological and functional deteriorations in testis and ovary following EMF exposures, as well both structural and functional deficits in reproductive health, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. To assist in further clarification of these processes and mechanisms, Table 1 summarizes key studies on the metabolomic effects of EMF on reproductive systems. Future studies will benefit greatly from standardized exposure protocols and evaluations of key metabolomic indicators.

Sepehrimanesh, M. & Davis, D.L. Proteomic impacts of electromagnetic fields on the male reproductive system. Comp Clin Pathol. 26(2):309-313. 2017. doi:10.1007/s00580-016-2342-x. 


The use of mobile phones and other wireless transmitting devices is increasing dramatically in developing and developed countries, as is the rate of infertility. A number of respected infertility clinics in Australia, India, USA, and Iran are reporting that those who regularly use mobile phones tend to have reduced sperm quantity and quality. Some experimental studies have found that human sperm exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF), either simulated or from mobile phones, developed biomarkers of impaired structure and function, as well as reduced quantity. These encompass pathological, endocrine, and proteomic changes. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within living organisms, and the proteome is the entire array of proteins—the ultimate biomolecules in the pathways of DNA transcription to translation. Proteomics is the art and science of studying all proteins in cells, using different techniques. This paper reviews proteomic experimental and clinical evidence that EMF acts as a male-mediated teratogen and contributor to infertility.

As among the most rapidly proliferating human cells, spermatogenesis and associated activities offer an important endpoint for evaluation. More than 60 different compounds or industrial processes have been identified as increasing defects in human sperm or testicular tissue and possibly increasing the risk to offspring from male-mediated exposures. In this study, we reviewed structural and functional proteomic changes related to EMF exposure. Reported changes are categorized based on main affected tissue and also the most important adverse effects. Overall, these results demonstrate significant effects of radio frequency-modulated EMF exposure on the proteome, including both structural and functional impacts such as a decrease in the diameter and weight of the seminiferous tubules and the mean height of the germinal epithelium (Ozguner et al. 2005) and/or pathological and physiological changes in key biochemical components of the testicular tissues (Luo et al. 2013). These structural and functional changes may account for the pathological impact of EMF on the male reproductive system reported in the experimental work that we and others have conducted. While EMF is currently being used for a number of therapeutic applications (REF), the work we have reviewed here clearly indicates a range of harmful effects, especially on genital systems.


Houston B, Nixon B, King BV, De Iuliis G, Aitken RJ. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function. Reproduction. 2016 Dec;152(6):R263-R276. 


Mobile phone usage has become an integral part of our lives. However, the effects of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted by these devices on biological systems and specifically the reproductive systems are currently under active debate. A fundamental hindrance to the current debate is that there is no clear mechanism of how such non-ionising radiation influences biological systems. Therefore, we explored the documented impacts of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system and considered any common observations that could provide insights on a potential mechanism. 

Among a total of 27 studies investigating the effects of RF-EMR on the male reproductive system, negative consequences of exposure were reported in 21. Within these 21 studies, 11 of the 15 that investigated sperm motility reported significant declines, 7 of 7 that measured the production of reactive oxygen species documented elevated levels and 4 of 5 studies that probed for DNA damage highlighted increased damage, due to RF-EMR exposure. Associated with this, RF-EMR treatment reduced antioxidant levels in 6 of 6 studies that studied this phenomenon, while consequences of RF-EMR were successfully ameliorated with the supplementation of antioxidants in all 3 studies that carried out these experiments. 
In light of this, we envisage a two-step mechanism whereby RF-EMR is able to induce mitochondrial dysfunction leading to elevated ROS production. 
A continued focus on research which aims to shed light on the biological effects of RF-EMR will allow us to test and assess this proposed mechanism in a variety of cell types.

To date, contradictory studies surrounding the impacts of RF-EMR on biological systems maintain controversy over this subject. Nevertheless, research into the biological responses stimulated by RF-EMR is particularly important given our ever-increasing use of mobile phone technology. While clinical studies are identifying possible detrimental effects of RF-EMR, it is imperative that mechanistic studies are conducted that elucidate the manner in which RF-EMR perturbs biological function, thus supplying a rational cause. A focus on the male reproductive system may experience as consequences of the personal storage of mobile devices, the unique vulnerability of the highly specialised sperm cell, and the future health burden that may be created if conception proceeds with defective, DNA-damaged spermatozoa. While this subject remains a topic of active debate, this review has considered the growing body of evidence suggesting a possible role for RF-EMR induced damage of the male germ line. In a majority of studies, this damage has been characterized by loss of sperm motility and viability as well as the induction of ROS generation and DNA damage. We have therefore given consideration to the potential mechanisms through which RF-EMR may elicit these effects on spermatozoa, which we utilized as a sensitive model system. We propose a mechanistic model in which RF-EMR exposure leads to defective mitochondrial function associated with elevated levels of ROS production and culminates in a state of oxidative stress that would account the varying phenotypes observed in response to RF-EMR exposure. With further complementary data, this model will provide new impetus to the field and stimulate research that will allow us to confidently assess the reproductive hazards of mobile phone usage.

Adams JA, Galloway TS, Mondal D, Esteves SC, Mathews F. Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Int.  2014 Sep;70:106-12. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.04.015.


Mobile phones are owned by most of the adult population worldwide. Radio-frequency radiation (RFR) from these devices could affect sperm development and function. Around 14% of couples in high- and middle-income countries have difficulty conceiving. Male infertility is involved approximately 40% of the time. Several countries have reported unexplained declines in semen quality.Animal research has found that RFR can affect the cell cycle of sperm, increase sperm cell death and produce histological changes in the testes. Research on humans has found that prolonged mobile phone use is associated with decreased motility, sperm concentration, morphology and viability suggesting a likely impact on fertility.
The authors of this peer-reviewed study conducted a systematic review of the research and a quantitative analysis to determine whether exposure to mobile phone radiation affects human sperm quality. Participants were from fertility clinics and research centers.
The study examined the sperm quality outcome measures most frequently used to assess fertility in clinical settings: motility (the ability to move properly through the female reproductive tract), viability (the ability to fertilize the egg), and concentration (the number of sperm in a milliliter of ejaculate).
Ten studies were examined including 1,492 human sperm samples. Exposure to mobile phones was found to be associated with a significant eight per cent average reduction in sperm motility and a significant nine per cent average reduction in sperm viability. The effects on sperm concentration were more equivocal. The results were consistent across experimental laboratory studies and correlational observational studies.

The authors concluded that the overall results suggest that mobile phone exposure negatively affects sperm quality in humans. The clinical importance of these effects  in this study may be limited to subfertile men and to men at the lower-end of the normal spectrum.Open access paper:


Liu K, Li Y, Zhang G, Liu J, Cao J, Ao L, Zhang S. 
Association between mobile phone use and semen quality: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Andrology. 2014 Jul;2(4):491-501.


Possible hazardous health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiations emitted from mobile phone on the reproductive system have raised public concern in recent years. This systemic review and meta-analysis was prepared following standard procedures of the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement and checklist. Relevant studies published up to May 2013 were identified from five major international and Chinese literature databases: Medline/PubMed, EMBASE, CNKI, the VIP database and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane Library. Eighteen studies with 3947 men and 186 rats were included in the systemic review, of which 12 studies (four human studies, four in vitro studies and four animal studies) with 1533 men and 97 rats were used in the meta-analyses. Systemic review showed that results of most of the human studies and in vitro laboratory studies indicated mobile phone use or radiofrequency exposure had negative effects on the various semen parameters studied. However, meta-analysis indicated that mobile phone use had no adverse effects on semen parameters in human studies. In the in vitro studies, meta-analysis indicated that radiofrequency radiation had detrimental effect on sperm motility and viability in vitro [pooled mean difference (MDs) (95% CI): -4.11 (-8.08, -0.13), -3.82 (-7.00, -0.65) for sperm motility and viability respectively]. As for animal studies, radiofrequency exposure had harmful effects on sperm concentration and motility [pooled MDs (95% CI): -8.75 (-17.37, -0.12), -17.72 (-32.79, -2.65) for sperm concentration and motility respectively]. Evidence from current studies suggests potential harmful effects of mobile phone use on semen parameters. A further multicentred and standardized study is needed to assess the risk of mobile phone use on the reproductive system.

Recent Studies (Updated: 9/13/2019)
Abeer M. Hagras, Eman A. Toraih, Manal S. Fawzy. Mobile phones electromagnetic radiation and NAD+-dependent Isocitrate Dehydrogenase as a mitochondrial marker in Asthenozoospermia. Biochimie Open. Available online July 25, 2016.

Adams JA, Galloway TS, Mondal D, Esteves SC, Mathews F. Effect of mobile telephones on sperm quality: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environment International70:106-112. September 2014.

Agarwal A, Deepinder F, Sharma RK, Ranga G, Li J. Effect of cell phone usage on semen analysis in men attending infertility clinic: an observational study. Fertil Steril. 2008 Jan;89(1):124-8.

Agarwal A, Desai NR, Makker K, Varghese A, Mouradi R, Sabanegh E, Sharma R. Effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) from cellular phones on human ejaculated semen: an in vitro pilot study. Fertil Steril. 2009;92(4):1318-25.

Agarwal A, Singh A, Hamada A, Kesari K. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences.Int Braz J Urol. 2011; 37(4):432-54.

Akdag MZ, Dasdag S, Canturk F, Karabulut D, Caner Y, Adalier N. Does prolonged radiofrequency radiation emitted from Wi-Fi devices induce DNA damage in various tissues of rats? J Chem Neuroanat. 2016 Jan 8.

Al-Bayyari N. Middle East Fertility Society Journal.  The effect of cell phone usage on semen quality and fertility among Jordanian males. Published online Apr 7, 2017.

Al-Quzwini OF, Al-Taee, Al-Shaikh SF. Male fertility and its association with occupational and mobile phone towers hazards: An analytic study. Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 2016 Apr 8.

Bin-Meferij MM, El-Kott AF. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats.Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Aug 15;8(8):12487-97.

Boga A, Emre M, Sertdemir Y, Uncu İ, Binokay S, Demirhan O. Effects of GSM-like radiofrequency irradiation during the oogenesis and spermiogenesis of Xenopus laevis. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2016 Mar 24;129:137-144.

Çetkin M, Kızılkan N, Demirel C, Bozdağ Z, Erkılıç S, Erbağcı H. Quantitative changes in testicular structure and function in rat exposed to mobile phone radiation. Andrologia. 2017 Jan 26.

Fatehi D, Anjomshoa M, Mohammadi M, Seify M, Rostamzadeh A. Biological effects of cell-phone radiofrequency waves exposure on fertilization in mice; an in vivo and in vitro study. Middle East Fertility Society Journal. 23 October 2017.

Ford-Glanton BS, Melendez BA. Male Reproductive Toxicants: Electromagnetic Radiation and Heat. Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences. 2018.
Gautam R, Singh KV, Nirala J, Murmu NN, Meena R, Rajamani P. Oxidative stress-mediated alterations on sperm parameters in male Wistar rats exposed to 3G mobile phone radiation. Andrologia. 2019 Apr 51(3):e13201.
Gao XH, Hu HR, Ma X2, Chen J, Zhang GH. [Cellphone electromagnetic radiation damages the testicular ultrastructure of male rats]. [Article in Chinese].  Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2016 Jun;22(6):491-495.

Gohari FA, Saranjam B, Asgari M, Omidi L, Ekrami H, Moussavi-Najarkola SA. An experimental study of the effects of combined exposure to microwave and heat on gene expression and sperm parameters in mice. J Hum Reprod Sci. 2017 Apr-Jun;10(2):128-134.

Hancı H, Kerimoğlu G, Mercantepe T, Odacı E. Changes in testicular morphology and oxidative stress biomarkers in 60-day-old Sprague Dawley rats following exposure to continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field for 1 h a day throughout adolescence. Reprod Toxicol. 2018 Oct;81:71-78.

Houston B, Nixon B, King BV, De Iuliis G, Aitken RJ. The effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on sperm function. Reproduction. 2016 Sep 6. pii: REP-16-0126.

Houston BJ, Nixon B, King BV, Aitken RJ, De Iuliis GN. Probing the origins of 1,800 MHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation induced damage in mouse immortalized germ cells and spermatozoa in vitro. Front. Public Health. 2018 Sep 21.

Kamali K, Atarod M, Sarhadi S, Nikbakht J, Emami M, Maghsoudi R, Salimi H, Fallahpour B, Kamali N, Momtazan A, Ameli M. Effects of electromagnetic waves emitted from 3G+wi-fi modems on human semen analysis. Urologia. 2017 Sep 14:0.

Lewis RC, Mínguez-Alarcón L, Meeker JD, Williams PL, Mezei G, Ford JB, Hauser R; EARTH Study Team.Self-reported mobile phone use and semen parameters among men from a fertility clinic. Reprod Toxicol. 2016 Nov 9. pii: S0890-6238(16)30408-7. 
(Note: Authors report conflict of interest and limited statistical power to detect effects.)

Li R, Yang WQ, Chen HQ, Zhang YH. Morinda Officinalis How improves cellphone radiation-induced abnormality of LH and LHR in male rats. Article in Chinese.  2015 Sep;21(9):824-7.

Lin YY, Wu T, Liu JY, Gao P, Li KC, Guo QY, Yuan M, Lang HY, Zeng LH, Guo GZ. 1950 MHz radio frequency electromagnetic radiation inhibits testosterone secretion of mouse Leydig cells. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Dec 23;15(1).

Liu Q, Si T, Xu X, Liang F, Wang L, Pan S. Electromagnetic radiation at 900 MHz induces sperm apoptosis through bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 signaling pathways in rats. Reprod Health. 2015; 12:65.
Ma HR, Cao XH, Ma XL, Chen JJ, Chen JW, Yang H, Liu YX. [Protective effect of Liuweidihuang Pills against cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in rat testes]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2015 Aug;21(8):737-41. [Article in Chinese]. 

Nakatani-Enomoto S, Okutsu M, Suzuki S et al. Effects of 1950 MHz W-CDMA-like signal on human spermatoza. Bioelectromagnetics. 11 Jun 2016.

Narayanan SN, Lukose ST, Arun G, Mohapatra N, Pamala J, Concessao PL, Jetti R, Kedage V, Nalini K, Bhat PG. Modulatory effect of 900 MHz radiation on biochemical and reproductive parameters in rats. Bratisl Lek Listy. 2018;119(9):581-587.

Odacı E, Hancı H, Yuluğ E, Türedi S, Aliyazıcıoğlu Y, Kaya H, Çolakoğlu S.Effects of prenatal exposure to a 900 MHz electromagnetic field on 60-day-old rat testis and epididymal sperm quality. Biotech Histochem. 2015 Oct 15:1-11.

Oyewopo AO, Olaniyi SK, Oyewopo CI, Jimoh AT. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats. Andrologia. 2017 Mar 6.

Pandey N, Giri S, Das S, Upadhaya P. Radiofrequency radiation (900 MHz)-induced DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in testicular germ cells in swiss albino mice. Toxicol Ind Health. 2016 Oct 13.

Parsanezhad M, Mortazavi SMJ, Doohandeh T, Namavar Jahromi B, Mozdarani , Zarei A, Davari M, Amjadi S, Soleimani A, Haghani M. Exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers adversely affects the quality of human sperm. International Journal of Radiation Research. 15(1). Jan 2017.

Radwan, M, Jurewicz, J, Merecz-Kot, D,  Sobala, W, Radwan, P, Bochenek, M, Hanke, W. Sperm DNA damage—the effect of stress and everyday life factors. International Journal of Impotence Research. 14 April 2016.

Saygin M, Asci H, Ozmen O, Cankara FN, Dincoglu D, Ilhan I. Impact of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on the testicular inflammatory pathway biomarkers in young rats: The role of gallic acid. Environ Toxicol. 2015 Aug 13. doi: 10.1002/tox.22179. [Epub ahead of print]

Schauer I, Mohamad Al-Ali B. Combined effects of varicocele and cell phones on semen and hormonal parameters.  Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2017 Oct 13. doi: 10.1007/s00508-017-1277-9. 

Sepehrimanesh, M. & Davis, D.L. Proteomic impacts of electromagnetic fields on the male reproductive system. Comp Clin Pathol (2016). doi:10.1007/s00580-016-2342-x.

Sepehrimanesh M, Kazemipour N, Saeb M, Nazifi S, Davis DL.Proteomic analysis of continuous 900-MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure in testicular tissue: a rat model of human cell phone exposure. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Apr 10. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-8882-z.

Sokolovic D, Djordjevic B, Kocic G, Stoimenov TJ, Stanojkovic Z, Sokolovic DM, et al. The Effects of Melatonin on Oxidative Stress Parameters and DNA Fragmentation in Testicular Tissue of Rats Exposed to Microwave Radiation. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2015 May-Jun;24(3):429-36. doi: 10.17219/acem/43888.
Solek P, Majchrowicz L, Bloniarz D, Krotoszynska E, Koziorowski M. Pulsed or continuous electromagnetic field induce p53/p21-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway in mouse spermatogenic cells in vitro and thus may affect male fertility. Toxicology. 2017 Mar 16. pii: S0300-483X(17)30092-6.

Wang D, Li B, Liu Y, Ma YF, Chen SQ, Sun HJ, Dong J, Ma XH, Zhou J, Wang XH. [Impact of mobile phone radiation on the quality and DNA methylation of human sperm in vitro]. [Article in Chinese]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2015 Jun;21(6):515-520.
Wessapan T, Rattanadecho P. Temperature induced in the testicular and related tissues due to electromagnetic fields exposure at 900 MHz and 1800 MHz. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 102:1130-1140. 2016.

Yildirim et al. What is harmful for male fertility, cell phone or the wireless internet? Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences. Published online Jul 26, 2015. Abstract and summary:
Yu G, Tang Z, Chen H, et al.  Long-term exposure to 4G smartphone radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation diminished male reproductive potential by directly disrupting Spock3-MMP2-BTB axis in the testes of adult rats. Sci Total Environ. 2019 Aug 31;698:133860. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133860.

Zang Z, Ji S, Huang S, Jiang M, Fang Y. (2016) Impact of Cellphone Radiation on Sexual Behavior and Serum Concentration of Testosterone and LH in Male Mice. Occupational Diseases and Environmental Medicine, 4(3):56-62.

Zhang G, Yan H, Chen Q, Liu K, Ling X, Sun L, Zhou N, Wang Z, Zou P, Wang X, Tan L, Cui Z, Zhou Z, Liu J, Ao L, Cao J. Effects of cell phone use on semen parameters: Results from the MARHCS cohort study in Chongqing, China. Environ Int. 2016 Mar 4;91:116-121.

Zilberlicht et al. Habits of cell phone usage and sperm quality – does it warrant attention? Reproductive BioMedicine Online. 31(3):421-426. Sep2015.
přeložit | 14.9.2019 00:53

Recent Research on Wireless Radiation and Electromagnetic Fields

I have been circulating abstracts of newly-published scientific papers on wireless radiation and electromagnetic fields (EMF) about once or twice a month since August, 2016. These updates are sent to several hundred EMF scientists around the world.

The latest additions appear below.

The complete collection of abstracts now covers more than 750 scientific papers. This 527-page document (pdf) can be downloaded by clicking on the following link:
Note: This link will change when new abstracts are added to the collection.

Recent Papers

Geomagnetic disturbances driven by solar activity enhance total and cardiovascular mortality risk in 263 U.S. cities

Zilli Vieira CL, Alvares D, Blomberg A, Schwartz J, Coull B, Huang S, Koutrakis P. Geomagnetic disturbances driven by solar activity enhance total and cardiovascular mortality risk in 263 U.S. cities. Environmental Health. 18(83). Sep 11, 2019.


Background  Short-term geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) driven by the quasi-periodic 11-year cycle of solar activity have been linked to a broad range of adverse health effects, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and total deaths. We conducted a large epidemiological study in 263 U.S. cities to assess the effects of GMD on daily deaths of total, CVD, myocardial infarction (MI), and stroke.

Methods  We employed a two-step meta-analysis approach, in which we estimated city-specific and season-stratified mortality risk associated with a GMD parameter (Kp index) in 263 U.S. cities. In addition, sensitivity analysis was performed to assess whether effect modification of particulate matter (PM2.5) in the prior day changed Kp index effects on daily deaths after adjusting for confounders.

Results We found significant association between daily GMD and total, CVD, and MI deaths. The effects were even stronger when we adjusted the models for 24-h PM2.5 for different seasons. For example, in the winter and fall one standard deviation of z-score Kp index increase was associated with a 0.13 and 0.31% increase in total deaths, respectively (Winter: p = 0.01, 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.24; Fall: p = 0.00001; 95% CI: 0.23 to 0.4), without adjusting for PM2.5. The effects of GMD on total deaths were also observed in spring and summer in the models without PM2.5 (p = 0.00001). When the models were adjusted for PM2.5 the total deaths increased 0.47% in winter (p = 0.00001, 95% CI: 0.3 to 0.65) and by 0.23% in fall (p = 0.001, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.37). The effects of GMD were also significant associated with MI deaths and CVD. No positive significant association were found between Kp and stroke. The GMD effects on deaths were higher than for 24 h-PM2.5 alone, especially in spring and fall.

Conclusion  Our results suggest that GMD is associated with total, CVD and MI deaths in 263 U. S cities. Increased mortality in the general population during GMD should be further investigated to determine whether those human physiological dynamics driven by variations in solar activity can be related to daily clinical cardiovascular observations.

Open access paper:
Risks to Health and Well-Being From Radio-Frequency Radiation Emitted by Cell Phones and Other Wireless Devices
Miller AB, Sears ME, Morgan LL, Davis DL, Hardell L, Oremus M and Soskolne CL (2019) Risks to health and well-being from radio-frequency radiation emitted by cell phones and other wireless devices. Front. Public Health 7:223. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2019.00223.

Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation1 (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a “possible” (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR.
Open access paper:
Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation-induced behavioral changes and their possible basis

Narayanan SN, Jetti R, Kesari KK, Kumar RS, Nayak SB, Bhat PG. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation-induced behavioral changes and their possible basis. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Aug 28. doi: 10.1007/s11356-019-06278-5.


The primary objective of mobile phone technology is to achieve communication with any person at any place and time. In the modern era, it is impossible to ignore the usefulness of mobile phone technology in cases of emergency as many lives have been saved. However, the biological effects they may have on humans and other animals have been largely ignored and not been evaluated comprehensively. One of the reasons for this is the speedy uncontrollable growth of this technology which has surpassed our researching ability. Initiated with the first generation, the mobile telephony currently reaches to its fifth generation without being screened extensively for any biological effects that they may have on humans or on other animals. Mounting evidences suggest possible non-thermal biological effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on brain and behavior. Behavioral studies have particularly concentrated on the effects of RF-EMR on learning, memory, anxiety, and locomotion. The literature analysis on behavioral effects of RF-EMR demonstrates complex picture with conflicting observations. Nonetheless, numerous reports suggest a possible behavioral effect of RF-EMR. The scientific findings about this issue are presented in the current review. The possible neural and molecular mechanisms for the behavioral effects have been proposed in the light of available evidences from the literature.
Mobile phone safety recommendations depend mainly on ‘sinusoidal wave’ emitted from the cell phone when it is idle. At idle mode, the RF-EMR exposure is negligible, hence, it might not be that detrimental at this level. However, chronic exposure to the ‘carrier signal’ emitted when phone is in ‘ON’ mode (when the phone is ringing/call receiving mode) would be responsible for biological effects. Exposure to RF-EMR induces an imbalance in the oxidant/antioxidant defense system in the brain indicating that the internal environment of each brain cell was getting disturbed by the insult from RFEMR. This therefore does not favor the nerve cells to function appropriately. Whenever the threshold is reached, the cell either stops functioning, functions abnormally, or dies. We call it structural change or morphological change. Most of the time, what happens at the cellular level is indicated at the behavioral level. It is highly difficult to join up biochemical change, morphological change, and then behavior. An imbalance in the biochemical homeostasis would itself alter the behavior which might not be structurally represented and vice versa. This is due to the mechanisms, which prevent or resist the insult from external stressors. Currently, we are not sure about this fact as there are no solid evidences which pin point or demonstrate this innate preventive/restrain mechanisms present in neurons under RF-EMR exposure. Further study  in this regard will reveal much clearer picture of body’s (especially brain) innate mechanisms which would withstand the
potential threat caused by RF-EMR.

It is evident from earlier discussions that a possible behavioral effect does exist following RF-EMR exposure in rodents. However, caution should be taken while extrapolating these findings into humans. It is worth noting that an adult uses mobile phone approximately 4 to 5 h per day and this may be even more in teenagers. However, reports that analyze the behavioral, psychological, and health variables following RFEMR exposure in sensitive population like young adults are scanty. Furthermore, it would be interesting to study the effect of RF-EMR exposure in early developmental stage and see what the effects of such exposures are on the critical and sensitive periods of development using animal models. Although the current review focused principally on RFEMR-induced effects on cognition, anxiety, and locomotion, RF-EMR have been attributed to induce other behavioral effects in rodents as well as in humans. After witnessing the uncontrollable growth of this technology, everyone believes that it is high time to evaluate the health risks of continuous and chronic RF-EMR exposure effects on humans and for which further studies are warranted.
Effect of radiofrequency radiation on reproductive health

Singh R, Nath R,Mathur AK,Sharma RS. Effect of radiofrequency radiation on reproductive health. Indian J Med Res. 2018 Dec; 148(Suppl 1): S92–S99. doi: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_1056_18.


The development of cellular phone system has greatly increased the extent and magnitude of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure. The RFR emitted from mobile phone and mobile phone base stations exerts thermal and non-thermal effects. The short-term and long-term exposure to RFR may have adverse effect on humans as well as animals. Most laboratory studies have indicated a direct link between exposure to RFR and adverse biological effects. Several in vitro studies have reported that RFR induces various types of cancer and DNA or chromosomal damage. On the other hand, some animal studies have not reported adverse effects of this radiation. The present review summarizes information available on the possible effects of RFR on the reproductive health.

Open access paper:
Health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF)

Bortkiewicz A. Editorial: Health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF EMF). Industrial Health. 2019;57(4):403-405. doi: 10.2486/indhealth.57_400.

No abstract.
Conclusion: The problem of health effects of RF EMF has not been definitely resolved, but due to the results of previous research on possible health effects of RF EMF, it seems necessary to use precautionary principles and ALARA (As Low as Reasonably Achievable) principles, when the new sources of electromagnetic emissions will be planned and installed.
Open access paper:
Environmental Factors and the Risk of Brain Tumours in Young People: A Systematic Review

Zumel-Marne A, Castano-Vinyals G, Kundi M, Alguacil J, Cardis E. Environmental Factors and the Risk of Brain Tumours in Young People: A Systematic Review. Neuroepidemiology. 2019 Jun 5:1-21. doi: 10.1159/000500601.


BACKGROUND: Brain tumours (BT) are one of the most frequent tumour types in young people, although little is known about their risk factors.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current work was to review and summarize the scientific literature concerning exposure to environmental factors and BT risk in young people (<25 years old).

METHODS: PUBMED, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, IME-Biomedina (bibliographic database of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas) and Web of science databases were searched. A score to assess the quality of the methodological information was created.

RESULTS: Some possible associations between BT risk in young people were reported for cadmium, consumption of well water, presence of nitrate or nitrate-nitrogen in tap water, mother's passive smoking, air pollution, parental handling of pesticides at home and/or professional pesticide treatment within houses, living on a farm and/or with farm animals, some parental occupations and high amount of meat consumption.

CONCLUSIONS: Although many of the studies reviewed suggest associations between the environmental exposures and BT in children and young adults, at present no reliable conclusion can be drawn as most results are based on small number of cases and exposure assessment is limited. Large-scale studies with better exposure assessment are needed to shed light on these possible associations, especially on exposure to heavy metals, tab water consumption, pesticides and parental smoking.

Excerpt: Non-Ionizing Radiation
Three articles [19, 42, 47] studied the association between extremely low frequency (ELF) exposure during pregnancy and BT risk.

Regarding the exposure to electrically heated waterbeds during pregnancy, 2 articles found non-significantly reduced risks (1 for astrocytomas and the other for BT in general) based on small samples sizes [19, 47]. No significant association was found for PNET either [19]. Regarding exposure to ELF from electrical blankets during pregnancy, 3 articles found non-statistically significantly increased risk [19, 42, 47].

Two studies focused on childhood ELF exposure [39, 47] and BT risk. One [39] found a non-significantly reduced risk for electric blanket and waterbed use based on very small numbers of cases (n = 6 and 1, respectively). In the other study, the ORs were close to one.

Two studies [48, 49] focused on radiofrequency (RF) exposures in childhood and BT were found. In the large multinational study [48], a non-significantly increased risk was found, with no evidence for an exposure response relationship between mobile phones use (which emits some ELF but mainly RF) and risk of BT. Use of mobile phones was low in this population, with an average duration of use of 2.7 years and lifetime cumulative time of use of only 35 h. Another study [49], which estimated average of exposure to RF from mobile phone base stations, found a non-statistically significant risk for exposure above the median, though the authors acknowledge several methodological limitations.

Three studies focused on the exposure to magnetic fields (MF) [50-52] from high-current power lines, electric heating sources or electric appliances at home during childhood. One [50] found a significantly increased risk for ≥0.4µT of MF in the children’s bedroom (OR 10.9 [1.05–113] based on 3 cases and 1 control). Two [51, 52] studies found a non-statistically significant increased risk for exposure at home to high MF compared to low ones.

Open access paper:
Funding Source, Quality of Publications and Outcome in Genetic Damage in Mammalian Cells Exposed to Non-Ionizing Radiofrequency Fields

Vijayalaxmi, Prihoda TJ. Funding source, quality of publications and outcome in genetic damage in mammalian cells exposed to non-ionizing radiofrequency fields.Radiat Res. 2019 Aug 7. doi: 10.1667/RR15364.1.


There has been ongoing debate and discussion concerning whether the funding source influenced the outcome of research on human health effects from exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF, electromagnetic waves that carry energy as they propagate in air and dense media). In a study of 225 publications, in which we sought to determine a possible association between the funding source(s), quality and outcome in a total of 2,160 genetic damage assessment tests of mammalian cells exposed to RF energy, we made several observations. One finding was that a great majority of researchers had acknowledged government agencies as the funding source (53%, 120 of 225 publications), while a small number of scientists mentioned mobile phone industry as the financial source (9%, 20 of 225 publications). Numerous investigators did not mention the funding source (26%, 58 of 225 publications). Secondly, industry-funded investigations were of better quality and utilized quality control measures, i.e., blind evaluation, adequate description of dosimetry, positive controls and/or sham-exposed controls, compared to those funded by the government. Another observation was that in industry-funded studies, the d values (effect size or standardized mean difference between the cells exposed to RF energy and sham-exposed controls) were consistently lower than in government-funded studies. In addition, compared to government-funded studies, a higher percentage of industry-funded studies reported no difference in genetic damage between RF- and sham-exposed cells (80% for industry-funded studies versus 49% for government-funded studies). Finally, we observed that industry-funded studies were less likely to report an increase in genetic damage in cells exposed to RF energy (10%) compared to government-funded studies (23%). In view of the large difference between the percentage of publications funded by government and industry (53% or 122 of 225 publications for government, compared to 9% or 29 of 225 publications for industry), caution should be used when debating and discussing the above observations. Overall, it is important to include the quality control measures in the investigations, and also mention the funding source in published studies.
Health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy

Elwood M, Wood AW. Health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic energy. N Z Med J. 2019 Aug 30;132(1501):64-72.


The issues of real or suspected health effects of radiofrequency fields, produced by cellphones, their base stations and many other devices, are complex and controversial. We believe that the most balanced and valid assessments of these issues are given by the extensive reports produced by reputable, multidisciplinary, expert groups. These use the principles of a comprehensive review to assess all available published literature and form their conclusions by consideration of the strength of the evidence from the available studies. This paper provides links to several of these reports, and shows how others can be accessed. These reports are large and complex, but freely available on websites. We summarise the most recent New Zealand report, which itself refers to and summarises many other reports. The scientific literature on these issues is enormous, particularly in animal and laboratory studies. There are some comprehensive reviews of these, demonstrating that the quality of the studies is very variable, and that, for example, results claiming to show increased genetic damage or other biological effects are much more common in studies of low quality, whereas higher-quality studies predominantly show no significant effects. Thus, while there are many reports which in isolation suggest health effects, there is no consistent evidence supporting important health effects caused by low intensities of radiofrequencies similar to those experienced by the general population. There are certainly many unanswered questions, and new studies need to be assessed carefully and replicated where possible. Thus, expert groups in several countries including New Zealand need to continue to regularly review new studies.
Adverse effects of Wi-Fi radiation on male reproductive system: A systematic review

Jaffar FHF, Osman K, Ismail NH, Chin KY, Ibrahim SF. Adverse Effects of Wi-Fi Radiation on Male Reproductive System: A Systematic Review. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2019;248(3): 169-179. doi: 10.1620/tjem.248.169.


Extensive use of Wi-Fi has contributed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) pollution in environment. Various studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter on male reproduction health. However, there are conflicting findings between studies. Thus, this review aims to elucidate the possible effects of 2.45 GHz Wi-Fi exposure on both animal and human male reproductive system. A computerized database search performed through MEDLINE via Ovid and PUBMED with the following set of keywords: 'Wi-Fi or WiFi or wireless fidelity or Wi-Fi router or WiFi router or electromagnetic or radiofrequency radiation' AND 'sperm or spermatozoa or spermatogenesis or semen or seminal plasma or testes or testis or testosterone or male reproduction' had returned 526 articles. Only 17 studies conformed to pre-set inclusion criterion. Additional records identified through Google Scholar and reviewed article further revealed six eligible articles. A total of 23 articles were used for data extraction, including 15 studies on rats, three studies on mice, and five studies on human health. Sperm count, motility and DNA integrity were the most affected parameters when exposed to RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter. Unfortunately, sperm viability and morphology were inconclusive. Structural and/or physiological analyses of the testes showed degenerative changes, reduced testosterone level, increased apoptotic cells, and DNA damage. These effects were mainly due to the elevation of testicular temperature and oxidative stress activity. In conclusion, exposure towards 2.45 GHz RF-EMR emitted by Wi-Fi transmitter is hazardous on the male reproductive system.

Open access paper:
Some Notes on the Verification of the Exposure Limits in 5G Systems
Migliore MD.  Some Notes on the Verification of the Exposure Limits in 5G Systems.2019 IEEE International Symposium on Measurements & Networking (M&N). 8-10 July 2019. DOI: 10.1109/IWMN.2019.880504
The aim of this contribution is to discuss some problems regarding the measurement of the Electromagnetic Field Exposure (EFE) n 5G communication systems. The discussion clarifies how the use of the spatial resource to increase the network capacity introduces new causes of uncertainties in the estimation of the field intensity compared to previous generation of cellular networks. Simple examples regarding Massive MIMO communication systems are discussed.
The use of highly reconfigurable antennas represent a newchallenge for the measurement of the electromagnetic exposureof population.The simple simulations discussed in this conference contribution shows that new measurement protocols that takeexplicitly into account the reconfigurable nature of the fieldmust be considered for 5G. The simulations also suggest apossible approach, that consists in ’forcing’ the reconfigurable antenna to synthesize a maximum toward the direction of the measurement position, for example considering a system that is seen as ’receiver’ by the cellular system, while theestimation of the amplitude of the field in the close proximityof the antenna could be carried out using approaches based on near-field measurements.
Validation of Potential Effects on Human Health of in Vivo Experimental Models Studied in Rats Exposed to Sub-Thermal Radiofrequency. Possible Health Risks Due to the Interaction of Electromagnetic Pollution and Environmental Particles

Salas-Sánchez AA, López-Furelos A, Rodríguez-González JA, Ares-Pena FJ, López-Martín ME.  Validation of potential effects on human health of in vivo experimental models studied in rats exposed to sub-thermal radiofrequency. Possible health risks due to the interaction of electromagnetic pollution and environmental particles. IEEE Access. 7: 79186 - 79198. 17 June 2019. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2923581


Studies are based on the exposure of Sprague-Dawley rats (250 male and 250 female rats) to electromagnetic fields (EMF) at different frequencies in standing and travelling wave chambers. Values of specific absortion rate (SAR) for all of these experiments were obtained from commercially available FDTD-based simulation software based on numerical phantom animals. An experimental radiation system was developed with a standing-wave cavity which keeps electromagnetic parameters constant while facilitating stress-free exposure of animals to non-thermal radiation. This makes it possible to directly measure the power absorbed by the animal and determine whole-body mean SAR according to weight. All studies using this setup were performed with global system for mobile communication (GSM) radiation at 900 MHz. The simple picrotoxin model made allow to identify morphological signs of neurotoxicity in rat brain tissue. Experiments involving travelling waves were done in a commercial Gigahertz Transverse ElectroMagnetic (GTEM) chamber connected to one or two vector signal generators (to carry single or multiple EMF exposure frequencies). In the diathermy model, rat thyroid and thymus exposed to 2.45 GHz radiation showed visible morphological and immune effects. Cellular stress in the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum or both seems to be more associated with the type of signal than with additive effects of combined frequencies. Finally, some hypothesis related with the future models about the ElectroMagnetic (EM) pollution are established. In an urban environmental that combines the electromagnetic and chemical pollution of environmental particles, cortical excitability, inflammatory response, and cell injury can be modified.

The experimental models of controlled exposure of animals to radiofrequency allow us to know in the short term the mechanisms and risks that can affect human health. The modulation of EEG rhythms in epileptics, the modification of the immune response and the increase in cellular stress are biological effects that could be caused in humans by radio frequency interaction. In an urban environmental that combines the electromagnetic and chemical pollution of environmental particles cortical excitability, inflammatory response and cell injury can be modified.
Risk to pollinators from anthropogenic electro-magnetic radiation (EMR): Evidence and knowledge gaps
Vanbergen AJ, Potts SG, Vian A, Malkemper EP, Young J, Tscheulin T. Risk to pollinators from anthropogenic electro-magnetic radiation (EMR): Evidence and knowledge gaps. Sci Total Environ. 2019 Aug 7;695:133833. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133833.


Worldwide urbanisation and use of mobile and wireless technologies (5G, Internet of Things) is leading to the proliferation of anthropogenic electromagnetic radiation (EMR) and campaigning voices continue to call for the risk to human health and wildlife to be recognised. Pollinators provide many benefits to nature and humankind, but face multiple anthropogenic threats. Here, we assess whether artificial light at night (ALAN) and anthropogenic radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (AREMR), such as used in wireless technologies (4G, 5G) or emitted from power lines, represent an additional and growing threat to pollinators. A lack of high quality scientific studies means that knowledge of the risk to pollinators from anthropogenic EMR is either inconclusive, unresolved, or only partly established. A handful of studies provide evidence that ALAN can alter pollinator communities, pollination and fruit set. Laboratory experiments provide some, albeit variable, evidence that the honey bee Apis mellifera and other invertebrates can detect EMR, potentially using it for orientation or navigation, but they do not provide evidence that AREMR affects insect behaviour in ecosystems. Scientifically robust evidence of AREMR impacts on abundance or diversity of pollinators (or other invertebrates) are limited to a single study reporting positive and negative effects depending on the pollinator group and geographical location. Therefore, whether anthropogenic EMR (ALAN or AREMR) poses a significant threat to insect pollinators and the benefits they provide to ecosystems and humanity remains to be established.

Changes in pyramidal and granular neuron numbers in rat hippocampus 7 days after exposure to continuous 900-MHz EMF during early and mid-adolescence

Keleş Aİ, Nyengaard JR, Odacı E. Changes in pyramidal and granular neuron numbers in the rat hippocampus 7 days after exposure to a continuous 900-MHz electromagnetic field during early and mid-adolescence. J Chem Neuroanat. 2019 Aug 26:101681. doi: 10.1016/j.jchemneu.2019.101681.


The aim of this study was to investigate qualitative and quantitative changes in pyramidal and granule neurons in the male rat hippocampus after exposure to a continuous 900-megahertz (MHz) electromagnetic field (EMF) for 25 days during early and mid-adolescence. Three-week-old (21 day) healthy Sprague Dawley male rats were divided equally into control (CON), pseudo-exposed (PEX) and EMF groups. EMF rats were exposed to a 900-MHz EMF in an EMF-application cage, while the PEX rats were placed in the same cage without being exposed to EMF. No procedure was performed in CON. EMF was applied for 1 h/day, every day for 25 days. Following the 900-MHz EMF and pseudo-exposed applications, behavioral tests were performed for seven days. Then, all animals were euthanized and their brains were removed. Following histological tissue procedures, sections were taken from tissues and stained with toluidine blue. The optical fractionation technique was performed to estimate the pyramidal neuron numbers in the CA1, CA2-3 and hilus regions of the hippocampus and granule neuron numbers in the dentate gyrus region. Our findings indicated that the number of pyramidal and granule neurons in the hippocampus of the EMF group was statistically higher than PEX. Furthermore, the histopathological results showed that the cytoplasm of pyramidal (in the hilus, CA1, CA2 and CA3 region) and granular (in the dentate gyrus region) cells at the hippocampus were disrupted, as evident by intensive staining around cytoplasm and some artifacts were detected in the EMF group. In addition, statistical comparisons of the mean body weights and brain weights of the study groups revealed no significant differences. There was no statistically significant difference between the PEX and EMF groups in terms of temperature (p > 0.05) or humidity (p > 0.05) in the cages. In conclusion, higher numbers of both pyramidal and granule neurons were found in the male rat hippocampus after continuous 900-MHz EMF treatment.
Trafficking of synaptic vesicles is changed at the hypothalamus by exposure to an 835 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field

Kim JH, Huh YH, Kim HR. Trafficking of synaptic vesicles is changed at the hypothalamus by exposure to an 835 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2019 Aug 14. doi: 10.4149/gpb_2019020.


With the rapidly increasing use of mobile phones and their close-contact usage to the brain, there are some concerns about the possible neuronal effects induced by exposure to excessive electromagnetic radiation. Exposure to a radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) of 835 MHz (4.0 W/kg specific absorption rate (SAR) 5 h/day for 12 weeks) may affect hypothalamic presynaptic neurons in C57BL/6 mice. The number and size of the synaptic vesicles (SVs) in the hypothalamic presynaptic terminals were significantly decreased after RF-EMF exposure. Further, the density (SVs numbers/μm) of docking and fusing SVs in the active zones of the presynaptic terminal membrane was significantly decreased in hypothalamic neurons. The expression levels of synapsin I/II and synaptotagmin 1, two regulators of SV trafficking in neurons, were also significantly decreased in the hypothalamus. In parallel, the expression of calcium channel was significantly decreased. These changes in SVs in the active zones may directly decrease the release of neurotransmitters in hypothalamic presynaptic terminals. Therefore, we further studied the possible changes in hypothalamic function by testing the core body temperature and body weight and performed the buried pellet test. The trafficking of SVs was changed by RF-EMF; however, we could not find any significant phenotypical changes in our experimental condition.

Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer: How source of funding affects results

Carpenter DO. Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and cancer: How source of funding affects results. Environ Res. 2019 Aug 24;178:108688. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2019.108688.


While there has been evidence indicating that excessive exposure to magnetic fields from 50 to 60 Hz electricity increases risk of cancer, many argue that the evidence is inconsistent and inconclusive. This is particularly the case regarding magnetic field exposure and childhood leukemia. A major goal of this study is to examine how source of funding influences the reported results and conclusions. Several meta-analyses dating from about 2000 all report significant associations between exposure and risk of leukemia. By examining subsequent reports on childhood leukemia it is clear that almost all government or independent studies find either a statistically significant association between magnetic field exposure and childhood leukemia, or an elevated risk of at least OR = 1.5, while almost all industry supported studies fail to find any significant or even suggestive association. A secondary goal of this report is to examine the level of evidence for exposure and elevated risk of various adult cancers. Based on pooled or meta-analyses as well as subsequent peer-reviewed studies there is strong evidence that excessive exposure to magnetic fields increases risk of adult leukemia, male and female breast cancer and brain cancer. There is less convincing but suggestive evidence for elevations in several other cancer types. There is less clear evidence for bias based on source of funding in the adult cancer studies. There is also some evidence that both paternal and maternal prenatal exposure to magnetic fields results in an increased risk of leukemia and brain cancer in offspring. When one allows for bias reflected in source of funding, the evidence that magnetic fields increase risk of cancer is neither inconsistent nor inconclusive. Furthermore adults are also at risk, not just children, and there is strong evidence for cancers in addition to leukemia, particularly brain and breast cancer.
Exposure to static and extremely-low frequency electromagnetic fields and cellular free radicals
Lai H. Exposure to static and extremely-low frequency electromagnetic fields and cellular free radicals. Electromagnetic Biology Medicine. Aug 26, 2019.

This paper summarizes studies on changes in cellular free radical activities from exposure to static and extremely-low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF), particularly magnetic fields. Changes in free radical activities, including levels of cellular reactive oxygen (ROS)/nitrogen (RNS) species and endogenous antioxidant enzymes and compounds that maintain physiological free radical concentrations in cells, is one of the most consistent effects of EMF exposure. These changes have been reported to affect many physiological functions such as DNA damage; immune response; inflammatory response; cell proliferation and differentiation; wound healing; neural electrical activities; and behavior. An important consideration is the effects of EMF-induced changes in free radicals on cell proliferation and differentiation. These cellular processes could affect cancer development and proper growth and development in organisms. On the other hand, they could cause selective killing of cancer cells, for instance, via the generation of the highly cytotoxic hydroxyl free radical by the Fenton Reaction. This provides a possibility of using these electromagnetic fields as a non-invasive and low side-effect cancer therapy. Static- and ELF-EMF probably play important roles in the evolution of living organisms. They are cues used in many critical survival functions, such as foraging, migration, and reproduction. Living organisms can detect and respond immediately to low environmental levels of these fields. Free radical processes are involved in some of these mechanisms. At this time, there is no credible hypothesis or mechanism that can adequately explain all the observed effects of static- and ELF-EMF on free radical processes. We are actually at the impasse that there are more questions than answers.
Concluding remarks
1.    Change in cellular free radical activity is one of the most consistent effects of static- and ELF-EMF on living organisms.2.    The mechanisms by which static- and ELF-EMF affect cellular free radical processes is not well understood. The “radical pair” hypothesis is a likely candidate, particularly the involvement of cryptochromes. It allows immediate detection and response to changes in static- and ELF-EMF in the environment, which likely play important roles in the evolution of living organisms.3.    Oxidative responses to static- and ELF-EMF are probably dependent on the characteristic of the field and exposure (such as frequency, modulation, and duration) and the exposed object (such as cell type, and states of biological activities),4.    However, chronic exposure that leads to the excessive and persistent presence of free radicals can cause oxidative stress and should be avoided.5.    Effects of static- and ELF-EMF on free radicals probably have beneficial health effects particularly relating to cell proliferation, differentiation, cell death, and cell cycle. These are effects that could influence cancer development and treatment, growth and development, regeneration, and healing.6.    In future research, it is imperative to identify the field parameters that can selectively cause beneficial or detrimental health effects.
Parental occupational exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields and risk of leukemia in offspring: Findings from Childhood Leukemia International Consortium
Talibov M, Olsson A, Bailey H, Erdmann F, Metayer C, Magnani C, Petridou E, Auvinen A, Spector L, Clavel J, Roman E, Dockerty J, Nikkilä A, Lohi O, Kang A, Psaltopoulou T, Miligi L, Vila J, Cardis E, Schüz J. Parental occupational exposure to low-frequency magnetic fields and risk of leukaemia in the offspring: findings from the Childhood Leukaemia International Consortium (CLIC). Occup Environ Med. 2019 Jul 29. pii: oemed-2019-105706. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2019-105706.


OBJECTIVES: Previously published studies on parental occupational exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in their offspring were inconsistent. We therefore evaluated this question within the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium.

METHODS: We pooled 11 case-control studies including 9723 childhood leukaemia cases and 17 099 controls. Parental occupational ELF-MF exposure was estimated by linking jobs to an ELF-MF job-exposure matrix (JEM). Logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and 95% CIs in pooled analyses and meta-analyses.

RESULTS: ORs from pooled analyses for paternal ELF-MF exposure >0.2 microtesla (µT) at conception were 1.04 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.13) for ALL and 1.06 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.29) for AML, compared with ≤0.2 µT. Corresponding ORs for maternal ELF-MF exposure during pregnancy were 1.00 (95% CI 0.89 to 1.12) for ALL and 0.85 (95% CI 0.61 to 1.16) for AML. No trends of increasing ORs with increasing exposure level were evident. Furthermore, no associations were observed in the meta-analyses.

CONCLUSIONS: In this large international dataset applying a comprehensive quantitative JEM, we did not find any associations between parental occupational ELF-MF exposure and childhood leukaemia.
"The major limitation of this study was potential exposure misclassification, which can arise in any study with retrospec - tive exposure assessment. Exposure misclassification could occur because the ELF-MF JEM, like most JEMs, assigns the mean exposure level to all persons in the same occupation, while expo - sure heterogeneity within the occupation may be substantial. It does not specify jobs by industrial groups, and exposure intensity might vary in the same occupation by industrial group.... Exposure misclassification was likely to be non-differential in our study because the JEM was applied in the same way to all parents and independently of case–control status of the child. Bias from non-differential exposure misclassification is generally towards the null for dichotomous exposures.30 For polytomous exposures, non-differential misclassification can bias ORs away from the null only for intermediate exposure categories, but ORs for the highest category will be towards the null.31 Therefore, ORs for dichotomous ELF-MF exposures and for high categories of polytomous exposures would be underestimated if non-differential exposure misclassification was present in this study. Selection bias may also be a concern in this study ...."
Open access paper:
Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on hippocampal long-term potentiation in hippocampal CA1 region
Zheng Y, Cheng J, Dong L, Ma X, Kong Q. Effects of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on hippocampal long-term potentiation in hippocampal CA1 region. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2019 Jul 31. pii: S0006-291X(19)31439-1. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.07.085.


Exposure to environmental electromagnetic fields, especially to the extremely low-frequency (ELF < 300 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) might produce modulation effects on neuronal activity. Long-term changes in synaptic plasticity such as long-term potentiation (LTP) involved in learning and memory may have contributions to a number of neurological diseases. However, the modulation effects of ELF-EMFs on LTP are not yet fully understood. In our present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of exposure to ELF-EMFs on LTP in hippocampal CA1 region in rats. Hippocampal slices were exposed to magnetic fields generated by sXcELF system with different frequencies (15, 50, and 100 Hz [Hz]), intensities (0.5, 1, and 2 mT [mT]), and duration (10 s [s], 20 s, 40 s, 60 s, and 5 min), then the baseline signal recordings for 20 min and the evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded. We found that the LTP amplitudes decreased after magnetic field exposure, and the LTP amplitudes decreased in proportion to exposure doses and durations, suggesting ELF-EMFs may have dose and duration-dependent inhibition effects. Among multiple exposure duration and doses combinations, upon 5 min magnetic field exposure, 15 Hz/2 mT maximally inhibited LTP. Under 15 Hz/2 mT ELF-EMFs, LTP amplitude decreases in proportion to the length of exposure durations within 5 min time frame. Our findings illustrated the potential effects of ELF-EMFs on synaptic plasticity and will lead to better understanding of the influence on learning and memory.
Extremely low frequency magnetic field induces human neuronal differentiation through NMDA receptor activation

Özgün A, Marote A, Behie LA, Salgado A, Garipcan B. Extremely low frequency magnetic field induces human neuronal differentiation through NMDA receptor activation. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2019 Jul 17. doi: 10.1007/s00702-019-02045-5.


Magnetic fields with different frequency and intensity parameters exhibit a wide range of effects on different biological models. Extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) exposure is known to augment or even initiate neuronal differentiation in several in vitro and in vivo models. This effect holds potential for clinical translation into treatment of neurodegenerative conditions such as autism, Parkinson's disease and dementia by promoting neurogenesis, non-invasively. However, the lack of information on underlying mechanisms hinders further investigation into this phenomenon. Here, we examine involvement of glutamatergic Ca2+ channel, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the process of human neuronal differentiation under ELF MF exposure. We show that human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) differentiate more efficiently under ELF MF exposure in vitro, as demonstrated by the abundance of neuronal markers. Furthermore, they exhibit higher intracellular Ca2+ levels as evidenced by c-fos expression and more elongated mature neurites. We were able to neutralize these effects by blocking NMDA receptors with memantine. As a result, we hypothesize that the effects of ELF MF exposure on neuronal differentiation originate from the effects on NMDA receptors, which sequentially triggers Ca2+-dependent cascades that lead to differentiation. Our findings identify NMDA receptors as a new key player in this field that will aid further research in the pursuit of effect mechanisms of ELF MFs.
Exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field at 100 µT exert no DNA damage in cardiomyocytes.

Wang Y, Liu X, Zhang Y, Wan B, Zhang J, He W, Hu D, Yang Y, Lai J, He M, Chen C. Exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field at 100 µT exert no DNA damage in cardiomyocytes. Biol Open. 2019 Jul 30. pii: bio.041293. doi: 10.1242/bio.041293.


The effects of exposure to magnetic fields (MFs) at city electric frequencies (50-60 Hz) on carcinogenicity are still in debate. Besides, whether exposure to MFs affects the heart is also a debated issue. This study aimed to determine whether exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) induced DNA damage in cardiomyocytes both in vitro and in vivo. Human ventricular cardiomyocytes were exposed to 50 Hz ELF-MF at 100 µT for 1 hr continuously or 75 min intermittently. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by DNA damage, redox status changes, and relative signal molecular expression. Moreover, ten male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to a 50 Hz MF at 100 µT for 7 days, while another 10 rats were sham exposed. The protein levels of p53 and Hsp70 in heart tissue were analyzed by western blot. The results showed that exposure to ELF-MF did not induce DNA damage, cell cycle distribution change, or increased ROS level. No significant differences were detected in p53 and Hsp70 expression level between the ELF-MF and sham-exposure groups both in vitro and in vivo. All these data indicated that MFs at power-frequency may not cause DNA damage in cardiomyocyte.

Open access paper:
Comparison of polymerization and structural behavior of microtubules in rat brain and sperm affected by the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field.
Gholami D, Riazi G, Fathi R, Sharafi M, Shahverdi A. Comparison of polymerization and structural behavior of microtubules in rat brain and sperm affected by the extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field. BMC Mol Cell Biol. 2019 Aug 29;20(1):41. doi: 10.1186/s12860-019-0224-1.


BACKGROUND: Microtubule proteins are able to produce electromagnetic fields and have an important role in memory formation, and learning. Therefore, microtubules have the potential to be affected by exogenous electromagnetic fields. This study aimed to examine the comparison of microtubule polymerization and its structural behavior in brain and sperm affected by 50 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELEF).

RESULTS: Twenties adult male rats were randomly and equally divided into control and experimental groups, to evaluate the effect of 50 Hz ELEF on the sperm and brain functions. Plus-maze, serum testosterone and corticosterone, and sperm evaluation were performed. Next, the semen and brain samples were obtained, and they were divided into four experimental groups for investigation of microtubule polymerization. There was no significant difference in testosterone and, corticosterone levels, anxiety behaviors, and sperm morphology between control and ELEF-exposure groups. The sperm viability, total and progressive motility were significantly higher in the ELEF-exposed group than that of the control group. The microtubule polymerization in sperm ELEF was significantly higher than in other groups. The secondary and tertiary structures of tubulins were significantly affected in the brain, and sperm ELEF groups.

CONCLUSION:  It seems that the polymerization of microtubules and conformational changes of tubulin dimers are improved by ELEF application.
Characterization of levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields emitted from portable hand-held fans

Choi S, Kim S, Bae S, Kim W, Park JH, Chung E, Park J, Park DU. Characterization of Levels of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Emitted From Portable Hand-Held Fans. Bioelectromagnetics. 2019 Aug 2. doi: 10.1002/bem.22210.


This study aims to assess the levels of extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) emitted from portable hand-held fans (HHFs) and their principal frequency and to identify factors influencing these levels. We collected a total of eleven models of HHF and monitored the ELF-MF as a function of fan speed and distance from the fan. EMDEX II was used to monitor the ELF-MF. An SMP2 EMF-meter equipped with a P400 field probe was used to determine the levels of ELF-MF and the frequency spectrum. Ten of the fans, excluding only one bladeless-fan model, emitted a high level of ELF-MF near the source of the HHF direct-current motor. The maximum measured level of ELF-MF ranged from 14.07 to 218.7 µT. All measurements of the ELF-MF taken within 10 cm from the HHFs showed values higher than 1.0 µT. ELF-MF levels were found to decrease markedly with distance, regardless of the HHF product. The level of ELF-MF rose noticeably with increased fan speed. The speed of and distance from the HHF significantly influenced the level of ELF-MF. All principal frequencies ranged from 1 to 300 Hz, which falls in the typical range of ELF
Computational simulations of the penetration of 0.30 THz radiation into the human ear
Vilagosh Z, Lajevardipour A, Wood A. Computational simulations of the penetration of 0.30 THz radiation into the human ear. Biomed Opt Express. 2019 Feb 28;10(3):1462-1468. doi: 10.1364/BOE.10.001462.


There is an increasing interest in industrial and security applications and the establishment of wireless communication operating at frequencies of up to 0.30 THz. Soft tissue has a high coefficient of absorption at 0.30 THz and this limits effective penetration of the energy to a depth of 0.2 to 0.4 mm. The capacity of 0.30 THz radiation to access the deeper parts of the ear by diffusing through the ear canal and exposing the tympanic membrane (ear drum) to the radiation has not been studied. Simulations show that, with excitation parallel to the ear canal, the average power flux density within the central tympanic membrane region is 97% of the incident excitation. The structures of the outer ear are highly protective; less than 0.4% of the power flux density is directed at 45° from the parallel reached the same region. Given the sensitivity of the tympanic membrane to mechanical change, in-vivo assessment of the penetration of 0.3 THz into the ear canal is warranted to assess the suitability of the present radiation safety limits and to inform 0.3 THz emitting device deign.

Open access paper:
Note: 0.3THz is 300 GHz.
Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on the behavior and bioenergetics of the ragworm

Jakubowska M, Urban-Malinga B, Otremba Z, Andrulewicz E. Effect of low frequency electromagnetic field on the behavior and bioenergetics of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor. Marine Environ Res. 2019 Aug 3;150:104766. doi: 10.1016/j.marenvres.2019.104766.


The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of an electromagnetic field (EMF) of value typically recorded in the vicinity of submarine cables (50 Hz, 1 mT) on the behavior and bioenergetics of the polychaete Hediste diversicolor. No avoidance or attraction behavior to EMF was shown, but the burrowing activity of H. diversicolor was enhanced in EMF treatment, indicating a stimulating effect on bioturbation potential. The polychaete maintained a positive energy balance and high amount (85% of assimilated energy) of energy available for individual production (scope for growth) after exposure to EMF. Food consumption and respiration rates were not affected but ammonia excretion rate was significantly reduced in EMF-exposed animals compared to the control conditions (geomagnetic field). The mechanisms behind this effect remain, however, unclear. This is the first study demonstrating the effects of environmentally realistic EMF value on the behavior and physiology of marine invertebrates, thus there is a need for more research.
přeložit | 12.9.2019 02:33

Mobilize: A Film About Cell Phone Radiation

Aug 1, 2016   (Updated Sep 9, 2019)

Mobilize: A Film About Cell Phone Radiation, an award-winning, feature-length documentary, explores the long-term health effects from cell phone radiation including cancer and infertility.

The film examines recent scientific research, follows state and national legislative efforts, and illuminates the influence that technology companies have on public health. The film was selected as the best documentary film at the California Independent Film Festival in 2014. 

Mobilize features interviews with scientists, doctors, politicians, cancer patients, and technology experts. 

The film was directed by Kevin Kunze and produced by Amir Zeev Kovacs, Ellie Marks, Devra Davis, and Joel Moskowitz. For more information see the official Mobilize web site.

The film is now available for free to Amazon Prime members and can be rented for $1.99 by non-members:

The DVD can be purchased through Amazon:

Note: I have no financial interest in the film.

KPFA Interview 
of Joel Moskowitz about Mobilize on September 11, 2014.

KALW panel on Mobilize, Joel Moskowitz and Kevin Kunze. September 16, 2014.

Movie reviews
Mobilize: A Film about Cell Phone Radiation
Distributed by TDC Entertainment, 220 East 23rd St., Suite 405, New York, NY 10010
Produced by Devra Davis, Ellen Marks, and Joel Moskowitz
Directed by Kevin Kunze
DVD, color, 88 min.

General Adult
Health Care, Public Health, Sociology, Psychology, Telecommunications
Date Entered: 07/01/2015
Reviewed by Rodney Birch, Reference Librarian, George Fox University
Mobilize investigates the claims around the question of whether the radiation from cell phones is harmful to human health. While the question dates back to the early 1990s, it has been revived as a result of the World Health Organization has stated that, “the electromagnetic fields produced by mobile phones are . . . possibly carcinogenic to humans,” as well as an increasing number of scientific studies showing the effects of cell phone radiation on human health, personal claims, and our increasing dependence on these personal communication devices. The producers go beyond the hype to get to the root of the issue, often exposing inconsistencies in statements by the cell phone industry regarding the current research, and statements made by the Federal Communications Commission and public health organizations. The producers process the information gained through scientific research, Congressional Hearings, and interviews with cell phone industry executives, politicians, public health professionals, and other individuals to provide a balanced and thorough discussion and investigation. Other countries have created legislation around the public health concerns related to the radiation from cell phones. The producers of the film claim the U.S. is slower to adopt such legislation due to the lobbying efforts of the cell phone industry. One of the few cases mentioned is when the city of San Francisco adopted a policy regarding the health concern of cell phone radiation, the cell phone industry filed a lawsuit against the city. This film would be a useful resource for persons exploring the impact of technology on health and behavior, including sociology, psychology, health care and public health.

Mobilize 3 1/2 stars (2014) 84 min. DVD: $19.98. ISBN: 978-1-939517-25-8.
What are the long-term health consequences from daily use of cellular phones? No one really knows, since widespread cell phone use is fairly new. Still, filmmaker Kevin Kunze’s documentary Mobilize makes a strong case that persuasive evidence has emerged regarding the potential for damage to the human body through heavy cell phone usage. Buried in the fine print of the manuals that accompany new cell phones are warnings about keeping the devices a short distance from a user’s head. But studies outlined here make it clear that such precautions aren’t enough: radiation from phones causes heat that, over time, can injure the brain, while a phone’s constant radio interactions with mobile device towers can alter brain chemistry. The problems don’t end there: cell phones carry a potential threat to pregnant women and their babies, and have been linked to cancer, low sperm count, and attention deficit disorder (the industry is also marketing to toddlers, assuring that future generations will be exposed to this radiation). Despite the concerns, Mobilize illustrates how the lobbying and legal powers of the telecommunications industry have been able to shut down any legislative or judicial attempts to curb emissions (or even educate consumers). An alarming documentary with unquestionably controversial findings, this is highly recommended. Aud: C, P. (T. Keogh)

přeložit | 9.9.2019 23:16

Scientists and Doctors Demand Moratorium on 5G
Sep 5, 2019

As of today, 247 scientists and doctors from 42 nations have signed the The 5G Appeal which calls for a moratorium on the rollout of 5G, the fifth generation of cellular technology.

The Appeal asserts that, "5G will substantially increase exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on top of the 2G, 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, etc. for telecommunications already in place. RF-EMF has been proven to be harmful for humans and the environment."

For a list of signatories see

Apr 26, 2018
International Society of Doctors for the Environment Support 5G Moratorium

In April, 2018, the International Society of Doctors for the Environment (ISDE) and its member organizations in 27 countries, adopted a declaration calling for a moratorium on the deployment of 5G (fifth generation cellular technology) in the European Union. 
The declaration is entitled, "5G networks in European Countries: appeal for a standstill in the respect of the precautionary principle."
"We believe it should be unethical to ignore the available evidence waiting a possible “a posteriori” demonstration of health damages in the presence of a present and potentially manageable risk for public health. 
Thus, in the respect of the precautionary principle and of the WHO principle “health in all policies”, we believe suitable the request of a standstill for the “5G experimentations” throughout Europe until an adequate and active involvement of public institutions operating in the field of environmental health (health ministry, environmental ministry, national environmental and health agencies) will be effectively planned."
In the United States, the ISDE member organization is Physicians for Social Responsibility (PSR). 

Apr 16, 2018Official 5G Appeal Website Launched

The official website, www.5gappeal.eufor the 5G Appeal has been launched. The website contains the text of the Appeal, the current list of signatories, an explanation of 5G, and related news stories.

The Appeal asserts that, "5G will substantially increase exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on top of the 2G, 3G, 4G, Wi-Fi, etc. for telecommunications already in place. RF-EMF has been proven to be harmful for humans and the environment."
More than 200 scientists and doctors from 38 nations have signed the declaration calling for a moratorium on the deployment of 5G (fifth generation) cellular technology.

Oct 25, 2017
European Commission Responds with Denial
and Empty Promises to Call for 5G Moratorium

On October 12, the European Commission (EC) issued its response to a September 13 declaration that demands a moratorium on planned 5G expansion, the fifth generation of mobile communication technology. To date, the declaration has been signed by over 180 scientists and doctors from 35 nations.
The Commission's response contradicts the basic assertion of the declaration. The EC claims that current limits on electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) are adequate to protect the population, and that these limits apply to the frequencies to be deployed for 5G.
Signers of the declaration argue that these limits were designed to protect the population from the effects of heating attributable to brief EMF exposures but were not intended to protect people from chronic exposure to low intensity EMF.
The declaration cites language from the 2015 International EMF Scientist Appeal which has now been signed by more than 230 scientists who have published peer-reviewed research on EMF and biology or health. Prior to the current controversy about 5G, these experts reported “serious concerns” regarding the ubiquitous and increasing exposure to EMF. Their appeal refers to numerous scientific publications which have shown that EMF “affects living organisms at levels well below most international and national guidelines.” These effects include increased cancer risk, neurological disorders, and reproductive harm. The Appeal calls for the strengthening of EMF guidelines and regulatory standards.
In addition, the September declaration cites the International Agency for Research on Cancer's classification of radio frequency radiation as “possibly carcinogenic” in 2011; recommendations of the 2015 Brussels Congress on multiple chemical sensitivity and electromagnetic hypersensitivity; results from the U.S. National Toxicology Program study in 2016 finding cell phone radiation causes DNA damage and cancer in rats; and the Europa EM-EMF 2016 Guideline that long-term EMF exposure is a risk factor for chronic disease and infertility.
The declaration for a 5G moratorium argues that …
“current ICNIRP ‘safety guidelines’ are obsolete. All proofs of harm mentioned above arise although the radiation is below the ICNIRP safety guidelines. Therefore new safety standards are necessary. The reason for the misleading guidelines is that conflict of interest of ICNIRP members due to their relationships with telecommunications or electric companies undermine the impartiality that should govern the regulation of Public Exposure Standards for non-ionizing radiation….”
The EC claims that it “is not aware of any conflicts of interests of members of international bodies such as ICNIRP….”
The EC maintains that “Digital technologies and mobile communication technologies, including high speed internet, will be the backbone of Europe's future economy.” 
The EC letter acknowledges that citizens deserve appropriate protection against EMF from wireless devices, and concludes with the following empty promise,
"Please be assured that the Commission will pursue scrutiny of the independent scientific evidence available to ensure the highest health protection of our citizens."
The EC response letter was sent electronically to the authors of the declaration, Professors Rainer Nyberg and Lennart Hardell. The letter was signed by John F. Ryan, the director of public health, country knowledge, crisis management in the EC Directorate—General Health and Food Safety.

September 13, 2017
Scientists and Doctors Say Increased Radiation 

from Cell Towers Poses Potential Risks 
(Örebro, Sweden)  Over 180 scientists and doctors from 35 countries sent a declaration to officials of the European Commission today demanding a moratorium on the increase of cell antennas for planned 5G expansion. Concerns over health effects from higher radiation exposure include potential neurological impacts, infertility, and cancer.

“The wireless industry is trying to deploy technology that may have some very real unintended harmful consequences,” explains one of the organizers of the letter, Lennart Hardell, MD, PhDAssociate Professor, Department of Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden. “Scientific studies from years ago along with many new studies are consistently identifying harmful human health impacts when wireless products are tested properly using conditions that reflect actual exposures. With hazards at those exposures, we are very concerned that the added exposure to 5G radiation could result in tragic, irreversible harm.”

5G expansion, which is designed to carry higher loads of data more rapidly through wireless transmission, will require the construction of cell towers every 10-20 houses in urban areas.

In their letter to the European Commission, the scientists write:

“We, the undersigned, more than 180 scientists and doctors from 35 nations, recommend a moratorium on the roll-out of the fifth generation, 5G, for telecommunication until potential hazards for human health and the environment have been fully investigated by scientists independent from industry.”
University of California, Berkeley public health researcher Joel Moskowitz, PhD, explains:
“Peer-reviewed research has documented industry influence on studies of the health impacts of wireless radiation. We are insisting on a moratorium on 5G until non-industry research can be conducted to ensure the safety of the public.”
Moskowitz is one of the advisors to an earlier effort, the International EMF Scientist Appeal, a petition submitted to the United Nations and World Health Organization in 2015.  The Appeal has now been signed by more than 240 scientists from 42 nations—all have published peer-reviewed research on the biologic or health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF).

Since the Appeal was published, the world’s largest $25 million study, conducted by the National Toxicology Program in the US, shows statistically significant increases in the incidence of brain and heart cancer in animals exposed to cellphone radiation at levels below international guidelines. This supports human studies on cellphone radiation and brain tumour risk, as demonstrated in many peer-reviewed scientific studies.

The Appeal and this week’s declaration identify health concerns from exposure to radiofrequency radiation including ...
“ … increased cancer risk, cellular stress, increase in harmful free radicals, genetic damages, structural and functional changes of the reproductive system, learning and memory deficits, neurological disorders, and negative impacts on general well-being in humans. Damage goes well beyond the human race, as there is growing evidence of harmful effects to both plant and animal life.”
Roll-out of 5G in the US
In the US, the wireless industry is promoting legislation in at least 20 states to facilitate the roll-out of 5G in addition to sponsoring legislation at the federal level.

In California, city and county governments are opposing SB 649,an industry-sponsored bill which overrides local control over the wireless industry’s access to utility poles and public buildings for 5G deployment. Environmental health advocates fear that exposure to the added radiation from 5G infrastructure will contribute to increased health problems.

“If this bill passes, many people will suffer greatly, and needlessly, as a direct result. This sounds like hyperbole. It is not.” according to Beatrice Golomb, MD, PhDProfessor of Medicine in the medical school at the University of California, San Diego. In her open letter which summarizes the research on the effects of radio frequency radiation, she concludes, ”Let our focus be on safer, wired and well shielded technology – not more wireless.”

The declaration and list of signatories can be found here:
Media Inquiries:
Finland:  Rainer Nyberg, EdDSweden: Lennart Hardell, MD, PhD
UK:         Alasdair Philips, BSc, DAgE, MIEEE
USA:      Joel Moskowitz, PhD

USA:      Beatrice Golomb, MD, PhD

Related Posts:

International EMF Scientist Appeal -  also see
5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?

5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health EffectsCell Tower Health EffectsElectromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS)
5G Wireless Technology: Major newspaper editorials oppose "small cell" antenna bills

Industry-funded Scientists Undermine Cell Phone Radiation ScienceGovernment Failure to Address Wireless Radiation Risks
FCC Open Letter: Moratorium on New Commercial Applications of RF Radiation
An Exposé of the FCC: An Agency Captured by the Industries it RegulatesWHO Radiofrequency Radiation Policy
přeložit | 6.9.2019 20:11

Cell Tower Radiation Affects Wildlife: Dept. of Interior Attacks FCC

March 24, 2014 (link to Interior Dept. letter updated 9/3/2019)

The Department of Interior charges that the FCC standards for cell phone radiation  are outmoded and no longer applicable as they do not adequately protect wildlife.

The Director of the Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance of the United States Department of the Interior sent a letter to the National Telecommunications and Information Administration in the Department of Commerce which addresses the Interior Department's concern that cell tower radiation has had negative impacts on the health of migratory birds and other wildlife. 

The Interior Department accused the Federal government of employing outdated radiation standards set by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), a federal agency with no expertise in health.  The standards are no longer applicable because they control only for overheating and do not protect organisms from the adverse effects of exposure to the low-intensity radiation produced by cell phones and cell towers:
"the electromagnetic radiation standards used by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) continue to be based on thermal heating, a criterion now nearly 30 years out of date and inapplicable today." 
The Department  criticized the Federal government's proposed procedures for placement and operation of communication towers, and called for "independent, third-party peer-reviewed studies" in the U.S. to examine the effects of cell tower radiation on "migratory birds and other trust species." 

Following are excerpts from the letter, dated  Feb 7, 2014:
"The Department believes that some of the proposed procedures are not consistent with Executive Order 13186 Responsibilities of Federal Agencies to Protect Migratory Birds, which specifically requires federal agencies to develop and use principles, standards, and practices that will lessen the amount of unintentional take reasonably attributed to agency actions. The Department, through the Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), finds that the proposals lack provisions necessary to conserve migratory bird resources, including eagles. The proposals also do not reflect current information regarding the effects of communication towers to birds. Our comments are intended to further clarify specific issues and address provisions in the proposals.
The Department recommends revisions to the proposed procedures to better reflect the impacts to resources under our jurisdiction from communication towers. The placement and operation of communication towers, including un-guyed, unlit, monopole or lattice-designed structures, impact protected migratory birds in two significant ways. The first is by injury, crippling loss, and death from collisions with towers and their supporting guy-wire infrastructure, where present. The second significant issue associated with communication towers involves impacts from non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation emitted by them (See Attachment)."
Enclosure A
"The second significant issue associated with communication towers involves impacts from nonionizing electromagnetic radiation emitted by these structures. Radiation studies at cellular communication towers were begun circa 2000 in Europe and continue today on wild nesting birds. Study results have documented nest and site abandonment, plumage deterioration, locomotion problems, reduced survivorship, and death (e.g., Balmori 2005, Balmori and Hallberg 2007, and Everaert and Bauwens 2007). Nesting migratory birds and their offspring have apparently been affected by the radiation from cellular phone towers in the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency ranges- 915 MHz is the standard cellular phone frequency used in the United States. However, the electromagnetic radiation standards used by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) continue to be based on thermal heating, a criterion now nearly 30 years out of date and inapplicable today. This is primarily due to the lower levels of radiation output from microwave-powered communication devices such as cellular telephones and other sources of point-to-point communications; levels typically lower than from microwave ovens. The problem, however, appears to focus on very low levels of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. For example, in laboratory studies, T. Litovitz (personal communication) and DiCarlo et al. (2002) raised concerns about impacts of low-level, non-thermal electromagnetic radiation from the standard 915 MHz cell phone frequency on domestic chicken embryos- with some lethal results (Manville 2009, 2013a). Radiation at extremely low levels (0.0001 the level emitted by the average digital cellular telephone) caused heart attacks and the deaths of some chicken embryos subjected to hypoxic conditions in the laboratory while controls subjected to hypoxia were unaffected (DiCarlo et al. 2002). To date, no independent, third-party field studies have been conducted in North America on impacts of tower electromagnetic radiation on migratory birds. With the European field and U.S. laboratory evidence already available, independent, third-party peer-reviewed studies need to be conducted in the U.S. to begin examining the effects from radiation on migratory birds and other trust species."
Radiation Impacts and Categorical Exclusions
"There is a growing level of anecdotal evidence linking effects of non-thermal, non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from communication towers on nesting and roosting wild birds and other wildlife in the U.S. Independent, third-party studies have yet to be conducted in the U.S. or Canada, although a peer-reviewed research protocol developed for the U.S. Forest Service by the Service's Division of Migratory Bird Management is available to study both collision and radiation impacts (Manville 2002). As previously mentioned, Balmori (2005) found strong negative correlations between levels of tower-emitted microwave radiation and bird breeding, nesting, and roosting in the vicinity of electromagnetic fields in Spain. He documented nest and site abandonment, plumage deterioration, locomotion problems, reduced survivorship, and death in House Sparrows, White Storks, Rock Doves, Magpies, Collared Doves, and other species. Though these species had historically been documented to roost and nest in these areas, Balmori (2005) did not observe these symptoms prior to construction and operation of the cellular phone towers. Balmori and Hallberg (2007) and Everaert and Bauwens (2007) found similar strong negative correlations among male House Sparrows. Under laboratory 'conditions, DiCarlo et al. (2002) raised troubling concerns about impacts of low-level, non-thermal electromagnetic radiation from the standard 915 MHz cell phone frequency on domestic chicken embryos- with some lethal results (Manville 2009). Given the findings of the studies mentioned above, field studies should be conducted in North America to validate potential impacts of communication tower radiation both direct and indirect - to migratory birds and other trust wildlife species."
The full text of the letter, the addendum and citations are available at:

Related posts:

Effects of Wireless Radiation on Birds and Other Wildlife
Electromagnetic fields threaten wildlife
přeložit | 4.9.2019 02:38

Effects of Cell Phone Use on Adolescents

Night-time screen-based media device use and adolescents' sleep and health-related quality of life
Mireku MO, Barker MM, Mutz J, Dumontheil I, Thomas MSC, Roosli M, Elliott P, Toledano MB. Night-time screen-based media device use and adolescents' sleep and health-related quality of life. Environ Int. 2019 Mar;124:66-78. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.11.069
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the relationship between night-time screen-based media devices (SBMD) use, which refers to use within 1 h before sleep, in both lit and dark rooms, and sleep outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 11 to 12-year-olds.
METHODS: We analysed baseline data from a large cohort of 6616 adolescents from 39 schools in and around London, United Kingdom, participating in the Study of Cognition Adolescents and Mobile Phone (SCAMP). Adolescents self-reported their use of any SBMD (mobile phone, tablet, laptop, television etc.). Sleep variables were derived from self-reported weekday and/or weekend bedtime, sleep onset latency (SOL) and wake time. Sleep quality was assessed using four standardised dimensions from the Swiss Health Survey. HRQoL was estimated using the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire.
RESULTS: Over two-thirds (71.5%) of adolescents reported using at least one SBMD at night-time, and about a third (32.2%) reported using mobile phones at night-time in darkness. Night-time mobile phone and television use was associated with higher odds of insufficient sleep duration on weekdays (Odds Ratio, OR = 1.82, 95% Confidence Interval, CI [1.59, 2.07] and OR = 1.40, 95% CI [1.23, 1.60], respectively). Adolescents who used mobile phones in a room with light were more likely to have insufficient sleep (OR = 1.32, 95% CI [1.10, 1.60]) and later sleep midpoint (OR = 1.64, 95% CI [1.37, 1.95]) on weekends compared to non-users. The magnitude of these associations was even stronger for those who used mobile phones in darkness for insufficient sleep duration on weekdays (OR = 2.13, 95% CI [1.79, 2.54]) and for later sleep midpoint on weekdays (OR = 3.88, 95% CI [3.25, 4.62]) compared to non-users. Night-time use of mobile phones was associated with lower HRQoL and use in a dark room was associated with even lower KIDSCREEN-10 score (β = -1.18, 95% CI [-1.85, -0.52]) compared to no use.
CONCLUSIONS: We found consistent associations between night-time SBMD use and poor sleep outcomes and worse HRQoL in adolescents. The magnitude of these associations was stronger when SBMD use occurred in a dark room versus a lit room.
Open access paper:
Prolonged mobile phone use is associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents
Liu J, Liu C, Wu T, Liu BP, Jia CX, Liu X. Prolonged mobile phone use is associated with depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents. J Affec Disord. 12(259):128-134. Aug 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2019.08.017.

Background: Prolonged screen time has negative impacts on health and well-being. This study examined the association between the duration of mobile phone use (DMPU) and depressive symptoms in a large sample of Chinese adolescents.
Methods: 11,831 adolescent students participated in the baseline Shandong Adolescent Behavior and Health Cohort (SABHC) survey in Shandong, China in 2015. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure DMPU on weekdays and the weekend, sleep, mental health, and family environment. The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and Youth Self-Report (YSR) depression scales were used to assess depressive symptoms.
Results: The mean age of participants was 15.0 (SD = 1.5) and 51% were male. The prevalence of depressive symptoms increased with prolonged DMPU. After adjusting for adolescent and family covariates, DMPU ≥ 2 h/day on weekdays (OR = 1.78, 95%CI = 1.48-2.15) and ≥ 5 h/day on the weekend (OR = 1.67, 95%CI = 1.41-1.98) was associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms as assessed by CES-D. The DMPU-depression association was found to be partially mediated by short sleep duration or insomnia. Similar associations were observed for depression as assessed by YSR.
Study Limitation: This is a cross-sectional survey. Mobile phone use and depressive symptoms were measured by self-report.
Conclusions: Prolonged mobile phone use of ≥ 2 hours on weekdays and ≥ 5 hours on the weekend is associated with an increased risk of depressive symptoms. The association appears to be partially mediated by sleep disturbances.
Problematic cell phone use, depression, anxiety & self-regulation: 3-year longitudinal study from adolescence to emerging adulthood
Coyne SM, Stockdale L, Summers K. Problematic cell phone use, depression, anxiety, and self-regulation: Evidence from a three year longitudinal study from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Computers in Human Behavior. 96:78-84. July, 2019.
• Problematic cell phone use is stable between adolescence and emerging adulthood.• Self-regulation and problematic cell phone use are not longitudinally related.• Early problematic cell phone use is moderately associated with later depression.
For a small percentage of cell phone users, cell phone use becomes problematic or addictive, characterized by excessive time spent on the cell phone, interference with social relationships and responsibilities, and difficulty disengaging from cell phones. Researchers have argued that depression, anxiety, and self-regulation may be risk factors or outcomes of problematic cell phone use, but there are few longitudinal studies on problematic cell phone use, making it unclear if these behaviors are predictors or outcomes of problematic cell phone use. The current study examined these factors during late adolescence and the transition to emerging adulthood. Participants included 385 individuals between the ages of 17 and 19 who completed a series of questionnaires once a year over a three year period. Problematic cell phone use, anxiety, depression, and self-regulation were all moderately associated at the cross-sectional level. Early problematic cell phone use predicted later depression when these variables were examined longitudinally, as opposed to the converse. There were no longitudinal associations between problematic cell phone use and anxiety or self-regulation. In sum, problematic cell phone use was fairly stable across the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood and was associated with depression in the future.
Social media use and adolescent mental health: Findings From the UK Millennium Cohort Study
Kelly Y, Zilanawala A, Booker C, Sacker A. (2019) Social media use and adolescent mental health: Findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. EClinicalMedicine. 10.1016/j.eclinm.2018.12.005. 2019. (In press)
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests social media use is associated with mental health in young people but underlying processes are not well understood. This paper i) assesses whether social media use is associated with adolescents' depressive symptoms, and ii) investigates multiple potential explanatory pathways via online harassment, sleep, self-esteem and body image.
METHODS: We used population based data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study on 10,904 14 year olds. Multivariate regression and path models were used to examine associations between social media use and depressive symptoms.
FINDINGS: The magnitude of association between social media use and depressive symptoms was larger for girls than for boys. Compared with 1–3 h of daily use: 3 to < 5 h 26% increase in scores vs 21%; ≥ 5 h 50% vs 35% for girls and boys respectively. Greater social media use related to online harassment, poor sleep, low self-esteem and poor body image; in turn these related to higher depressive symptom scores. Multiple potential intervening pathways were apparent, for example: greater hours social media use related to body weight dissatisfaction (≥ 5 h 31% more likely to be dissatisfied), which in turn linked to depressive symptom scores directly (body dissatisfaction 15% higher depressive symptom scores) and indirectly via self-esteem.
INTERPRETATION: Our findings highlight the potential pitfalls of lengthy social media use for young people's mental health. Findings are highly relevant for the development of guidelines for the safe use of social media and calls on industry to more tightly regulate hours of social media use.
FUNDING: Economic and Social Research Council.
Among 14-year olds living in the UK, we found an association between social media use and depressive symptoms and that this was stronger for girls than for boys. The magnitude of these associations reduced when potential explanatory factors were taken into account, suggesting that experiences of online harassment, poorer sleep quantity and quality, self-esteem and body image largely explain observed associations. There was no evidence of differences for girls and boys in hypothesised pathways between social media use and depressive symptoms. Findings are based largely on cross sectional data and thus causality cannot be inferred.
Open access paper:
Telecommunication devices use, screen time and sleep in adolescents
Cabre-Riera A, Torrent M, Donaire-Gonzalez D, Vrijheid M, Cardis E, Guxens M. Telecommunication devices use, screen time and sleep in adolescents. 171:341-347. Apr 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.10.036

• Telecommunication and other screen devices use was collected in adolescents• Both subjective and objective sleep measures were assessed• Tablet use and mobile phone dependency were associated with poorer sleep• Frequency of cordless phone calls was associated with poorer sleep• Public health recommendations on telecommunication devices use should be a priority
Purpose To investigate the association between telecommunication and other screen devices and subjective and objective sleep measures in adolescents at 17–18 years.
Methods Cross-sectional study on adolescents aged 17–18 years from a Spanish population-based birth cohort established in Menorca in 1997–1998. Information on devices use was collected using self-reported questionnaires. Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale was used to assess mobile phone use dependency. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess subjective sleep (n=226). ActiGraph wGT3X-BT for 7 nights was used to assess objective sleep (n=110).
Results One or more cordless phone calls/week was associated with a lower sleep quality [Prevalence Ratio PR 1.30 (95%CI 1.04; 1.62)]. Habitual and frequent problematic mobile phone use was associated with a lower sleep quality [PR 1.55 (95%CI 1.03; 2.33) and PR 1.67 (95%CI 1.09; 2.56), respectively]. Higher tablet use was associated with decreased sleep efficiency and increased minutes of wake time after sleep onset [β −1.15 (95%CI −1.99; −0.31) and β 7.00 (95%CI 2.40; 11.60) per increase of 10 minutes/day of use, respectively]. No associations were found between other devices and sleep measures.
Conclusions Tablet use, mobile phone use dependency, and frequency of cordless phone were related to an increase of subjective and objective sleep problems in adolescents. These results seem to indicate that sleep displacement, mental arousal, and exposure to blue light emission might play a more important role on sleep than a high RF-EMF exposure to the brain. However, more studies are needed assessing personal RF-EMF levels to draw conclusions.


Cohort study of adolescents' memory performance & brain dose of microwave radiation from wireless EMF
Foerster M., Thielens A., Joseph W., Eeftens M., Röösli M. A prospective cohort study of adolescents' memory performance and individual brain dose of microwave radiation from wireless communication. Environmental Health Perspectives.126(7):077007. 2018. DOI: 10.1289/EHP2427.


BACKGROUND: The potential impact of microwave radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by wireless communication devices on neurocognitive functions of adolescents is controversial. In a previous analysis, we found changes in figural memory scores associated with a higher cumulative RF-EMF brain dose in adolescents.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to follow-up our previous results using a new study population, dose estimation, and approach to controlling for confounding from media usage itself.

METHODS: RF-EMF brain dose for each participant was modeled. Multivariable linear regression models were fitted on verbal and figural memory score changes over 1 y and on estimated cumulative brain dose and RF-EMF related and unrelated media usage (n=669–676). Because of the hemispheric lateralization of memory, we conducted a laterality analysis for phone call ear preference. To control for the confounding of media use behaviors, a stratified analysis for different media usage groups was also conducted.

RESULTS: We found decreased figural memory scores in association with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in estimated cumulative RF-EMF brain dose scores: −0:22 (95% CI: −0:47, 0.03; IQR: 953 mJ=kg per day) in the whole sample, −0:39 (95% CI: −0:67, −0:10; IQR: 953 mJ=kg per day) in right-side users (n=532), and −0:26 (95% CI: −0:42, −0:10; IQR: 341 mJ=kg per day) when recorded network operator data were used for RF-EMF dose estimation (n=274). Media usage unrelated to RF-EMF did not show significant associations or consistent patterns, with the exception of consistent (nonsignificant) positive associations between data traffic duration and verbal memory.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings for a cohort of Swiss adolescents require confirmation in other populations but suggest a potential adverse effect of of RF-EMF brain dose on cognitive functions that involve brain regions mostly exposed during mobile phone use. 


We found preliminary evidence suggesting that RF-EMF may affect brain functions such as figural memory in regions that are most exposed during mobile phone use. Our findings do not provide conclusive evidence of causal effects and should be interpreted with caution until confirmed in other populations. Associations with media use parameters with low RF-EMF exposures did not provide clear or consistent support of effects of media use unrelated to RF-EMF (with the possible exception of consistent positive associations between verbal memory and data traffic duration). It is not yet clear which brain processes could be potentially affected and what biophysical mechanism may play a role. Potential long-term risk can be minimized by avoiding high brain-exposure situations as occurs when using a mobile phone with maximum power close to the ear because of, for example, bad network quality.

Note: The original study appears below (Schoeni et al., 2015).

Open access paper:


Decreases in sleep duration among U.S. adolescents 2009-2015 & association with new media screen time
Twenge JM, Krizan Z, Hisler G. Decreases in self-reported sleep duration among U.S. adolescents 2009-2015 and association with new media screen time. Sleep Med. 2017 Nov;39:47-53. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2017.08.013.

• More adolescents in 2015 (vs. 2009) slept less than 7 h a night on most nights.
• Electronic device and social media use also increased in 2009–2015.• Electronic device and social media use increases the odds of short sleep duration. • Smartphones may be the cause of the increase in self-reported short sleep duration.


STUDY OBJECTIVES: Insufficient sleep among adolescents carries significant health risks, making it important to determine social factors that change sleep duration. We sought to determine whether the self-reported sleep duration of U.S. adolescents changed between 2009 and 2015 and examine whether new media screen time (relative to other factors) might be responsible for changes in sleep.
METHODS:We drew from yearly, nationally representative surveys of sleep duration and time use among adolescents conducted since 1991 (Monitoring the Future) and 2007 (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control; total N = 369,595).
RESULTS: Compared to 2009, adolescents in 2015 were 16%-17% more likely to report sleeping less than 7 h a night on most nights, with an increase in short sleep duration after 2011-2013. New media screen time (electronic device use, social media, and reading news online) increased over this time period and was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration, with a clear exposure-response relationship for electronic devices after 2 or more hours of use per day. Other activities associated with short sleep duration, such as homework time, working for pay, and TV watching, were relatively stable or reduced over this time period, making it unlikely that these activities caused the sudden increase in short sleep duration.
CONCLUSIONS: Increased new media screen time may be involved in the recent increases (from 35% to 41% and from 37% to 43%) in short sleep among adolescents. Public health interventions should consider electronic device use as a target of intervention to improve adolescent health.

The effects of EMF on the endocrine system in children and adolescents
Sangün Ö, Dündar B, Çömlekçi S, Büyükgebiz A. The effects of electromagnetic field on the endocrine system in children and adolescents. Pediatr Endocrinol Rev. 2015 Dec;13(2):531-45.


Children are exposed to various kind of non-ionizing radiation in their daily life involuntarily. The potential sensitivity of developing organism to the effects of radiofrequency (RF) signals, the higher estimated specific absorption rate (SAR) values of children and greater lifetime cumulative risk raised the scientific interest for children's vulnerability to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). In modern societies, children are being exposed to EMFs in very early ages. There are many researches in scientific literature investigating the alterations of biological parameters in living organisms after EMFs. Although the international guidelines did not report definite, convincing data about the causality, there are unignorable amount of studies indicating the increased risk of cancer, hematologic effects and cognitive impairment. Although they are less in amount; growing number of studies reveal the impacts on metabolism and endocrine function. Reproductive system and growth look like the most challenging fields. However there are also some concerns on detrimental effects of EMFs on thyroid functions, adrenal hormones, glucose homeostasis and melatonin levels. It is not easy to conduct a study investigating the effects of EMFs on a fetus or child due to ethical issues. Hence, the studies are usually performed on virtual models or animals. Although the results are conflicting and cannot be totally matched with humans; there is growing evidence to distress us about the threats of EMF on children.


Does exposure to environmental RF EMF cause cognitive & behavioral effects in 10-year-old boys?
Calvente, I., Pérez-Lobato, R., Núñez, M.-I., Ramos, R., Guxens, M., Villalba, J., Olea, N. and Fernández, M. F. (2016), Does exposure to environmental radiofrequency electromagnetic fields cause cognitive and behavioral effects in 10-year-old boys?. Bioelectromagnetics, 37: 25–36. doi: 10.1002/bem.21951.


The relationship between exposure to electromagnetic fields from non-ionizing radiation and adverse human health effects remains controversial. We aimed to explore the association of environmental radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) exposure with neurobehavioral function of children.

A subsample of 123 boys belonging to the Environment and Childhood cohort from Granada (Spain), recruited at birth from 2000 through 2002, were evaluated at the age of 9–11 years. Spot electric field measurements within the 100 kHz to 6 GHz frequency range, expressed as both root mean-square (S
RMS) and maximum power density (SMAX) magnitudes, were performed in the immediate surrounds of children's dwellings. Neurocognitive and behavioral functions were assessed with a comprehensive battery of tests. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used, adjusting for potential confounders.

All measurements were lower than reference guideline limits, with median S
RMS and SMAX values of 285.94 and 2759.68 μW/m2, respectively. Most of the cognitive and behavioral parameters did not show any effect, but children living in higher RF exposure areas (above median SRMS levels) had lower scores for verbal expression/ comprehension and higher scores for internalizing and total problems, and obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders, in comparison to those living in areas with lower exposure. These associations were stronger when SMAX values were considered.

Although some of our results may suggest that low-level environmental RF-EMF exposure has a negative impact on cognitive and/or behavior development in children; given limitations in the study design and that the majority of neurobehavioral functioning tasks were not affected, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn.


November 19, 2015
Two recently published studies on adolescents report harmful effects of mobile phone use. A cross-sectional study found that adolescents who were awakened by a mobile phone at least once a month during the night were more likely to report tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being. A prospective cohort study found that greater wireless radiation exposure predicted lower memory test performance.
Symptoms & cognitive functions in adolescents in relation to mobile phone use
Schoeni A, Roser K, Röösli M. Symptoms and cognitive functions in adolescents in relation to mobile phone use during night. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 29;10(7):e0133528. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133528.

AbstractMany adolescents tend to leave their mobile phones turned on during night, accepting that they may be awakened by an incoming text message or call. Using self-reported and objective operator recorded mobile phone use data, we thus aimed to analyze how being awakened during night by mobile phone affects adolescents' perceived health and cognitive functions.

In this cross-sectional study, 439 adolescents completed questionnaires about their mobile phone use during night, health related quality of life and possible confounding factors. Standardized computerized cognitive tests were performed to assess memory and concentration capacity. Objective operator recorded mobile phone use data was further collected for 233 study participants. Data were analyzed by multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders including amount of mobile phone use.

For adolescents reporting to be awakened by a mobile phone during night at least once a month the odds ratio for daytime tiredness and rapid exhaustibility were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.02-3.39) and 2.28 (95% CI: 0.97-5.34), respectively. Similar results were found when analyzing objective operator recorded mobile phone use data (tiredness: 1.63, 95% CI: 0.94-2.82 and rapid exhaustibility: 2.32, 95% CI: 1.01-5.36). The cognitive tests on memory and concentration capacity were not related to mobile phone use during night. Overall, being awakened during night by mobile phone was associated with an increase in health symptom reports such as tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being, but not with memory and concentration capacity.

Prevention strategies should focus on helping adolescents set limits for their accessibility by mobile phone, especially during night.
Among Swiss adolescents, we have observed that nocturnal mobile phone use was associated with an increase in health symptom reports such as tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being, but not with memory and concentration capacity. More studies to investigate these associations are necessary and education in sleep behaviour may be inevitable since the mobile phone is now the most familiar lifestyle factor for adolescents.
Public Health prevention strategies should focus on helping adolescents set limits for their accessibility by mobile phone, especially during night.
Open Access Paper:

Memory performance, wireless communication & RF EMF exposure: Prospective cohort study in adolescents
Schoeni A, Roser K, Röösli M. Memory performance, wireless communication and exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields: A prospective cohort study in adolescents. Environ Int. 2015 Oct 13;85:343-351. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.09.025.

• This is a prospective cohort study with approx. one year of follow-up.
• Self-reported and operator recorded mobile phone use data were collected.
• The cumulative RF-EMF dose for the brain and for the whole body was calculated.
• Associations were stronger for RF-EMF dose than for use of wireless devices.
• RF-EMF exposure might impair memory performance in adolescents.


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate whether memory performance in adolescents is affected by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) from wireless device use or by the wireless device use itself due to non-radiation related factors in that context.

METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study with 439 adolescents. Verbal and figural memory tasks at baseline and after one year were completed using a standardized, computerized cognitive test battery. Use of wireless devices was inquired by questionnaire and operator recorded mobile phone use data was obtained for a subgroup of 234 adolescents. RF-EMF dose measures considering various factors affecting RF-EMF exposure were computed for the brain and the whole body. Data were analysed using a longitudinal approach, to investigate whether cumulative exposure over one year was related to changes in memory performance. All analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders.

RESULTS: The kappa coefficients between cumulative mobile phone call duration and RF-EMF brain and whole body dose were 0.62 and 0.67, respectively for the whole sample and 0.48 and 0.28, respectively for the sample with operator data. In linear exposure-response models an interquartile increase in cumulative operator recorded mobile phone call duration was associated with a decrease in figural memory performance score by -0.15 (95% CI: -0.33, 0.03) units. For cumulative RF-EMF brain and whole body dose corresponding decreases in figural memory scores were -0.26 (95% CI: -0.42, -0.10) and -0.40 (95% CI: -0.79, -0.01), respectively. No exposure-response associations were observed for sending text messages and duration of gaming, which produces tiny RF-EMF emissions.

CONCLUSIONS: A change in memory performance over one year was negatively associated with cumulative duration of wireless phone use and more strongly with RF-EMF dose. This may indicate that RF-EMF exposure affects memory performance.


... From a public health point of view potential effects of chronic exposure are more relevant, which needs to be investigated with epidemiological studies. So far there has only been one community-based epidemiological study investigating effects of mobile phone use on adolescents' memory. Abramson et al. (2009) showed in a cross-sectional analysis of 317 seventh grade students from Australia that mobile phone use was associated with faster and less accurate response on a number of tasks involving the memory. Since similar associations were found in relation to the number of SMS (short text messages), which produces negligible RF-EMF exposure, they speculated that these behaviours may have been learned through the frequent use of a mobile phone and may not be the consequence of mobile phone radiation. In a follow-up investigation one year later, in 236 of these students, an increase in mobile phone use was associated with a reduction in response time in one out of three tests involving the memory (Thomas et al., 2010). This study relied on self-reported mobile phone use only, which has been shown to be inaccurate. Adolescents tend to substantially overestimate their amount of mobile phone use (Aydin et al., 2011; Inyang et al., 2009).

Regular mobile phone use may affect adolescents in various ways. Thus, the main challenge for research consists in differentiating between RF-EMF radiation effects and other non-RF-EMF related effects from mobile phone use. For instance, frequent texting or gaming on a mobile phone may facilitate cognitive processes (Abramson et al., 2009). It was also observed, that calling and sending texts during night was associated with poor perceived health symptoms such as tiredness, rapid exhaustibility, headache and physical ill-being (Schoeni et al., 2015; Van den Bulck, 2007). Other studies showed that frequent mobile phone use was associated with anxiety (Jenaro et al., 2007), unhealthy lifestyle (Ezoe et al., 2009), depression (Yen et al., 2009) and psychological distress (Beranuy et al., 2009). Thus, to address RF-EMF effects of wireless communication devices, the development of a RF-EMF dose measure, which incorporates all exposure relevant factors, is inevitable.

Memory performance was assessed with a standardized, computerized cognitive test battery (IST, Intelligenz-Struktur-Test 2000R (Liepmann et al., 2006)). Verbal and figural memory was measured with the subtest of the IST. In the verbal memory task, word groups have to be memorized in one minute time. After 1 min the study participants give an account of the word groups that have been memorized. In total 10 points can be achieved by remembering the correct word groups. In the figural memory task, pairwise symbols have to be memorized in one minute time. After 1 min one part of the pairwise symbols is shown and the matching part has to be found. A total of 13 points can be achieved. For both the verbal and figural tests, 2 min is given to complete the test. Memory performance is considered as the right number of remembered word groups or symbols, respectively. For the statistical analyses of verbal and figural memory the continuous test score values
were used as outcome. Every test was conducted once at baseline and once at follow-up investigation.

In this study we considered objectively recorded data on mobile phone use collected from the Swiss mobile phone operators as well as self-reported data on wireless communication devices usage obtained from a written questionnaire referring to the 6 months period prior to each examination. In terms of RF-EMF related exposure measures we inquired about call duration with own or any other mobile phone (referred to as duration mobile phone calls), call duration with cordless (fixed line) phone and duration of data traffic on the mobile phone, e. g. for surfing and streaming. The duration of gaming on computers and TV and number of all kind of text messages (SMS, WhatsApp etc.) are not, or only marginally relevant for RF-EMF exposure and were thus inquired to be used as negative exposure control variables in the analyses.

Informed consent to obtain objectively recorded mobile phone use data from the mobile phone operators was given by 234 out of 439 study participants and their parents. This included duration of each call and on which network (GSM or UMTS) it started, number of SMS (text messages) sent per day and amount of volume of data traffic (MB/day). Data were obtained for up to 18 months, 6 months before baseline until follow-up investigation.

A particular strength of this study is the longitudinal design. To the best of our knowledge this is the first longitudinal study on memory performance in adolescents using not only mobile phone call duration as an exposure proxy, but calculating RF-EMF dose measures derived from objectively recorded operator data and propagation modelling. Compared to a cross-sectional design where changes over time cannot be assessed andwhere reverse causality is of concern, longitudinal studies allow for more robust conclusions.

.. Most relevant contributors for the brain dose are calls on the GSM network (on average 93.3% for the whole sample based on self-reported data and 58.7% for the sample with operator data using operator recorded information) followed by calls with the cordless phones (4.2% and 21.0%, respectively). For the whole body dose, calls on the GSM network (on average 66.9% for the whole sample and 19.5% for the sample with operator data), the use of computer/laptop/tablet connected to WLAN (12.0% and 29.1%, respectively) and data traffic on mobile phones over WLAN (8.1% and 22.3%, respectively) counted for the most part. Less important for the dose measures were exposure from radio and TV broadcast transmitters (brain dose: 0.1% and 0.4%, respectively; whole body dose: 0.3% and 0.9%, respectively) and mobile phone base stations (brain dose: 0.6% and 3.5%, respectively; whole body dose: 2.0% and 4.8%, respectively).

... media usage measures which are not, or only marginally associated with RF-EMF were not associated with figural memory performance (e.g. sending text messages, playing games, and duration/volume of data traffic on the mobile phone). On the other hand, mobile and cordless phone use,which involves RF-EMF exposure, tended to be negatively correlated, although not statistically significant, whereas the dose measures were significantly correlated in many models. The relative high correlation between dose measures and self-reported and objectively recorded mobile phone call duration respectively, limits the possibility to disentangle effects due to RF-EMF exposure or due to other factors associated with mobile phone use.

Since we found stronger associations between RF-EMF doses and figural memory but not verbal memory, one could speculate that this might be due to different brain areas involved in the verbal and figural memory tasks. The type of information being processed determines the brain activity during encoding and retrieval and as a consequence brain activity patterns during figural memory tasks differ fromthose observed during verbal memory tasks. During figural memory processes, encoding elicits bilateral prefrontal activity and retrieval increases the activity in bilateral or right-sided temporal regions and in bilateral prefrontal regions (Beason-Held et al., 2005; Roland and Gulyas, 1995; Wagner et al., 1998). During verbal encoding increases in prefrontal and temporal brain activity in the left hemisphere can be seen (Heun et al., 2000; Iidaka et al., 2000; Reber et al., 2002; Strandberg et al 2011) and during verbal retrieval the activity in bilateral or rightsided prefrontal regions, bilateral or left-sided temporal regions and the anterior cingulate are increased (Beason-Held et al., 2005; Buckner et al., 1998; Cabeza et al., 1997). Stronger overall effects observed for figural memory processes predominantly involving the right hemisphere compared to the verbal memory tasks mostly involving the left hemisphere is compatible with the fact that 81.2% of the study participants reported at follow-up to mainly use mobile phones on the right side but only 18.8% on the left side or with no laterality preference. Strikingly, our laterality analyses indicated indeed stronger associations for right side users for the figural memory task whereas the reverse pattern was seen for the verbal task. However, the sample size of the laterality analysis was small for the subgroup with left side or no side preference for mobile phone use (n= 80).

We considered a number of potential confounders and adjusted model estimates were relatively similar to the crude model estimates, which indicates that confounding seems not to have a substantial impact on the results. Nevertheless, we cannot exclude that we have missed a relevant confounder ....


The observed striking pattern with more consistent associations for RF-EMF dose measures compared to usage measures and no indications of associations for negative control exposure variables may indicate that RF-EMF exposure affects the figural memory of adolescents. However, given the complex correlation structure for various exposure measures and the uncertainty in the RF-EMF dose calculation, the observed associations need to be interpreted with caution.
přeložit | 6.9.2019 01:10

International Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields & Wireless Technology

International EMF Scientist Appeal

U.N. Environment Programme Urged to Protect Nature and Humankind from Electromagnetic Fields (EMF)
4G/5G antenna densification is escalating health risks - a global crisis
New York, NY, July 22, 2019. The Advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal, representing 248 scientists from 42 nations, have resubmitted The Appeal to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Executive Director, Inger Andersen, requesting the UNEP reassess the potential biological impacts of next generation 4G and 5G telecommunication technologies to plants, animals and humans.
There is particular urgency at this time as new antennas will be densely located throughout residential neighborhoods using much higher frequencies, with greater biologically disruptive pulsations, more dangerous signaling characteristics, plus transmitting equipment on, and inside, homes and buildings. The Advisors to The Appeal recommend UNEP seriously weigh heavily the findings of the independent, non-industry associated EMF science.
See video of spokesperson for The Appeal, the late Martin Blank, Ph.D. of Columbia University, and read the recent letter to the UNEP and The Appeal.
The Appeal highlights the World Health Organization’s (WHO) conflicting positions about EMF risk. The WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer classified radiofrequency radiation as a Group 2B “Possible Carcinogen” in 2011, and extremely low frequency fields in 2001. Nonetheless, the WHO continues to ignore its own agency’s recommendations and favors guidelines recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a private German NGO with industry ties long criticized for promoting guidelines not protective of humans, and falsely assuming authority. In addition, it should be noted that no nation has established EMF exposure guidelines aiming to protect animals and plants.
The Appeal calls on the United Nations to resolve the inconsistencies among its sub-organizations and to seriously address the rapidly escalating health and environmental crisis caused by man-made EMF pollution. Leadership is needed now, especially in light of urgent warnings from international scientists about 4G/5G antenna densification, the Internet of Things (IoT), and plans for significant radiation from space emitted by tens of thousands of satellites now being launched.
The Advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal - Annie Sasco, MD, Dr.PH., Henry Lai, Ph.D., Joel Moskowitz, Ph.D., Ronald Melnick, Ph.D. and Magda Havas, Ph.D., call on the UNEP to be a strong voice for the total environment of the planet, and an effective catalyst within the United Nations with regards to the biological and health effects of electromagnetic pollution.
In the letter to UNEP, Dr. Havas, Professor Emeritus, Trent University's School of the Environment, Canada, details serious effects on plants, insects and wildlife from electromagnetic fields that are well documented in the scientific literature.
Ronald Melnick, Ph.D., Advisor to The Appeal and former scientist at the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) within the National Institutes of Health (NIH), who managed the design and development of the NTP's recently published $30 million animal study showing a clear link between radio frequency radiation (RFR) and cancer, states: “Results from the NTP study show that the previously held assumption that radiofrequency radiation cannot cause cancer or other adverse health effects is clearly wrong.”

Policymakers the world over should take note.
See International EMF Scientist Appeal and Letter to UNEP (June 25, 2019)

Elizabeth Kelley, M.A., Director

Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D.School of Public Health, UC Berkeley

July 1, 2019 (updated September 1, 2019)

Two hundred fifty (250) scientists from 42 nations have signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal. All have published peer-reviewed research on electromagnetic fields (EMF) and biology or health -- totaling more than 2,000 papers on EMF in professional journals. In addition, ten scientists who have published peer-reviewed research on related topics have signed this petition.

The Appeal calls on the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations (UN) including all of its member states and the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) to adopt more protective exposure guidelines for EMF and wireless technology in the face of increasing evidence of health risks.These exposures are a rapidly growing form of worldwide environmental pollution.

Links to more than 50 news stories published in over two dozen nations can be found on the Appeal web site under media coverage.
Quotes from 21 Experts Regarding Electromagnetic Fields

July 10, 2018

Two hundred forty-two (242) scientists from 41 nations including 38 from the U.S. have signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal. All have published peer-reviewed research on electromagnetic fields (EMF) and biology or health. In addition, ten scientists who have published peer-reviewed research on related topics have signed this petition.

September 20, 2017

Two hundred thirty-five (235) scientists from 41 nations including 33 from the U.S. have signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal. All have published peer-reviewed research on electromagnetic fields (EMF) and biology or health. 

Mar 10, 2016

Over one hundred EMF advocacy and education nongovernmental organizations from 23 nations have signed a letter in support of the International EMF Scientist Appeal.  The letter was prepared by the IEMFA, the International Electromagnetic Fields Alliance

The letter calls upon all governments throughout the world to ... recognize that exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) is an emerging health and environmental crisis that requires a high priority response; review currently available EMF exposure information that demonstrates harm to humans and nature; revise current EMF exposure guidelines and propose how they can be lowered; and adopt precautionary measures to reduce EMF exposure.

Feb 8, 2016

Two hundred and twenty scientists from 41 nations have signed the International EMF Scientist AppealAll have published peer-reviewed research on electromagnetic fields (EMF) and biology or health. In addition, nine scientists who have published peer-reviewed research on related topics have signed this petition.

The nations with the most signatories are the United States (with 29), Italy (19), South Korea (15), Turkey (15), India (12), China (11), United Kingdom (11), Canada (9), Brazil (8), Iran (8), Australia (7), Spain (7), Germany (6), Sweden (6), Finland (5), Greece (5), and Russia (5).

Dec 22, 2015

The European Journal of Oncology published the text of the International EMF Scientist Appeal in its December edition. The journal publishes contributions in the various areas of oncology including biology, epidemiology, pathology and clinical medicine.
International Appeal: Scientists call for protection from non-ionizing electromagnetic field exposure. European Journal of Oncology. 20(3/4): 180-182. 2015.
We are scientists engaged in the study of biological and health effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF). Based upon peer-reviewed, published research, we have serious concerns regarding the ubiquitous and increasing exposure to EMF generated by electric and wireless devices. These include–but are not limited to–radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitting devices, such as cellular and cordless phones and their base stations, Wi-Fi, broadcast antennas, smart meters, and baby monitors as well as electric devices and infra-structures used in the delivery of electricity that generate extremely-low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF EMF).

Oct 15, 2015

Two hundred fifteen scientists from 40 nations have signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal

Jun 25, 2015
WHO: It's time for a change
The World Health Organization promotes the radio frequency radiation guidelines adopted by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). Many countries have adopted these guidelines to serve as their regulatory standards for wireless radiation exposure from cell phones, Wi-Fi, and other wireless devices.
ICNIRP has 14 members on the commission. ICNIRP recently announced that is calling for nominations to serve on the Commission from 2016 to 2020. To be eligible for membership, one must be nominated by the Executive Council of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) or an IRPA Associate Society.
IRPA, the international professional society for radiological protection, was created by health physicists with expertise in ionizing radiation. The Executive Council consists of 12 members including seven physicists, two engineers, a nuclear technologist, a biochemist, and an M.D. biologist. Their expertise and the primary focus of their association has been on protection from ionizing radiation. So it is reasonable to question why the eligibility criteria for ICNIRP membership requires that ICNIRP members be nominated by IRPA or its affiliates since ICNIRP’s domain is non-ionizing radiation protection.

Do the selection criteria for ICNIRP membership explain why ICNIRP has not adopted biologically-based guidelines to protect people from non-ionizing radiation?
ICNIRP should be composed of members who possess a comprehensive and deep understanding of the scientific literature regarding chronic, low intensity exposure to non-ionizing radiation and biology or health. In addition, these experts should be unbiased and should not have even the appearance of a conflict of interest.
Recently, 206 scientists signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal, a petition which claims that "the ICNIRP guidelines do not cover long-term exposure and low-intensity effects" and "they are insufficient to protect public health."  All of these scientists have published peer-reviewed research on non-ionizing radiation protection.
"The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) established in 1998 the “Guidelines For Limiting Exposure To Time-Varying Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (up to 300 GHz)”[1]." These guidelines are accepted by the WHO and numerous countries around the world. The WHO is calling for all nations to adopt the ICNIRP guidelines to encourage international harmonization of standards. In 2009, the ICNIRP released a statement saying that it was reaffirming its 1998 guidelines, as in their opinion, the scientific literature published since that time “has provided no evidence of any adverse effects below the basic restrictions and does not necessitate an immediate revision of its guidance on limiting exposure to high frequency electromagnetic fields."
Perhaps, it is time for the WHO to replace ICNIRP with an expert committee that has greater expertise regarding non-ionizing radiation protection and use this committee to establish the WHO guidelines for wireless radiation. 

Jun 8, 2015

Joel M. Moskowitz, Ph.D. submitted the International EMF Scientist Appeal along with the Press Release and a description of the Appeal to the Federal Communications Commission in response to an FCC request for input regarding its radio frequency radiation regulations which were adopted in 1996 (Proceeding Number 13-84).

These three documents can be downloaded from FCC web site at

A summary of key documents submitted to the FCC under Proceeding Number 13-84 is available at

Jun 4, 2015

The "International EMF Scientist Appeal" has generated more than 48 news stories in 26 nations written in 21 different languages attesting to the global reach of this petition.

May 16, 2015
On Monday, May 11th, 190 scientists from 39 nations submitted an appeal to the United Nations, the UN member states, and the World Health Organization (WHO) requesting they adopt more protective exposure guidelines for electromagnetic fields (EMF) and wireless technology* in the face of increasing evidence of risk.These exposures are a rapidly growing form of environmental pollution worldwide. 
*(e.g., cell phones, cordless phones, Wi-Fi, wireless devices, cell towers, wireless utility meters).
The “International EMF Scientist Appeal” asks the Secretary General, UN affiliated bodies and all member nations to encourage precautionary measures, to limit EMF exposures, and to educate the public about health risks, particularly to children and pregnant women.
To date, the petition has been signed by 200 EMF scientists from 40 countries -- each has published peer-reviewed research on non-ionizing EMF and biology or health -- about 2,000 scientific papers in all. 
The web site launched last Monday has been visited by people in 119 countries attesting to the global reach of this emerging public health crisis. The site contains information about this "wake up call" from the scientific community including a 3-minute video announcing the Appeal by Dr. Martin Blank, a past president of the International Bioelectromagnetics Society who has had over 30 years of experience conducting EMF research at Columbia University.
The International EMF Alliance has begun to collect endorsements of the Appeal from non-governnmental (i.e., non-profit) organizations around the world.]

May 11, 2015


International Scientists Appeal to U.N. to Protect Humans and Wildlife from Electromagnetic Fields and Wireless Technology

WHO’s conflicting stance on risk needs strengthening, says 190 scientists

New York, NY, May 11, 2015. Today 190 scientists from 39 nations submitted an appeal to the United Nations, UN member states and the World Health Organization (WHO) requesting they adopt more protective exposure guidelines for electromagnetic fields (EMF) and wireless technology in the face of increasing evidence of risk. These exposures are a rapidly growing form of environmental pollution worldwide.

The “International EMF Scientist Appeal” asks the Secretary General and UN affiliated bodies to encourage precautionary measures, to limit EMF exposures, and to educate the public about health risks, particularly to children and pregnant women.

The Appeal highlights WHO’s conflicting positions about EMF risk. WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer classified Radiofrequency radiation as a Group 2B “Possible Carcinogen” in 2011, and Extremely Low Frequency fields in 2001.  Nonetheless, WHO continues to ignore its own agency’s recommendations and favors guidelines recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). These guidelines, developed by a self-selected group of industry insiders, have long been criticized as non-protective.

The Appeal calls on the UN to strengthen its advisories on EMF risk for humans and to assess the potential impact on wildlife and other living organisms under the auspices of the UN Environmental Programme, in line with the science demonstrating risk, thereby resolving this inconsistency.

Martin Blank, PhD, of Columbia University, says, 
"International exposure guidelines for electromagnetic fields must be strengthened to reflect the reality of their impact on our bodies, especially on our DNA. The time to deal with the harmful biological and health effects is long overdue. We must reduce exposure by establishing more protective guidelines.”
Joel Moskowitz, PhD, of University of California, Berkeley, says, 
“ICNIRP guidelines set exposure standards for high-intensity, short-term, tissue-heating thresholds. These do not protect us from the low-intensity, chronic exposures common today. Scientists signing the Appeal request that the UN and member nations protect the global human population and wildlife from EMF exposures.”
International EMF Scientist Appeal, Description of the Appeal and Spokesperson Quotes:

Video Statement (3 min.) by Spokesperson Martin Blank, PhD:
     (An HD version of the video statement is available on request.)


Elizabeth Kelley, MA, Director             Joel Moskowitz, PhD                                       School of Public Health, UC Berkeley                                                                                             
přeložit | 6.9.2019 06:47

5G Wireless Technology: Is 5G Harmful to Our Health?

See the bottom of this page for additional resources.

 5G mobile networks rated as "high impact" risk for insurance industry
in new Emerging Risk report from Swiss Re
Swiss Re, one of the world's leading providers of insurance and reinsurance, rated 5G as a "high impact" risk for the insurance industry that may affect property and casualty claims in more than 3 years.
      Off the leash – 5G mobile networks
     "5G – short for fifth generation – is the latest standard for cellular mobile communications. Providing ultrafast broadband connection with higher capacity and lower latency, 5G is not only heaven for your smartphone. It will enable wireless connectivity in real time for any device of the Internet of things (IoT), whether that be autonomous cars or sensor-steered factory. In doing so, it will allow decentralised seamless interconnectivity between devices. To allow for a functional network coverage and increased capacity overall, more antennas will be needed, including acceptance of higher levels of electromagnetic radiation. In some jurisdictions, the rise of threshold values will require legal adaptation. Existing concerns regarding potential negative health effects from electromagnetic fields (EMF) are only likely to increase. An uptick in liability claims could be a potential long-term consequence.
     Other concerns are focused on cyber exposures, which increase with the wider scope of 5G wireless attack surfaces. Traditionally IoT devices have poor security features. Moreover, hackers can also exploit 5G speed and volume, meaning that more data can be stolen much quicker. A large-scale breakthrough of autonomous cars and other IoT applications will mean that security features need to be enhanced at the same pace. Without, interruption and subversion of the 5G platform could trigger catastrophic, cumulative damage. With a change to more automation facilitated by new technology like 5G, we might see a further shift from motor to more general and product liability insurance.  There are also worries about privacy issues (leading to increased litigation risks), security breaches and espionage. The focus is not only on hacking by third parties, but also potential breaches from built-in hard- or software “backdoors.” In addition, the market for 5G infrastructure is currently focussed on a couple of firms, and that raises the spectre of concentration risk. Potential impacts:
·       Cyber exposures are significantly increased with 5G, as attacks become faster and higher in volume. This increases the challenge of defence.
·         Growing concerns of the health implications of 5G may lead to political friction and delay of implementation, and to liability claims. The introductions of 3G and 4G faced similar challenges.
·         Information security and national sovereignty concerns might delay implementation of 5G further, increasing uncertainty for planning authorities, investors, tech companies and insurers.
·         Heated international dispute over 5G contractors and potential for espionage or sabotage could affect international cooperation, and impact financial markets negatively.
·         As the biological effects of EMF in general and 5G in particular are still being debated, potential claims for health impairments may come with a long latency."
Source: Swiss Re. SONAR – New emerging risk insights. Zurich, Switzerland: Sustainability, Emerging and Political Risk Management, Swiss Re Institute, Strategy Development & Performance Management. May 2019.  page 29.

--5G Deployment
Blackman C, Forge S. 5G Deployment: State of Play in Europe, USA, and Asia. Study for the Committee on Industry, Research and Energy, Policy Department for Economic, Scientific and Quality of Life Policies, European Parliament, Luxembourg, 2019. 
Download the report at:

“It is becoming clear that 5G [fifth generation cellular technology] will cost much more to deploy than previous mobile technologies (perhaps three times as much) as it is more complex and requires a denser coverage of base stations to provide the expected capacity. The European Commission has estimated that it will cost €500 billion to meet its 2025 connectivity targets, which includes 5G coverage in all urban areas.
As 5G is driven by the telecoms supply industry, and its long tail of component manufacturers, a major campaign is under way to convince governments that the economy and jobs will be strongly stimulated by 5G deployment. However, we are yet to see significant “demand-pull” that could assure sales. These campaign efforts are also aimed at the MNOs [mobile network operators] but they have limited capacity to invest in the new technology and infrastructure as their returns from investment in 3G and 4G are still being recouped.
The notion of a “race” is part of the campaign but it is becoming clear that the technology will take much longer than earlier generations to perfect. China, for instance, sees 5G as at least a ten-year programme to become fully working and completely rolled out nationally. This is because the technologies involved with 5G are much more complex. One aspect, for example, that is not well understood today is the unpredictable propagation patterns that could result in unacceptable levels of human exposure to electromagnetic radiation.”
“Although lower frequencies, many in the UHF [ultra high frequency] range, are being proposed for the first phase of 5G networks, much higher radio frequencies are also projected in bands traditionally used for radars and microwave links. Whether this will transpire is still open to question. These frequencies are being commercially tested by some (e.g. by AT&T in the USA at 28 GHz [gigahertz]). The new bands are well above the UHF ranges, being either in centimetric (3-30 GHz) or in millimetric bands (30-300 GHz) and popularly branded “mmWave”, but present technical challenges that are expensive to solve.”
“Although many 5G networks currently being piloted will use the much lower bands, those upper frequencies being proposed for the future may offer propagation ranges only in the order of hundreds or even tens of metres. Higher frequency signals are also subject to more interference from weather – rain, snow, fog – and obstacles - wet foliage or buildings and their walls. This means that, at higher frequencies, indoor use may be problematic if based on through-wall or window penetration. Consequently, re-use of the existing UHF bands and also those just above in the 3-10 GHz range (“mid-range”) are emphasised today, to give 5G signals greater range with fewer technical challenges.”
“With higher frequencies and shortened ranges, base stations will be more closely packed into a given area to give complete coverage that avoids “not-spots”. Ranges of 20-150 metres may be typical, giving smaller coverage areas per “small cell”. A cell radius of 20 metres would imply about 800 base stations per square kilometre (or small area wireless access points (SAWAPs), the term used in the European Electronic Communications Code (EECC)). That contrasts with 3G and 4G which use large or “macro” cells. Traditionally they offer ranges of 2-15 km or more and so can cover a larger area but with fewer simultaneous users as they have fewer individual channels.”
5G Electromagnetic Radiation and Safety
“Significant concern is emerging over the possible impact on health and safety arising from potentially much higher exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation arising from 5G. Increased exposure may result not only from the use of much higher frequencies in 5G but also from the potential for the aggregation of different signals, their dynamic nature, and the complex interference effects that may result, especially in dense urban areas.
The 5G radio emission fields are quite different to those of previous generations because of their complex beamformed transmissions in both directions – from base station to handset and for the return. Although fields are highly focused by beams, they vary rapidly with time and movement and so are unpredictable, as the signal levels and patterns interact as a closed loop system. This has yet to be mapped reliably for real situations, outside the laboratory.
While the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) issues guidelines for limiting exposure to electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (EMF), and EU member states are subject to Council Recommendation 1999/519/EC which follows ICNIRP guidelines, the problem is that currently it is not possible to accurately simulate or measure 5G emissions in the real world.”
“The USA is moving towards some form of rollout of mobile broadband as 5G but not necessarily in a holistic, well-orchestrated operation. It is more a set of ad hoc commercial manoeuvres. Some of these are simply rebranding existing LTE, rather than delivering novel networks. Re-use of the LTE spectrum in the UHF ranges (300 MHz to 3 GHz) is significant. The latter decision is probably warranted by its geography of large rural spaces and high density urban centres situated more on the coasts. Thus, the insistence for 5G on high centimetric bands (25–30 GHz and higher) is probably less justified than for the dense conurbations of Asia and the EU.
A significant challenge concerns the administrative local barriers to small cell rollout. The need for many small cells implies long delays and high costs. Local regulations continue to prevail despite the FCC’s mandate on a light-touch regime and minimal permit costs. This has led to a wide divide between local and central government on the principles of having to obtain permission for rollout and the charges for that. Local administrations, especially in the larger municipalities, are at loggerheads with the FCC (Zima, 2018). Several court challenges are being made to the FCC mandate of August 2018 that overrides local objections to a “one-touch” regime.”
Related Posts
Scientists and Doctors Demand Moratorium on 5G5G Wireless Technology: Millimeter Wave Health Effects5G Wireless Technology: Cutting through the Hype5G Wireless Technology: Newspaper editorials oppose "small cell" antenna bills

ICNIRP’s Exposure Guidelines for Radio Frequency Fields 
Worldwide Radio Frequency Radiation Exposure Limits versus Health Effects
Cell Tower Health EffectsElectromagnetic Hypersensitivity (EHS)
Physicians for Safe TechnologyEnvironmental Health Trust
--How Harmful is 5G?

Harald Schumann and Elisa Simantke. How harmful is 5G really? Der Tagesspiegel, Jan 15, 2019. (In German. For English translation email me at
"5G should transfer huge amounts of data quickly. But it could also harm your health. Europe's governments ignore the danger."
Investigate Europe reports on the current state of the science and exposes the harmful roles that the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), the World Health Organization's International EMF Project,  and the EU Commission's Scientific Committee on New Health Risks (SCENIHR) have played in paving the way for the deployment of 5G without regard to health consequences.
Investigate Europe is a pan-European journalist team that researches topics of European relevance and publishes the results across Europe. The project is supported by several foundations, the Open Society Initiative for Europe, and readers' donations. Among the media partners for the report on 5G include "Newsweek Polska", "Diario de Noticias", "Il Fatto Quotidiano", "De Groene Amsterdamer", "Efimerida ton Syntakton", "Aftenbladet" and the "Falter". In addition to the authors, Crina Boros, Wojciech Ciesla, Ingeborg Eliassen, Juliet Ferguson, Nikolas Leontopoulos, Maria Maggiore, Leila Minano, Paulo Pena and Jef Poortmans contributed to this. 

More about the project:
Literature Reviews
EMF safety guidelines are fraudulent: The consequences for microwave frequency exposures and 5G
Pall M. Eight repeatedly documented findings each show that EMF safety guidelines do not predict biological effects and are, therefore fraudulent: The consequences for both microwave frequency exposures and also 5G. Second Edition, May 23, 2019. 


ICNIRP, US FCC, EU and other EMF safety guidelines are all based on the assumption that
average EMF intensities and average SAR can be used to predict biological effects and therefore safety. Eight different types of quantitative or qualitative data are analyzed here to determine whether these safety guidelines predict biological effects. In each case the safety guidelines fail and in most of these, fail massively. Effects occur at approximately 100,000 times below allowable levels and the basic structure of the safety guidelines is shown to be deeply flawed. The safety guidelines ignore demonstrated biological heterogeneity and established biological mechanisms. Even the physics underlying the safety guidelines is shown to be flawed. Pulsed EMFs are in most cases much more biologically active than are non-pulsed EMFs of the same average intensity, but pulsations are ignored in the safety guidelines despite the fact that almost all of our current exposures are highly pulsed. There are exposure windows such that maximum effects are produced in certain intensity windows and also in certain frequency windows but the consequent very complex dose-response curves are ignored by the safety guidelines. Several additional flaws in the safety guidelines are shown through studies of both individual and paired nanosecond pulses. The properties of 5G predict that guidelines will be even more flawed in predicting 5G effects than the already stunning flaws that the safety guidelines have in predicting our other EMF exposures. The consequences of these findings is that “safety guidelines” should always be expressed in quotation marks; they do not predict biological effects and therefore do not predict safety. Because of that we have a multi-trillion dollar set of companies, the telecommunication industry, where all assurances of safety are fraudulent because they are based on these “safety guidelines.”

Open access paper:   


5G Wireless Telecommunications Expansion: Public Health & Environmental Implications

Russell CL. 5G wireless telecommunications expansion: Public health and environmental implications. Environmental Research.  2018 Aug;165:484-495. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.01.016.
The popularity, widespread use and increasing dependency on wireless technologies has spawned a telecommunications industrial revolution with increasing public exposure to broader and higher frequencies of the electromagnetic spectrum to transmit data through a variety of devices and infrastructure. On the horizon, a new generation of even shorter high frequency 5G wavelengths is being proposed to power the Internet of Things (IoT). The IoT promises us convenient and easy lifestyles with a massive 5G interconnected telecommunications network, however, the expansion of broadband with shorter wavelength radiofrequency radiation highlights the concern that health and safety issues remain unknown. Controversy continues with regards to harm from current 2G, 3G and 4G wireless technologies. 5G technologies are far less studied for human or environmental effects.
It is argued that the addition of this added high frequency 5G radiation to an already complex mix of lower frequencies, will contribute to a negative public health outcome both from both physical and mental health perspectives.
Radiofrequency radiation (RF) is increasingly being recognized as a new form of environmental pollution. Like other common toxic exposures, the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF EMR) will be problematic if not impossible to sort out epidemiologically as there no longer remains an unexposed control group. This is especially important considering these effects are likely magnified by synergistic toxic exposures and other common health risk behaviors. Effects can also be non-linear. Because this is the first generation to have cradle-to-grave lifespan exposure to this level of man-made microwave (RF EMR) radiofrequencies, it will be years or decades before the true health consequences are known. Precaution in the roll out of this new technology is strongly indicated.
This article will review relevant electromagnetic frequencies, exposure standards and current scientific literature on the health implications of 2G, 3G, 4G exposure, including some of the available literature on 5G frequencies. The question of what constitutes a public health issue will be raised, as well as the need for a precautionary approach in advancing new wireless technologies.
Although 5G technology may have many unimagined uses and benefits, it is also increasingly clear that significant negative consequences to human health and ecosystems could occur if it is widely adopted. Current radiofrequency radiation wavelengths we are exposed to appear to act as a toxin to biological systems. A moratorium on the deployment of 5G is warranted, along with development of independent health and environmental advisory boards that include independent scientists who research biological effects and exposure levels of radiofrequency radiation. Sound regulatory policy regarding current and future telecommunications initiative will require more careful assessment of risks to human health, environmental health, public safety, privacy, security and social consequences. Public health regulations need to be updated to match appropriate independent science with the adoption of biologically based exposure standards prior to further deployment of 4G or 5G technology.
Considering the current science, lack of relevant exposure standards based on known biological effects and data gaps in research, we need to reduce our exposure to RF EMR where ever technically feasible. Laws or policies which restrict the full integrity of science and the scientific community with regards to health and environmental effects of wireless technologies or other toxic exposures should be changed to enable unbiased, objective and precautionary science to drive necessary public policies and regulation. Climate change, fracking, toxic emissions and microwave radiation from wireless devices all have something in common with smoking. There is much denial and confusion about health and environmental risks, along with industry insistence for absolute proof before regulatory action occurs (Frentzel-Beyme, 1994; Michaels 2008). There are many lessons we have not learned with the introduction of novel substances, which later became precarious environmental pollutants by not heeding warning signs from scientists (Gee, 2009). The threats of these common pollutants continue to weigh heavily on the health and well being of our nation. We now accept them as the price of progress. If we do not take precautions but wait for unquestioned proof of harm will it be too late at that point for some or all of us?


Towards 5G Communication Systems: Are there Health Implications?
Di Ciaula A. Towards 5G communication systems: Are there health implications? Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 Apr;221(3):367-375. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2018.01.011.
• RF-EMF exposure is rising and health effects of are still under investigation.
• Both oncologic and non-cancerous chronic effects have been suggested.
• 5G networks could have health effects and will use MMW, still scarcely explored.
• Adequate knowledge of RF-EMF biological effects is also needed in clinical practice.
• Underrating the problem could lead to a further rise in noncommunicable diseases.

The spread of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) is rising and health effects are still under investigation. RF-EMF promote oxidative stress, a condition involved in cancer onset, in several acute and chronic diseases and in vascular homeostasis. Although some evidences are still controversial, the WHO IARC classified RF-EMF as "possible carcinogenic to humans", and more recent studies suggested reproductive, metabolic and neurologic effects of RF-EMF, which are also able to alter bacterial antibiotic resistance. 

In this evolving scenario, although the biological effects of 5G communication systems are very scarcely investigated, an international action plan for the development of 5G networks has started, with a forthcoming increment in devices and density of small cells, and with the future use of millimeter waves (MMW). 

Preliminary observations showed that MMW increase skin temperature, alter gene expression, promote cellular proliferation and synthesis of proteins linked with oxidative stress, inflammatory and metabolic processes, could generate ocular damages, affect neuro-muscular dynamics. 

Further studies are needed to better and independently explore the health effects of RF-EMF in general and of MMW in particular. However, available findings seem sufficient to demonstrate the existence of biomedical effects, to invoke the precautionary principle, to define exposed subjects as potentially vulnerable and to revise existing limits. An adequate knowledge of pathophysiological mechanisms linking RF-EMF exposure to health risk should also be useful in the current clinical practice, in particular in consideration of evidences pointing to extrinsic factors as heavy contributors to cancer risk and to the progressive epidemiological growth of noncommunicable diseases.

Effects of Millimeter Waves Radiation on Cell Membrane - A Brief Review
Ramundo-Orlando A.  Effects of millimeter waves radiation on cell membrane - A brief review.  J Infrared Milli Terahz Waves. 2010; 30 (12): 1400-1411.
The millimeter waves (MMW) region of the electromagnetic spectrum, extending from 30 to 300 GHz in terms of frequency (corresponding to wavelengths from 10 mm to 1 mm), is officially used in non-invasive complementary medicine in many Eastern European countries against a variety of diseases such gastro duodenal ulcers, cardiovascular disorders, traumatism and tumor. On the other hand, besides technological applications in traffic and military systems, in the near future MMW will also find applications in high resolution and high-speed wireless communication technology. This has led to restoring interest in research on MMW induced biological effects. In this review emphasis has been given to the MMW-induced effects on cell membranes that are considered the major target for the interaction between MMW and biological systems.
 “Several studies on the effects induced by millimeter radiation on biological systems have been reported in the literature. Diverse effects have been observed on cell free systems, cultured cells, isolated organs of animals and humans. The subject has been extensively reviewed by Motzkin [17] and more recently by Pakhomov [3]. At the cellular level these effects are mainly on the membrane process and ion channels, molecular complexes, excitable and other structures. Many of these effects are quite unexpected from a radiation penetrating less than 1 mm into biological tissues [3, 18, 19]. However none of the findings described in the above reviews has been replicated in an independent laboratory, thus they cannot be considered as established biological effects.”
“…a large number of cellular studies have indicated that MMW may alter structural and functional properties of membranes (Table 2).”
“In this review emphasis has been given to the low-level MMW effects on cell membranes. Above all, it should be mentioned that the reported effects are of a non-thermal character, that is, the action of radiation does not produce essential heating of the biological system or destroy its structure. In this context it appears that no permanent structural change of lipid bilayer could arise under low level (less than 10 mW/cm2) millimeter waves irradiation.
On the other hand, MMW radiation may affect intracellular calcium activities, and, as a consequence, several cellular and molecular processes controlled by Ca2+ dynamics themselves. The effects of MMW radiation on ion transport may be the consequence of a direct effect on membrane proteins as well as on phospholipid domain organization. Water molecules seem to play an important role in these biological effects of MMW radiation. Unfortunately, detailed cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating physiological responses to MMW exposure remain largely unknown.
Usually the search at a molecular level is simpler if we can reduce the complexity of our biological samples. This is the case for cell membranes by using model systems. They can be formed by a simple lipid bilayer without interfering components and they give independence from biological activity that can create complication in searching for electromagnetic fields bioeffects. The emphasis is on the search for molecular mechanisms of the membrane effect induced by MMW with different frequencies and power density. Furthermore, replication studies are needed including good temperature control and appropriate internal control samples. It is also advantageous if the future studies are multidisciplinary, invoking an integration of high quality exposure and effects methodologies.
Clearly a significant amount of accurate experimental work is still required in order to fully understand the interactions between MMW radiation and cell membrane.”

Research Papers

A Survey on Electromagnetic Risk Assessment and Evaluation Mechanism for Future Wireless Communication Systems

Jamshed MA, Heliot F, Brown T. A Survey on Electromagnetic Risk Assessment and Evaluation Mechanism for Future Wireless Communication Systems. IEEE Journal of Electromagnetics, RF and Microwaves in Medicine and Biology. May 20, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/JERM.2019.2917766 

The accurate measurement of electromagnetic exposure and its application is expected to become more and more important in future wireless communication systems, given the explosion in both the number of wireless devices and equipments radiating electromagnetic-fields (EMF) and the growing concerns in the general public linked to it. Indeed, the next generation of wireless systems aims at providing a higher data rate,better quality of service (QoS), and lower latency to users by increasing the number of access points, i.e. densification, which in turn will increase EMF exposure. Similarly, the multiplication of future connected devices,e.g. internet of things (IoT) devices, will also contribute to an increase in EMF exposure. This paper provides a detailed survey relating to the potential health hazards linked with EMF exposure and the different metrics that are currently used for evaluating,limiting and mitigating the effects of this type of exposure on the general public. This paper also reviews the possible impacts of new wireless technologies on EMF exposure and proposes some novel research directions for updating the EMF exposure evaluation framework and addressing these impacts in future wireless communication systems. For instance, the impact of mmWave or massive-MIMO/beamforming on EMF exposure has yet to be fully understood and included in the exposure evaluation framework.
A thorough survey on exposure risk assessment, evaluation, limitation and mitigation for current and future wireless devices and equipments has been provided in this paper. From the human health point of view, it seems that the possibility of brain tumor is still the main cause of concerns related to the extensive use of wireless devices, even though the effects of EMF exposure is now being investigated in new parts of the body (e.g. eyes). Meanwhile, with the advent of 5G, more efforts are now been made to understand the thermal and non-thermal effects of mmWave exposure on the human body. When it comes to the evaluation of EMF exposure, we have presented the most common evaluation frameworks and metrics that are utilized in wireless communications to measure the exposure. We have also explained how new more generic metrics have been defined by combining existing metrics to better reflect the exposure of large geographical areas and have argued that a generic metric for measuring the individual exposure would also be of interest. We have also reviewed the existing exposure guidelines and have explained how they can be updated for better reflecting the true nature of EMF exposure, i.e. by better taking into account the duration of exposure. Finally, we have provided some views on how key 5G enabling technologies such as densification, massive MIMO and mmWave will impact the EMF exposure in the near future; for instance, the dense deployment of small cells and IoT devices is very likely to increase the overall ambient exposure. We also believe that there could be some technical opportunities in 5G to increase the exposure awareness of wireless system users and to let them decide if they want to reduce it at the cost of, for instance, a lower QoS.

Assessment of Maximally Allowable Power-Density Averaging Area for EMF Exposure above 6 GHz
Neufeld E, Carrasco E, Murbach M, Balzano Q, Christ A, Kuster N. Theoretical and numerical assessment of maximally allowable power-density averaging area for conservative electromagnetic exposure assessment above 6 GHz.  Bioelectromagnetics.  2018 Dec;39(8):617-630. doi: 10.1002/bem.22147.
The objective of this paper is to determine a maximum averaging area for power density (PD) that limits the maximum temperature increase to a given threshold for frequencies above 6 GHz. This maximum area should be conservative for any transmitter at any distance >2 mm from the primary transmitting antennas or secondary field-generating sources. To derive a generically valid maximum averaging area, an analytical approximation for the peak temperature increase caused by localized exposure was derived. The results for a threshold value of 1 K temperature rise were validated against simulations of a series of sources composed of electrical and magnetic elements (dipoles, slots, patches, and arrays) that represented the spectrum of relevant transmitters. The validation was successful for frequencies in which the power deposition occurred superficially (i.e., >10 GHz). In conclusion, the averaging area for a PD limit of 10 W/m2 that conservatively limits the temperature increase in the skin to less than 1 K at any distance >2 mm from the transmitters is frequency dependent, increases with distance, and ranges from 3 cm2 at <10 GHz to 1.9 cm2 at 100 GHz. In the far-field, the area depends additionally on distance and the antenna array aperture. The correlation was found to be worse at lower frequencies (<10 GHz) and very close to the source, the systematic evaluation of which is part of another study to investigate the effect of different coupling mechanisms in the reactive near-field on the ratio of temperature increase to incident power density. The presented model can be directly applied to any other PD and temperature thresholds.

The Human Skin as a Sub-THz Receiver - Does 5G Pose a Danger to It or Not?
Betzalel N, Ben Ishai P, Feldman Y. The human skin as a sub-THz receiver - Does 5G pose a danger to it or not? Environ Res. 2018 May;163:208-216. 


• The sweat duct is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band, reflectance depends on perspiration.
• We outline the background for non-thermal effects based on the structure of sweat ducts.
• We have introduced a realistic skin EM model and found the expected SAR for the 5G standard.


In the interaction of microwave radiation and human beings, the skin is traditionally considered as just an absorbing sponge stratum filled with water. In previous works, we showed that this view is flawed when we demonstrated that the coiled portion of the sweat duct in upper skin layer is regarded as a helical antenna in the sub-THz band. 

Experimentally we showed that the reflectance of the human skin in the sub-THz region depends on the intensity of perspiration, i.e. sweat duct's conductivity, and correlates with levels of human stress (physical, mental and emotional). Later on, we detected circular dichroism in the reflectance from the skin, a signature of the axial mode of a helical antenna. The full ramifications of what these findings represent in the human condition are still unclear. We also revealed correlation of electrocardiography (ECG) parameters to the sub-THz reflection coefficient of human skin. In a recent work, we developed a unique simulation tool of human skin, taking into account the skin multi-layer structure together with the helical segment of the sweat duct embedded in it. The presence of the sweat duct led to a high specific absorption rate (SAR) of the skin in extremely high frequency band. 
In this paper, we summarize the physical evidence for this phenomenon and consider its implication for the future exploitation of the electromagnetic spectrum by wireless communication. Starting from July 2016 the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has adopted new rules for wireless broadband operations above 24 GHz (5 G). This trend of exploitation is predicted to expand to higher frequencies in the sub-THz region. One must consider the implications of human immersion in the electromagnetic noise, caused by devices working at the very same frequencies as those, to which the sweat duct (as a helical antenna) is most attuned. 
We are raising a warning flag against the unrestricted use of sub-THz technologies for communication, before the possible consequences for public health are explored.


The need for high data transmission rates, coupled with advances in semiconductor technology, is pushing the communications industry towards the sub-THz frequency spectrum. While the promises of a glorious future, resplendent with semi-infinite data streaming, may be attractive, there is a price to pay for such luxury. We shall find our cities, workspace and homes awash with 5 G base stations and we shall live though an unprecedented EM smog. The benefits to our society of becoming so wired cannot ignore possible health concerns, as yet unexplored. There is enough evidence to suggest that the combination of the helical sweat duct and wavelengths approaching the dimensions of skin layers could lead to non-thermal biological effects. Such fears should be investigated and these concerns should also effect the definition of standards for the application of 5G communications.


On Measuring Electromagnetic Fields in 5G Technology

Pawlak R, Krawiec P, Żurek J. On measuring electromagnetic fields in 5G technology. IEEE Access. 7: 29826-29835. March 5, 2019. DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2902481


At the awakening of the new 5G network as the network of services, issues related to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) will become one of the key aspects for the cost-effective establishment of the 5G infrastructure. The new 5G services will meet the rigorous demand for bandwidth through the implementation of a large number of densely located base stations operating in the millimeter-wave range. Introduction of new emission sources, working in parallel with already existing 2G/3G/4G mobile technologies, raises concerns about exceeding the admissible EMF exposure limits. This paper analyzes issues and challenges related to EMF measurements in 5G technology, which are crucial for the assessment of EMF compliance with regulatory limits. We point out that the existing methodologies, dedicated to EMF measurements in 2G, 3G, and 4G networks, are not suitable for 5G. The reason is the use of new techniques, such as massive MIMO and precise beamforming together with higher frequency bands so that the existing measurement methods can lead to significantly overestimated results when they will be applied to 5G networks. Such results, in conjunction with the restrictive legislation on the EMF limits that apply in some countries, may have the negative impact on 5G network deployment, making it difficult to achieve the intended 5G network capabilities. We also propose an alternative method of EMF exposure assessment that is based on calculations and simulations and allows obtaining an accurate estimation of the EMF distribution in the 5G environment.

Open access paper:


Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field Exposure Assessment for Future 5G Networks
Persia S, Carciofi C, Barbiroli M, Volta C, Bontempelli D, Anania G. Radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure assessment for future 5G networks. IEEE 29th Annual International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), 2018. IEEE, 2018. doi:10.1109/PIMRC.2018.8580919


The fifth generation of mobile network (5G) will relay not only on the expansion of existing fourth (4G) Long Term Evolution (LTE) network, but thanks to the introduction of new radio access in the millimetre wave bands will allow to meet new requirements in terms of connectivity and capacity. Specifically, 5G network will be characterized by the use of new spectrum at higher frequencies with a very large number of antenna elements deployment. As a consequence, the RF EMF (Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Field) compliance assessments with the regulatory requirements for human exposure for the installation permission needs to be revised accordingly. In this work, a Country case (Italy), where a more restrictive regulatory framework than the ICNIRP Guidelines is applied, has been analysed to investigate the impact of the restrictive approach on the future 5G mobile networks roll-out.


The EMF evaluations of existing cellular networks has been analysed in this work in order to highlight how restrictive regulatory framework than International Guidelines can affect 5G and future network deployment. Italy case study is considered as an example, due to its restrictive regulation to verify if it can permit an efficient 5G roll-out. This consideration has been confirmed by evaluations of the trend of saturated sites from 2010 to 2017 in Italy. Simulations demonstrate that in Italy the strong development expected for the evolution of 4G networks and, in the perspective of 5G systems, can be threatened with the stringent constraints imposed by the current regulatory framework for exposure to electromagnetic fields.

Derivation of Safety Limits for 5G RF Exposure Based on Analytical Models & Thermal Dose

Neufeld E, Kuster N. Systematic Derivation of Safety Limits for Time-Varying 5G Radiofrequency Exposure Based on Analytical Models and Thermal Dose. Health Phys. 2018 Sep 21. 705-711. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000930.


Extreme broadband wireless devices operating above 10 GHz may transmit data in bursts of a few milliseconds to seconds. Even though the time- and area-averaged power density values remain within the acceptable safety limits for continuous exposure, these bursts may lead to short temperature spikes in the skin of exposed people. In this paper, a novel analytical approach to pulsed heating is developed and applied to assess the peak-to-average temperature ratio as a function of the pulse fraction α (relative to the averaging time T; it corresponds to the inverse of the peak-to-average ratio). This has been analyzed for two different perfusion-related thermal time constants (τ1 = 100 s and 500 s) corresponding to plane-wave and localized exposures. To allow for peak temperatures that considerably exceed the 1 K increase, the CEM43 tissue damage model, with an experimental-data-based damage threshold for human skin of 600 min, is used to allow large temperature oscillations that remain below the level at which tissue damage occurs. To stay consistent with the current safety guidelines, safety factors of 10 for occupational exposure and 50 for the general public were applied. The model assumptions and limitations (e.g., employed thermal and tissue damage models, homogeneous skin, consideration of localized exposure by a modified time constant) are discussed in detail. 

The results demonstrate that the maximum averaging time, based on the assumption of a thermal time constant of 100 s, is 240 s if the maximum local temperature increase for continuous-wave exposure is limited to 1 K and α ≥ 0.1. For a very low peak-to-average ratio of 100 (α ≥ 0.01), it decreases to only 30 s. The results also show that the peak-to-average ratio of 1,000 tolerated by the International Council on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines may lead to permanent tissue damage after even short exposures, highlighting the importance of revisiting existing exposure guidelines.

Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink
Nasim I, Kim S. Human Exposure to RF Fields in 5G Downlink. Submitted on 10 Nov 2017 to IEEE International Communications Conference. arXiv:1711.03683v1.
While cellular communications in millimeter wave (mmW) bands have been attracting significant research interest, their potential harmful impacts on human health are not as significantly studied. Prior research on human exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields in a cellular communications system has been focused on uplink only due to the closer physical contact of a transmitter to a human body. However, this paper claims the necessity of thorough investigation on human exposure to downlink RF fields, as cellular systems deployed in mmW bands will entail (i) deployment of more transmitters due to smaller cell size and (ii) higher concentration of RF energy using a highly directional antenna. In this paper, we present human RF exposure levels in downlink of a Fifth Generation Wireless Systems (5G). Our results show that 5G downlink RF fields generate significantly higher power density (PD) and specific absorption rate (SAR) than a current cellular system. This paper also shows that SAR should also be taken into account for determining human RF exposure in the mmW downlink.


Colombi D, Thors B, Törnevik C. Implications of EMF exposure limits on output power levels for 5G devices above 6 GHz. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters. 14:1247-1249. 04 February 2015. DOI: 10.1109/LAWP.2015.2400331.
Spectrum is a scarce resource, and the interest for utilizing frequency bands above 6 GHz for future radio communication systems is increasing. The possible use of higher frequency bands implies new challenges in terms of electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure assessments since the fundamental exposure metric (basic restriction) is changing from specific absorption rate (SAR) to power density. In this study, the implication of this change is investigated in terms of the maximum possible radiated power (P max ) from a device used in close proximity to the human body. The results show that the existing exposure limits will lead to a non-physical discontinuity of several dB in P max as the transition is made from SAR to power density based basic restrictions. As a consequence, to be compliant with applicable exposure limits at frequencies above 6 GHz, P max might have to be several dB below the power levels used for current cellular technologies. Since the available power in uplink has a direct impact on the system capacity and coverage, such an inconsistency, if not resolved, might have a large effect on the development of the next generation cellular networks (5G).
Above 6 GHz for FCC and 10 GHz for ICNIRP, EMF exposure limits are defined in terms of free-space power density rather than SAR. It was shown that at the transition frequency where the exposure metric changes, the maximum radiated power to meet compliance with ICNIRP and FCC EMF limits, for a device used in close proximity of the body, presents a strong discontinuity (in the order of 6 dB for the investigated case). This discrepancy has no scientific basis and is due to inconsistencies in the exposure limits. As a consequence, the estimated maximum output power in uplink for devices operating at frequencies above 6-10 GHz is about 18 dBm and 15 dBm for ICNIRP and FCC, respectively. These figures were obtained by numerical simulations of a canonical dipole at frequencies up to 70 GHz. It was shown that for more directive antennas, the maximum available power can be substantially lower. For the IEEE limits, the incongruity at the transition frequency is less evident. This is because the IEEE PD limits make use of a larger averaging area than the ICNIRP and FCC limits. The IEEE limits, however, have not yet been adopted in any national regulations.
With a growing interest for utilizing frequency bands above 6 GHz for mobile communications, it is important that the inconsistencies at the transition frequency from SAR to PD based basic restrictions are timely solved. If not, the observed discrepancy might have a large impact on the development of future mobile communication networks. We therefore encourage the relevant standardization organizations and regulatory authorities responsible for defining EMF exposure limits to address this issue.

Expert Opinions

May 20, 2019

5G: The Unreported Global Threat

Devra Davis, PhD, Medium, May 18, 2019

Aug 18, 2017 (Updated Sep 27, 2017)
Scientists and Physicians Oppose
"Small Cell" Antenna Bill (Calif. SB 649)
I have been hearing from scientists around the world who are deeply concerned about the deployment of fifth generation (5G) wireless technology without adequate research on the health effects of exposure to this type of radio frequency radiation.

Following is a sample of letters sent to California Governor Brown asking him to veto SB 659, a "small cell" antenna bill written by the cellular industry that paves the way for deployment of 5G wireless technology across the state.

Professor Beatrice Golomb, MD, PhD, a professor of medicine in the School of Medicine at the University of California, San Diego. Dr. Golomb's letter begins with the following warning:
"I urge in the strongest terms that you vigorously oppose California SB 649.
If this bill passes, many people will suffer greatly, and needlessly, as a direct result. 
This sounds like hyperbole. It is not.
My research group at UC San Diego alone has received hundreds of communications from people who have developed serious health problems from electromagnetic radiation, following introduction of new technologies. Others with whom I am in communication, have independently received hundreds of similar reports. Most likely these are a tip of an iceberg of tens or perhaps hundreds of thousands of affected person. As each new technology leading to further exposure to electromagnetic radiation is introduced – and particularly introduced in a fashion that prevents vulnerable individuals from avoiding it – a new group become sensitized to health effects. This is particularly true for pulsed signals in the radiowave and microwave portion of the spectrum, the type for which the proposed bill SB 640 will bypass local control."
In the letter, Dr. Golomb summarizes the research on the effects of exposure to radio frequency radiation and advocates for "safer, wired and well shielded technology – not more wireless." 
Appended to the letter are 360 references to the scientific literature.
The letter can be downloaded at:

Professor Martin Pall, PhD, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry and Basic Medical Sciences at Washington State University, explains in his letter to the Governor his peer-reviewed research which has documented ...
"exquisite sensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in the voltage sensors in each cell, such that the force impacting our cells at the voltage sensor has massive impact on the biology in the cells of our bodies."
"This new understanding [1-7] means we can debunk the claims of the wireless industry that there cannot be a mechanism for effects produced by these weak EMFs. The 20 years plus of industry propaganda claims are false. Rather the thousands of studies showing diverse health impacts of these EMFs can be explained. We now have a mechanism, one that is supported by both the biology and the physics, both of which are pointing in exactly the same direction."
"5G will be much more active in activating the VGCCs and producinghealth impacts because of its rapid absorption by materials in the body, because of its very rapid pulsations and because of the huge number antennae they are planning to put up, at least 200 times the number of antennae from all current cell phone towers. What this means is that the impacts on the outer one to two inches of our bodies will be massive."

His letter discusses the potential health impacts on humans and on agriculture with exposure to 5G radiation.

The letter can be downloaded at:

Dr. Michael Lipsett, MD, JD, a retired public health physician with extensive experience in environmental health, mentions in his letter the recent demand for a 5G moratorium by more than 180 scientists and physicians and the study of cell phone radiation conducted by the National Toxicology Program

He points out that while individuals can take precautions to reduce their exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted by wireless devices, this is not feasible with exposure from cell antennas. He notes that ...
"laboratory and human health investigations designed and conducted by independent researchers have reported associations linking exposure to radiation from cell phones or similar devices with multiple adverse effects (e.g., headaches, impacts on brain function, memory, learning and sleep; decreased sperm counts and quality) as well as with DNA damage and tumors of the brain and nervous system."
"Potential health impacts of wireless communication have been ignored or obscured for decades by the telecommunications industry, which has implied that cell phones and other devices are safe because they comply with federal safety standards. However, these standards were established more than 20 years ago and were based on assumptions that have since been called into question by health research studies. The push to establish a 5G network, exemplified by SB 649, is based on a similarly unproven assumption: i.e., that round-the-clock exposure to 5G frequencies will not affect human health or the environment.
Establishment of a 5G network will be irreversible, as will the pattern of near-universal exposure of California residents to high-frequency, as-yet-untested 5G electromagnetic radiation."
The letter can be downloaded at:

June 23, 2017

EMF Scientist Appeal Advisors Call for Moratorium on Policies 
for 5G “Small Cell” Antennas

The advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal submitted a letter to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in opposition to a proposed change in FCC rules that would allow rapid deployment of 5th generation (5G) wireless infrastructure throughout the nation. A copy of the Appeal was appended to the letter.
5G involves transmission of millimeter waves which operate at much higher frequencies than currently used for cellular transmission (30 to 300 gigahertz). Because the range of these signals is limited (i.e., less than a football field), hundreds of thousands of new “small cell” antennas will be required in the U.S. The wireless industry wants to install these not-so-small cellular antennas on existing public utility poles.
The FCC intends to streamline the approval of these antennas which would further undermine the regulatory authority of cities and states over cell towers.
Meanwhile the wireless industry is lobbying for legislationin many states across the country that would limit local authority over cell antenna deployment.
Due to the concern that the FCC’s new rules will result in increased exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF), the Appeal’s advisors oppose the new rules and call for a “public health review of the growing body of scientific evidence that includes reports of increasing rates of cancer and neurological diseases that may be caused by exposure to EMF from wireless sources.”
The Appeal reflects the concerns of 225 EMF expertsfrom 41 nations about the impact of EMF exposure on public health. All of the experts who signed this appeal have published research in peer-reviewed scientific journals about the biologic or health effects of EMF.
According to the Appeal’s signatories, current national and international EMF exposure guidelines are obsolete and inadequate to protect human health and the environment. The FCC’s radio frequency guidelines were adopted in 1996.
The letter (dated June 9, 2017) is signed by the five advisors to the International EMF Scientist Appeal: Drs. Martin Blank, Magda Havas, Henry Lai, and Joel Moskowitz, and Elizabeth Kelley.
For more information:
FCC filing detail   (June 9, 2017)FCC letter submitted by Advisors to International EMF Scientist Appeal
FCC submission: International EMF Scientist Appeal

International EMF Scientist Appeal Official Website International EMF Scientist Appeal on Electromagnetic Fields and Wireless Technology  
May 8, 2017

A 5G Wireless Future: Will it give us a smart nation or contribute to an unhealthy one?
Dr. Cindy Russell, The (SCCMA) Bulletin, Jan/Feb 2017
Safety testing for 5G is the same as other wireless devices. It is based on heat. This is an obsolete standard and not considering current science showing cellular and organism harm from non-thermal effects. There is a large gap in safety data for 5G biological effects that has been demonstrated in older studies including military.
1. Do not proceed to roll out 5G technologies pending pre-market studies on health effects.
2. Reevaluate safety standards based on long term as well as short term studies on biological effects.
3. Rescind a portion of Section 704 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 which preempts state and local government regulation for the placement, construction, and modification of personal wireless service facilities on the basis of the environmental effects so that health and environmental issues can be addressed.
4. Rescind portions of The Spectrum Act which was passed in 2012 as part of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act, which strips the ability city officials and local governments to regulate cellular communications equipment, provides no public notification or opportunity for public input and may potentially result in environmental impacts.
5. Create an independent multidisciplinary scientific agency tasked with developing appropriate safety regulations, pre-market testing and research needs in a transparent environment with public input.
6. Label pertinent EMF information on devices along with appropriate precautionary warnings.
Dr. Russell provides a brief review of the research on millimeter wave bioeffects in this article:


Aug 17, 2016 (Updated Aug 19)

5G cellular technology will employ much higher frequency microwaves than current cell phone technologies: 2G, 3G, and 4G.  These microwaves, known as millimeter waves, won't penetrate building materials like the current technology which is why industry may need one cell antenna base station for every 12 homes. But millimeter waves can affect your eyes and penetrate your skin.

When the Los Angeles Times reporter contacted me for the story below, I did a quick search and found several recently published articles examining biological effects of millimeter waves (see references below). This form of microwave radiation is most likely to affect our skin and neuronal cells in the upper dermis.

Moreover, widespread adoption of 5G cellular technology in the U.S. may have profound effects on our ecosystem by altering bacteria, possibly creating harmful bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics.

History has proved that we cannot trust the FCC and the FDAto protect our health from microwave radiation exposure.

I submitted an open letter to the FCC in July calling for "an independent review of the biologic and health research to determine whether the RF standards should be modified before allowing additional spectrum to be used for new commercial applications."

Moreover, the FCC has ignored the 800-plus submissionsthat call upon the agency to adopt rigorous radio frequency standards to protect the public’s health. Instead the agency maintains its 20-year old exposure guidelinesthat control only for heating or thermal risks. The FDA has ignored the thousands of studies that find nonthermal biologic effects, and the human studies that find a wide range of health effects including increased cancer risk and reproductive harm from exposure to low intensity microwaves.
In my opinion, precaution is warranted before unleashing 5G technology on the world. I suspect most of the 221 scientists who signed the International EMF Scientist Appeal (referenced in the article below), would support this assertion.

However, more research is also needed as specific characteristics of the millimeter waves (e.g., pulsing, modulation) to be employed in 5G cellular technology may be more important than the frequency or intensity of the waves in terms of biologic and health effects. The research funding must be independent of industry as conflicts of interest have been found to undermine the science in this field.
For an unbiased summary of the partial findings of the National Toxicology Program study of cancer risk from 2G cell phone radiation, see
-- Low-intensity millimeter waves used for pain therapy have side effects
The Russians have pioneered millimeter wave therapy (MWT) using low intensity millimeter waves to reduce pain including headaches, joint pain, and postoperative pain.

Although the following review paper documents some positive effects from short-term exposure to MWT, the authors note that there are side effects including fatigue, sleepiness, and paresthesia (an abnormal sensation, tingling or pricking [“pins and needles”] caused by pressure on or damage to peripheral nerves). 

"We conclude that there is promising data from pilot case series and small-scale randomized controlled trials for analgesic/hypoalgesic effects of electromagnetic millimeter waves in frequency range 30–70 GHz. Large-scale randomized controlled trials on the effectiveness of this non-invasive therapeutic technique are necessary." 
"In the studies reviewed the authors did not report any health-related side effects of MWT. Slight paresthesias, previously mentioned in several case reports and non-controlled case series (10,11), appeared in almost 50% of patients in studies where the effects of MWT were carefully described (21,27,28,31). The paresthesias were of short duration and reported as pleasant (‘warmth’) or neutral. General fatigue and sleepiness during the treatment sessions in almost 80% of the patients was a rather desirable side effect of MWT, as also described in previous reviews on biomedical effects of MWT (10,11,21,27,28)."
From: Usichenko TI, Edinger H, Gizhko VV, Lehmann C, Wendt M, Feyerherd F. Low-intensity electromagnetic millimeter waves for pain therapy. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2006 Jun;3(2):201-7. URL:
Little research is available on long-term exposure to millimeter waves (see below). Most of the studies referred to in this review paper did not modulate or pulse the carrier waves which will be required for information-carrying millimeter waves employed in 5G technologies. Prior research suggests that such waves will be more biologically active than pure sine waves.

Additional Resources 
(Updated 8/28/2019)
Mehdizadeh AR, Mortazavi SMJ. Editorial. 5G technology: Why should we expect a shift from RF-induced brain cancers to skin cancers? J Biomed Phys Eng. in press, 2019
       "In summary, although 5G technology brings new risks, it should be noted that regarding mobile phone use and cancer, the level of exposure is a factor that really matters."

The essential 5G glossary of key terms and phrases
Michaela Goss, Tech Target, Aug 12, 2019

Senator Blumenthal Raises Concerns on 5G Wireless Technology Health Risks at Senate HearingU.S. Senate Commerce Committee Hearing, Feb 6, 2019 (5 minute video)
         "We're kind of flying blind here so far as health and safety is concerned."

Is 5G Harmful for Humans and the Environment?Kashyap Vyas, Interesting Engineering, Jan 27, 2019
U.S. Senator Blumenthal briefing on possible health risks posed by 5G wireless technologyCongressional news briefing, Connecticut Network, Dec 3, 2018 (22 minute video)

Congressional letter to FCC Commissioner requesting evidence for safety of 5G
Richard Blumenthal, Anna G. Eshoo, Dec 3, 2018

Resistance to 5G: Roadblock to a High Tech Future or Warning of a Serious Health Risk? Conan Milner, Epoch Times, November 9, 2018
The roll out of 5G wireless service is 'a massive health experiment,' public health expert warns as cell companies install 800,000 towers across the US
Natalie Rahhal, Daily Mail, May 29, 2018

The 5G telecommunication technology--emitted millimeter waves: Lack of research on bioeffects
Dariusz Leszczynski, PhD, Presentation at 5th Asian & Oceanic IRPA Regional Congress on Radiation Protection, Melbourne, Australia, May 22, 2018

NEPA rollback now official for small wireless projectsSobczyk N, GreenWire, May 3, 2018

5G: Great risk for EU, U.S. and International Health! Compelling Evidence for
Eight Distinct Types of Great Harm Caused by Electromagnetic Exposures and the Mechanism that Causes Them
Martin L. Pall, PhD, undated

5G and Internet of Things: A Trojan Horse
Paul Héroux, PhD, The Green Gazette, Mar 27, 2018

Residents worried about small cell safety have been waiting years for federal guidance
Ryan Barwick, Center for Public Integrity, Mar 2, 2018
5G Cell Service Is Coming. Who Decides Where It Goes?
Allan Holmes, New York Times, Mar 2, 2018

‘Tsunami of data’ could consume one fifth of global electricity by 2025
The Guardian, Dec 11, 2017

California: Bill to ease permits for cellular antennas could impact healthTracy Seipel. Mercury News (San Jose, CA), Aug 31, 2017
Is 5G technology dangerous? Early data shows a slight increase of tumors in male rats exposed to cellphone radiationJim Puzzanghera, Los Angeles Times, Aug 8, 2016

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